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Persian gulf illness

Lisa M Pierce, Wendy E Kurata, Karen W Matsumoto, Margaret E Clark, Douglas M Farmer
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic, multisymptom illness that affects 25% of the 700,000 US veterans deployed to the Persian Gulf during the 1990-1991 Gulf War. Central nervous system impairments are among the most common symptoms reported, including memory dysfunction and depression. After 25 years, the diagnosis remains elusive, useful treatments are lacking, and the cause is poorly understood, although exposures to pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and pesticides are consistently identified to be among the strongest risk factors...
July 2016: Neurotoxicology
Crystal M Cooper, Richard W Briggs, Emily A Farris, James Bartlett, Robert W Haley, Timothy N Odegard
Roughly 26-32% of U. S. veterans who served in the 1991 Persian Gulf War report suffering from chronic health problems. Memory complaints are regularly reported by ill Gulf War veterans (GWV), but limited data verify their complaints. This study investigated episodic memory and brain function in a nationally representative sample of GWV, using a face-name memory task and functional magnetic resonance imaging during encoding. A syndrome classification system was used to subdivide ill GWV into the three major Gulf War Illness syndrome types, "impaired cognition" (GWV-1), "confusion ataxia" (GWV-2), and "central pain" (GWV-3)...
April 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Zuchra Zakirova, Gogce Crynen, Samira Hassan, Laila Abdullah, Lauren Horne, Venkatarajan Mathura, Fiona Crawford, Ghania Ait-Ghezala
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multisymptom illness with a central nervous system component that includes memory impairment as well as neurological and musculoskeletal deficits. Previous studies have shown that in the First Persian Gulf War conflict (1990-1991) exposure to Gulf War (GW) agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and permethrin (PER), were key contributors to the etiology of GWI. For this study, we used our previously established mouse model of GW agent exposure (10 days PB+PER) and undertook an extensive lifelong neurobehavioral characterization of the mice from 11 days to 22...
2015: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
Kristin F Phillips, Laxmikant S Deshpande
Approximately 175,000-250,000 of the returning veterans from the 1991 Persian Gulf War exhibit chronic multi-symptom illnesses that includes neurologic co-morbidities such as depression, anxiety and cognitive impairments. Amongst a host of causative factors, exposure to low levels of the nerve agent Sarin has been strongly implicated for expression of Gulf War Illness (GWI). Nerve agents similar to pesticides are organophosphate (OP) compounds. There is evidence from civilian population that exposure to OPs such as in agricultural workers and nerve agents such as the survivors and first-responders of the Tokyo subway Sarin gas attack suffer from chronic neurological problems similar to GWI symptoms...
January 2016: Neurotoxicology
Kathleen J Kerr
INTRODUCTION: During or very soon after the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War, veterans of the conflict began to report symptoms of illness. Common complaints included combinations of cognitive difficulties, fatigue, myalgia, rashes, dyspnea, insomnia, gastrointestinal symptoms and sensitivity to odors. Gradually in the USA, and later in the UK, France, Canada, Denmark and Australia, governments implemented medical assessment programs and epidemiologic studies to determine the scope of what was popularly referred to as "the Gulf War syndrome"...
2015: Reviews on Environmental Health
Luke Parkitny, Stephanie Middleton, Katharine Baker, Jarred Younger
BACKGROUND: Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a clinically heterogeneous chronic condition that affects many veterans of the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War. One of the most prevalent and debilitating symptoms of GWI is abnormal fatigue. The mechanisms underlying GWI generally, and fatigue symptoms specifically, have yet to be conclusively identified, although immune system abnormalities are suspected to be involved. The first goal of this immune monitoring study was to determine if GWI is associated with higher absolute levels and daily variability of pro-inflammatory immune factors...
2015: BMC Immunology
D D Haines, S C Fox
Chemical weapons have given the human experience of warfare a uniquely terrifying quality that has inspired a general repugnance and led to periodic attempts to ban their use. Nevertheless, since ancient times, toxic agents have been consistently employed to kill and terrorize target populations. The evolution of these weapons is examined here in ways that may allow military, law enforcement, and scientific professionals to gain a perspective on conditions that, in the past, have motivated their use - both criminally and as a matter of national policy during military campaigns...
July 2014: Forensic Science Review
Travis J A Craddock, Ryan R Del Rosario, Mark Rice, Joel P Zysman, Mary Ann Fletcher, Nancy G Klimas, Gordon Broderick
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multi-symptom disorder affecting up to one-third of the 700,000 returning veterans of the 1991 Persian Gulf War and for which there is no known cure. GWI symptoms span several of the body's principal regulatory systems and include debilitating fatigue, severe musculoskeletal pain, cognitive and neurological problems. Using computational models, our group reported previously that GWI might be perpetuated at least in part by natural homeostatic regulation of the neuroendocrine-immune network...
