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White matter hypertensities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235962/critical-illness-associated-cerebral-microbleeds
#1
Evgenia M Fanou, Jonathan M Coutinho, Patrick Shannon, Tim-Rasmus Kiehl, Marcel M Levi, M Elizabeth Wilcox, Richard I Aviv, Daniel M Mandell
- BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral microbleeds (petechial hemorrhages) are a well-known consequence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and chronic hypertension among other causes. We report 12 patients with a clinically and radiologically distinct microbleed phenomenon in the cerebral white matter. METHODS: These patients were assessed at the University Health Network (Toronto, Canada) between 2004 and 2014. RESULTS: Median age was 40 years (range, 27-63 years), and 7 out of 12 patients were women...
February 24, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228568/mri-visible-perivascular-spaces-in-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-and-hypertensive-arteriopathy
#2
Andreas Charidimou, Gregoire Boulouis, Marco Pasi, Eitan Auriel, Ellis S van Etten, Kellen Haley, Alison Ayres, Kristin M Schwab, Sergi Martinez-Ramirez, Joshua N Goldstein, Jonathan Rosand, Anand Viswanathan, Steven M Greenberg, M Edip Gurol
OBJECTIVE: To assess MRI-visible enlarged perivascular spaces (EPVS) burden and different topographical patterns (in the centrum semiovale [CSO] and basal ganglia [BG]) in 2 common microangiopathies: cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and hypertensive arteriopathy (HA). METHODS: Consecutive patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) from a prospective MRI cohort were included. Small vessel disease MRI markers, including cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), cortical superficial siderosis (cSS), and white matter hyperintensities (WMH), were rated...
February 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220365/binding-of-11-c-pittsburgh-compound-b-correlated-with-white-matter-injury-in-hypertensive-small-vessel-disease
#3
Tetsuya Hashimoto, Chiaki Yokota, Kazuhiro Koshino, Takashi Temma, Makoto Yamazaki, Satoshi Iguchi, Ryo Shimomura, Toshiyuki Uehara, Naoko Funatsu, Tenyu Hino, Kazuo Minematsu, Hidehiro Iida, Kazunori Toyoda
OBJECTIVE: (11)C-Pittsburgh compound-B ((11)C-PIB) positron emission tomography (PET) is used to visualize and quantify amyloid deposition in the brain cortex in pathological conditions such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Intense (11)C-PIB retention is also observed in the white matter (WM) of both healthy individuals and AD patients. However, the clinical implications of this retention in brain WM have not been clarified. We investigated the relationship between the extent of white matter lesions (WMLs) and the binding potential of (11)C-PIB (BPND) in the WM in patients with hypertensive small vessel disease...
February 20, 2017: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215260/moderate-to-severe-obstructive-sleep-apnea-is-associated-with-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#4
Tae-Jin Song, Jung-Hyun Park, Kang Hyun Choi, Yoonkyung Chang, Jangsup Moon, Ju-Hee Kim, Yunseo Choi, Yong-Jae Kim, Hyang Woon Lee
BACKGROUND: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is associated with increased risk of cerebral infarction and hemorrhage. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is known to increase the risk of cerebrovascular disease. This study aimed to investigate the association between cerebral SVD and severity of OSA. METHODS: A total of 170 patients were included from the patient registry at the present Sleep Center; these patients underwent both magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain and polysomnography (PSG) for suspected OSA...
February 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212619/brain-and-liver-pathology-amyloid-deposition-and-interferon-responses-among-older-hiv-positive-patients-in-the-late-haart-era
#5
Isaac H Solomon, Umberto De Girolami, Sukrutha Chettimada, Vikas Misra, Elyse J Singer, Dana Gabuzda
BACKGROUND: HIV+ patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) with suppressed viral loads have a low incidence of HIV-associated dementia, but increased prevalence of milder forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). These milder forms of HAND are often associated with minimal histological abnormalities, and their pathophysiology is unclear. Comorbidities, altered amyloid metabolism, accelerated brain aging, and activated interferon responses are suspected to play a role in HAND pathogenesis in HAART-treated persons...