2015: PloS One
Kristin Moffett, Bruce Crosson, Jeffrey S Spence, Kimberly Case, Ilana Levy, Kaundinya Gopinath, Parina Shah, Aman Goyal, Yan Fang, Richard W Briggs, John Hart, Anna Moore, Robert W Haley
Approximately one quarter of 1991 Persian Gulf War Veterans experience cognitive and physiological sequelae that continue to be unexplained by known medical or psychological conditions. Difficulty coming up with words and names, familiar before the war, is a hallmark of the illness. Three Gulf War Syndrome subtypes have been identified and linked to specific war-time chemical exposures. The most functionally impaired veterans belong to the Gulf War Syndrome 2 (Syndrome 2) group, for which subcortical damage due to toxic nerve gas exposure is the suspected cause...
August 2015: Brain and Cognition
Zuchra Zakirova, Miles Tweed, Gogce Crynen, Jon Reed, Laila Abdullah, Nadee Nissanka, Myles Mullan, Michael J Mullan, Venkatarajan Mathura, Fiona Crawford, Ghania Ait-Ghezala
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic multisymptom illness with a central nervous system component such as memory deficits, neurological, and musculoskeletal problems. There are ample data that demonstrate that exposure to Gulf War (GW) agents, such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and pesticides such as permethrin (PER), were key contributors to the etiology of GWI post deployment to the Persian GW. In the current study, we examined the consequences of acute (10 days) exposure to PB and PER in C57BL6 mice. Learning and memory tests were performed at 18 days and at 5 months post-exposure...
2015: PloS One
James P O'Callaghan, Kimberly A Kelly, Alicia R Locker, Diane B Miller, Steve M Lasley
Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a multi-symptom disorder with features characteristic of persistent sickness behavior. Among conditions encountered in the Gulf War (GW) theater were physiological stressors (e.g., heat/cold/physical activity/sleep deprivation), prophylactic treatment with the reversible AChE inhibitor, pyridostigmine bromide (PB), the insect repellent, N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET), and potentially the nerve agent, sarin. Prior exposure to the anti-inflammatory glucocorticoid, corticosterone (CORT), at levels associated with high physiological stress, can paradoxically prime the CNS to produce a robust proinflammatory response to neurotoxicants and systemic inflammation; such neuroinflammatory effects can be associated with sickness behavior...
June 2015: Journal of Neurochemistry
Supriya D Hayer, David P Rabago, Iliya P Amaza, Tony Kille, Christopher L Coe, Aleksandra Zgierska, Larissa Zakletskaia, Marlon P Mundt, Dean Krahn, Chidi N Obasi, Rachel C Molander
INTRODUCTION: Gulf War Illness (GWI) affects 1 in 7 returned Persian Gulf War veterans. Quality-of-life impact is large; there is no cure. Chronic sinus symptoms and fatigue are common. Nasal irrigation with saline (NI-S) or xylitol (NI-X) improve sinus symptoms and fatigue in the general population. This trial will assess the effect of NI-S and NI-X on sinus and fatigue symptoms, economic outcomes and pro-inflammatory milieu among participants with GWI. METHODS: 75 participants (age 35 to 65 years, 25 in each of three arms) with GWI will be recruited from the Veteran's Administration and the community...
March 2015: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Tarick Megahed, Bharathi Hattiangady, Bing Shuai, Ashok K Shetty
Cognitive dysfunction is amongst the most conspicuous symptoms in Gulf War illness (GWI). Combined exposure to the nerve gas antidote pyridostigmine bromide (PB), pesticides and stress during the Persian Gulf War-1 (PGW-1) are presumed to be among the major causes of GWI. Indeed, our recent studies in rat models have shown that exposure to GWI-related (GWIR) chemicals and mild stress for 4 weeks engenders cognitive impairments accompanied with several detrimental changes in the hippocampus. In this study, we tested whether reduced numbers of hippocampal gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA)-ergic interneurons are among the pathological changes induced by GWIR-chemicals and stress...
2014: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Svetlana F Khaiboullina, Kenny L DeMeirleir, Shanti Rawat, Grady S Berk, Rory S Gaynor-Berk, Tatjana Mijatovic, Natalia Blatt, Albert A Rizvanov, Sheila G Young, Vincent C Lombardi
Gulf War illness (GWI) is a chronic disease of unknown etiology characterized by persistent symptoms such as cognitive impairment, unexplained fatigue, pervasive pain, headaches, and gastrointestinal abnormalities. Current reports suggest that as many as 200,000 veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War were afflicted. Several potential triggers of GWI have been proposed including chemical exposure, toxins, vaccines, and unknown infectious agents. However, a definitive cause of GWI has not been identified and a specific biological marker that can consistently delineate the disease has not been defined...