February 17, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170536/astrocytes-in-the-optic-nerve-head-of-glaucomatous-mice-display-a-characteristic-reactive-phenotype
#6
Rui Wang, Philip Seifert, Tatjana C Jakobs
Purpose: Optic nerve head astrocytes, a subtype of white-matter astrocytes, become reactive early in the course of glaucoma. It was shown recently that in the DBA/2J mouse model of inherited glaucoma optic nerve astrocytes extend new longitudinal processes into the axon bundles before ganglion cell loss becomes apparent. The present study aims at testing whether this behavior of astrocytes is typical of early glaucomatous damage. Methods: Mice expressing green fluorescent protein in individual astrocytes were used to evaluate the early response of astrocytes in the glial lamina of the optic nerve head after increasing the IOP using the microbead occlusion method...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169884/mri-progression-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease-and-cognitive-decline-in-patients-with-hypertension
#7
Renske Uiterwijk, Julie Staals, Marjolein Huijts, Peter W de Leeuw, Abraham A Kroon, Robert J van Oostenbrugge
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension is associated with cognitive deficits, probably because it is a major risk factor for the development of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), lacunes, and cerebral microbleeds, which are MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease. Studies into associations between presence or progression of these MRI markers and cognitive decline in hypertensive patients are rare. We investigated the association of baseline presence and progression of MRI markers of cerebral small vessel disease with cognitive decline over 4 years in patients with hypertension...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169883/compensatory-functional-reorganization-may-precede-hypertension-related-brain-damage-and-cognitive-decline-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#8
Patrycja Naumczyk, Agnieszka Sabisz, Marta Witkowska, Beata Graff, Krzysztof Jodzio, Dariusz Gąsecki, Edyta Szurowska, Krzysztof Narkiewicz
OBJECTIVES: Our study aimed at exploring structural and functional differences in the brain during higher cognitive processing between middle-aged hypertensive patients and controls matched for sex, age and years of education. METHODS: Two groups of 20 patients took part in MRI examinations. This article reports the results of functional MRI during a Stroop color interference task and structural evaluations based on a modified Fazekas scale. RESULTS: No intergroup differences were found in regards to the severity of white matter lesions (Mann-Whitney U test = 150...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158989/higher-skeletal-muscle-mass-may-protect-against-ischemic-stroke-in-community-dwelling-adults-without-stroke-and-dementia-the-present-project
#9
Yang-Ki Minn, Seung-Han Suk
BACKGROUND: It is well known that a low skeletal muscle mass (SMM) is associated with stroke. However, it is unknown whether increasing muscle mass can prevent stroke. METHODS: This community-based cross-sectional study was supported by the regional government. SMM measurements and brain computed tomography was performed in 722 stroke-free and dementia-free subjects (aged 50-75 years). Subjects were divided into quartiles (Q) by SMM, checked using the bioelectrical impedance analysis method (InBody 770, InBody, Seoul, Korea)...
February 3, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142144/do-lacunar-infarcts-have-different-aetiologies-risk-factor-profiles-of-lacunar-infarcts-in-deep-white-matter-and-basal-ganglia-the-second-manifestations-of-arterial-disease-magnetic-resonance-study
#10
Raoul P Kloppenborg, Paul J Nederkoorn, Anne M Grool, Laurens J L De Cocker, Willem P T M Mali, Yolanda van der Graaf, Mirjam I Geerlings
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that lacunar infarcts have different etiologies, possibly related to their anatomical location and vascular territory. We investigated the risk factor profiles of patients with new lacunar infarcts in the basal ganglia and deep white matter. METHODS: Within the Second Manifestations of ARTerial disease-Magnetic Resonance study, a prospective cohort on brain changes on MRI in patients with symptomatic atherosclerotic disease, 679 patients (57 ± 9 years) had vascular screening and MRI at baseline and after a mean follow-up of 3...
January 31, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134332/impact-of-small-vessel-disease-in-the-brain-on-gait-and-balance
#11
Daniela Pinter, Stuart J Ritchie, Fergus Doubal, Thomas Gattringer, Zoe Morris, Mark E Bastin, Maria Del C Valdés Hernández, Natalie A Royle, Janie Corley, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Alison Pattie, David A Dickie, Julie Staals, Alan J Gow, John M Starr, Ian J Deary, Christian Enzinger, Franz Fazekas, Joanna Wardlaw
Gait and balance impairment is highly prevalent in older people. We aimed to assess whether and how single markers of small vessel disease (SVD) or a combination thereof explain gait and balance function in the elderly. We analysed 678 community-dwelling healthy subjects from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 at the age of 71-74 years who had undergone comprehensive risk factor assessment, gait and balance assessment as well as brain MRI. We investigated the impact of individual SVD markers (white matter hyperintensity - WMH, microbleeds, lacunes, enlarged perivascular spaces, brain atrophy) as seen on structural brain MRI and of a global SVD score on the patients' performance...
January 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131201/urinary-albumin-to-creatinine-ratio-is-associated-with-white-matter-lesions-severity-in-first-ever-stroke-patients
#12
Satoshi Suda, Takuya Kanamaru, Seiji Okubo, Junya Aoki, Takashi Shimoyama, Kentaro Suzuki, Chikako Nito, Akiko Ishiwata, Kazumi Kimura
BACKGROUND: The presence of white matter lesions (WML) is an indicator of small vessel disease; however, the underlying pathological mechanisms are still unclear. We aimed to investigate the association of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) with WML severity in first-ever stroke patients. METHODS: We retrospectively enrolled 284 consecutive patients (177 male; median age 72years) admitted to our stroke center between May 2010 and January 2012...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131186/neuroimaging-features-in-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-a-pictorial-review
#13
REVIEW
Morgan Ollivier, Anne Bertrand, Frédéric Clarençon, Sophie Gerber, Sandrine Deltour, Fanny Domont, Stéphanie Trunet, Didier Dormont, Delphine Leclercq
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a radioclinical entity associating nonspecific neurological symptoms (headache, seizures, impairment of alertness, visual disturbances…) occurring in evocative clinical condition (hypertension, eclampsia, immunosuppressor agents, systemic lupus erythematosus…). In the acute stage, the typical imaging finding is a vasogenic edema predominant in the subcortical parietal-occipital white matter. The purpose of this pictorial review is to illustrate the different neuroimaging features of PRES and present key radiological elements to assert diagnosis...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128022/different-types-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-cadasil-insights-from-7-tesla-mri
#14
François De Guio, Alexandre Vignaud, Hugues Chabriat, Eric Jouvent
In Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), by contrast to sporadic cerebral small vessel disease related to age and hypertension, white matter hyperintensities (WMH) are frequently observed in the white matter of anterior temporal poles, external capsules, and superior frontal regions. Whether these WMH (specific WMH) differ from those observed in other white matter areas (nonspecific WMH) remains unknown. Twenty patients were scanned to compare specific and nonspecific WMH using high-resolution images and analyses of relaxation times (T1R: longitudinal relaxation time and T2*R: effective transversal relaxation time)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122903/ischemic-lesions-blood-pressure-dysregulation-and-poor-outcomes-in-intracerebral-hemorrhage
#15
Chelsea S Kidwell, Jonathan Rosand, Gina Norato, Simone Dixon, Bradford B Worrall, Michael L James, Mitchell S V Elkind, Matthew L Flaherty, Jennifer Osborne, Anastasia Vashkevich, Carl D Langefeld, Charles J Moomaw, Daniel Woo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the associations among diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) lesions, blood pressure (BP) dysregulation, MRI markers of small vessel disease, and poor outcome in a large, prospective study of primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS: The Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage (ERICH) study is a multicenter, observational study of ICH among white, black, and Hispanic patients. RESULTS: Of 600 patients, mean (±SD) age was 60...