March 2015: Cytokine
Luca Roncati, A M Gatti, T Pusiol, G Barbolini, A Maiorana
A 38-year-old non-commissioned officer was certified unfit for military duty several months before his death. The forensic autopsy revealed a severe bone marrow aplasia and a pulmonary angioinvasive aspergillosis. Moreover, the presence of inorganic foreign particles in the pulmonary macrophages and intestinal endothelia was observed. The microanalysis implemented on these last selected specimens revealed the presence of silica particles microimpregnated by lanthanides and steel. The patient's acquired immunodeficiency appears comparable with that of Iraqi civilians suffering from Gulf War illness...
June 2015: Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps
Kristen Lamp, Kelly P Maieritch, E Samuel Winer, Jonathan D Hessinger, Megan Klenk
The present study explored interest in treatment and treatment initiation patterns among veterans presenting at a VA posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) clinic. U.S. veterans who were referred for treatment of posttraumatic stress symptoms (N = 476) attended a 2-session psychoeducation and orientation class where they completed measures of demographic variables, PTSD and depression symptom severity, and interest in treatment. Consistent with previous literature and our hypotheses, Vietnam (OR = 1.78) and Persian Gulf veterans (OR = 2...
December 2014: Journal of Traumatic Stress
Beatrice A Golomb, Matthew Allison, Sabrina Koperski, Hayley J Koslik, Sridevi Devaraj, Janis B Ritchie
We sought to assess whether coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) benefits the chronic multisymptom problems that affect one-quarter to one-third of 1990-1 Gulf War veterans, using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Participants were 46 veterans meeting Kansas and Centers for Disease Control criteria for Gulf War illness. Intervention was PharmaNord (Denmark) CoQ10 100 mg per day (Q100), 300 mg per day (Q300), or an identical-appearing placebo for 3.5 ± 0.5 months. General self-rated health (GSRH), the primary outcome, differed across randomization arms at baseline, and sex significantly predicted GSRH change, compelling adjustment for baseline GSRH and prompting sex-stratified analysis...
November 2014: Neural Computation
Bharathi Hattiangady, Vikas Mishra, Maheedhar Kodali, Bing Shuai, Xiolan Rao, Ashok K Shetty
Memory and mood deficits are the enduring brain-related symptoms in Gulf War illness (GWI). Both animal model and epidemiological investigations have indicated that these impairments in a majority of GW veterans are linked to exposures to chemicals such as pyridostigmine bromide (PB, an antinerve gas drug), permethrin (PM, an insecticide) and DEET (a mosquito repellant) encountered during the Persian Gulf War-1. Our previous study in a rat model has shown that combined exposures to low doses of GWI-related (GWIR) chemicals PB, PM, and DEET with or without 5-min of restraint stress (a mild stress paradigm) causes hippocampus-dependent spatial memory dysfunction in a water maze test (WMT) and increased depressive-like behavior in a forced swim test (FST)...
2014: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Laila Abdullah, James E Evans, Hannah Montague, Jon M Reed, Ann Moser, Gogce Crynen, Ariel Gonzalez, Zuchra Zakirova, Ivan Ross, Chris Mullan, Michael Mullan, Ghania Ait-Ghezala, Fiona Crawford
For two decades, 25% of the veterans who served in the 1991 Gulf War (GW) have been living with Gulf War Illness (GWI), a chronic multisymptom illness. Evidence suggests that brain structures involved in cognitive function may be affected in GWI. Gulf War agents such as the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor pyridostigmine bromide (PB) and the pesticide permethrin (PER) are considered key etiogenic factors in GWI. We therefore developed a mouse model of GW agent exposure by co-administering PB and PER and showed that this model exhibits cognitive impairment and anxiety, and increased astrogliosis at chronic post-exposure time-points...
November 2013: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Joseph O Ojo, Laila Abdullah, James Evans, Jon Mike Reed, Hannah Montague, Michael J Mullan, Fiona C Crawford
Gulf War illness (GWI) is a currently untreatable multi-symptom disorder experienced by 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War (GW) veterans. The characteristic hallmarks of GWI include cognitive dysfunction, tremors, migraine, and psychological disturbances such as depression and anxiety. Meta-analyses of epidemiological studies have consistently linked these symptomatic profiles to the combined exposure of GW agents such as organophosphate-based and pyrethroid-based pesticides (e.g. chlorpyrifos (CPF) and permethrin (PER) respectively) and the prophylactic use of pyridostigmine bromide (PB) as a treatment against neurotoxins...
April 2014: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
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