January 25, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118831/translational-models-for-vascular-cognitive-impairment-a-review-including-larger-species
#16
REVIEW
Atticus H Hainsworth, Stuart M Allan, Johannes Boltze, Catriona Cunningham, Chad Farris, Elizabeth Head, Masafumi Ihara, Jeremy D Isaacs, Raj N Kalaria, Saskia A M J Lesnik Oberstein, Mark B Moss, Björn Nitzsche, Gary A Rosenberg, Julie W Rutten, Melita Salkovic-Petrisic, Aron M Troen
BACKGROUND: Disease models are useful for prospective studies of pathology, identification of molecular and cellular mechanisms, pre-clinical testing of interventions, and validation of clinical biomarkers. Here, we review animal models relevant to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). A synopsis of each model was initially presented by expert practitioners. Synopses were refined by the authors, and subsequently by the scientific committee of a recent conference (International Conference on Vascular Dementia 2015)...
January 25, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117245/the-medical-value-and-cost-effectiveness-of-an-exercise-test-for-sport-preparticipation-evaluation-in-asymptomatic-middle-aged-white-male-and-female-athletes
#17
Laurent Chevalier, Gaelle Kervio, Stephane Doutreleau, Jean-Philippe Mathieu, Jean-Michel Guy, Aude Mignot, Luc Corneloup, François Passard, Thierry Laporte, Aude Girard-Girod, Olivier Hennebert, Philippe Bernadet, Marie-Pierre Vincent-Chevalier, Laurent Gencel, François Carré
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular events related to high-intensity sport practice are rare but dramatic. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of these events after the age of 35 years. The value of a maximal exercise test (ET) for detection of athletes at risk remains a matter of debate. AIM: The aim of this prospective multicentre study was to clarify the medical value and cost-effectiveness of an ET in middle-aged white asymptomatic athletes who participate in high-intensity sport...
January 20, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104915/visceral-obesity-is-associated-with-white-matter-hyperintensity-and-lacunar-infarct
#18
K W Kim, H Seo, M-S Kwak, D Kim
BACKGROUND: The presences of white matter hyperintensity (WMH) and lacunar infarct are recognized as risk factors of dementia, stroke, and mortality. It is undetermined whether visceral adipose tissue (VAT) area is associated with an increased risk of cerebral small vessel disease. We explored whether VAT area was responsible for cerebral small vessel disease through the identification of WMH and lacunar infarct. SUBJECTS: A total of 2046 subjects free of cerebrovascular disease who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and abdominal fat computed tomography (CT) during a general health check-up were enrolled...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101804/white-matter-hyperintensities-correlate-to-cognition-and-fiber-tract-integrity-in-older-adults-with-hiv
#19
Christa Watson, Edgar Busovaca, Jessica M Foley, I Elaine Allen, Christopher G Schwarz, Neda Jahanshad, Talia M Nir, Pardis Esmaeili-Firidouni, Benedetta Milanini, Howard Rosen, Owen T Carmichael, Paul M Thompson, Victor G Valcour
Our aim was to examine the clinical relevance of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in HIV. We used an automated approach to quantify WMH volume in HIV seropositive (HIV+; n = 65) and HIV seronegative (HIV-; n = 29) adults over age 60. We compared WMH volumes between HIV+ and HIV- groups in cross-sectional and multiple time-point analyses. We also assessed correlations between WMH volumes and cardiovascular, HIV severity, cognitive scores, and diffusion tensor imaging variables. Serostatus groups did not differ in WMH volume, but HIV+ participants had less cerebral white matter (mean: 470...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094840/hypertensive-disorders-in-pregnancy-and-later-dementia-a-swedish-national-register-study
#20
Ellika G Andolf, Gunilla C M Sydsjö, Marie K Bladh, Goran Berg, Surendra Sharma
INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to investigate the rate of vascular dementia and dementia in women with previous hypertensive disorders in pregnancy since white matter lesions of the brain and cardiovascular disease are linked both to dementia and hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective population based registry study on all women giving birth in Sweden between 1973- 1975 (284 598). Women with and without hypertensive disorders in pregnancy were identified by means of the Swedish Medical Birth Register and linked to the National Patient Register where data on somatic disease later in life were obtained...
January 17, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
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