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White matter hypertensities

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433979/lethal-high-acute-disseminated-encephalomyelitis-adem-triggered-by-toxic-effect-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-black-mamba
#1
Kiran Samra, Ian S Boon, Gregory Packer, Saiju Jacob
A previously well 25-year-old man presented with agitation, double incontinence and left-sided incoordination. His symptoms started after smoking a synthetic cannabinoid (black mamba) 5 days earlier. Over 48 hours, he developed aphasia, generalised hypertonia, hyper-reflexia and dense left hemiparesis. This progressed to profuse diaphoresis, fever, tachycardia, hypertension and a possible seizure necessitating admission to the intensive care unit. CT head and cerebrospinal fluid analysis were unremarkable...
April 22, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428977/19th-workshop-of-the-international-stroke-genetics-consortium-april-28-29-2016-boston-massachusetts-usa-2016-001-mri-defined-cerebrovascular-genomics-the-charge-consortium
#2
S Debette, Y Saba, D Vojinovic, X Jian, H Adams, G Chauhan, M Sargurupremraj, S Kaffashian, J Ding, J C Bis, P Nyquist, K Mather, C Van Duijn, L J Launer, M A Ikram, H Schmidt, W T Longstreth, M Fornage, S Seshadri
The CHARGE consortium is an investigator-initiated collaboration to facilitate meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic analyses based on next generation sequencing (NGS), among multiple large and well-phenotyped population-based cohort studies around the world (http://www.chargeconsortium.com). Within the neuro-CHARGE working group, we are presenting an update of ongoing genomic studies on MRI-markers of cerebrovascular disease. Large population-based studies have shown that the burden of cerebrovascular disease extends far beyond that of clinical stroke...
March 2017: Neurology. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414663/not-another-acs-rule-out
#3
S Preston, R Nelson, M Watts, D Smith, T Dewenter, D Spruill
CASE: A 50 year old African-American woman with diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia presented with progressively worsening retro-sternal chest pain, exacerbated by activity and relieved by rest. She also endorsed a thirty-pound unintentional weight loss, and dysphagia. She was dysarthric with left-sided Bell's Palsy and a palpable left axillary lymph node. She had been evaluated at several hospitals in the previous months for similar typical chest pain. Her troponin values were normal, and an EKG showed T-wave inversions in leads I and aVL...
March 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389742/aortic-hemodynamics-and-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-normotensive-postmenopausal-women
#4
Jill N Barnes, Ronée E Harvey, Samantha M Zuk, Emily S Lundt, Timothy G Lesnick, Jeffrey L Gunter, Matthew L Senjem, Lynne T Shuster, Virginia M Miller, Clifford R Jack, Michael J Joyner, Kejal Kantarci
Hypertension is associated with development of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) in the brain, which are risk factors for mild cognitive impairment. Hormonal shifts at menopause alter vascular function putting women at risk for both hypertension and WMH. Elevations in aortic hemodynamics precede the appearance of clinically defined hypertension but the relationship of aortic hemodynamics to development of WMH in women is not known. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize aortic hemodynamics in relationship to WMH in postmenopausal women...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374696/-mechanisms-of-development-of-chronic-cerebral-ischemia-in-arterial-hypertension
#5
O N Voskresenskaya, N B Zakharova, M V Ivanov
AIM: To study a relationship of arterial hypertension (AH) severity with the cerebral blood flow and structural changes in the brain matter, processes of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense, parameters of homeostasis, indicators of endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A complex study of 84 patients with AH, aged from 43 to 64 years, was carried out. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The severity of atherosclerotic damage increased with the increasing of the AH degree...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356272/choline-and-its-metabolites-are-differently-associated-with-cardiometabolic-risk-factors-history-of-cardiovascular-disease-and-mri-documented-cerebrovascular-disease-in-older-adults
#6
Annie J Roe, Shucha Zhang, Rafeeque A Bhadelia, Elizabeth J Johnson, Alice H Lichtenstein, Gail T Rogers, Irwin H Rosenberg, Caren E Smith, Steven H Zeisel, Tammy M Scott
Background: There is a potential role of choline in cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease through its involvement in lipid and one-carbon metabolism.Objective: We evaluated the associations of plasma choline and choline-related compounds with cardiometabolic risk factors, history of cardiovascular disease, and cerebrovascular pathology.Design: A cross-sectional subset of the Nutrition, Aging, and Memory in Elders cohort who had undergone MRI of the brain (n = 296; mean ± SD age: 73 ± 8.1 y) was assessed...
March 29, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351960/pathogenesis-of-white-matter-changes-in-cerebral-small-vessel-diseases-beyond-vessel-intrinsic-mechanisms
#7
REVIEW
Anne Joutel, Hugues Chabriat
Cerebral small vessel diseases (SVDs) are a leading cause of age and hypertension-related stroke and dementia. The salient features of SVDs visible on conventional brain magnetic resonance images include white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on T2-weighted images, small infarcts, macrohemorrhages, dilated perivascular spaces, microbleeds and brain atrophy. Among these, WMHs are the most common and often the earliest brain tissue changes. Moreover, over the past two decades, large population- and patient-based studies have established the clinical importance of WMHs, notably with respect to cognitive and motor disturbances...
April 25, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339485/chronic-parp-1-inhibition-reduces-carotid-vessel-remodeling-and-oxidative-damage-of-the-dorsal-hippocampus-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#8
Krisztian Eros, Klara Magyar, Laszlo Deres, Arpad Skazel, Adam Riba, Zoltan Vamos, Tamas Kalai, Ferenc Gallyas, Balazs Sumegi, Kalman Toth, Robert Halmosi
Vascular remodeling during chronic hypertension may impair the supply of tissues with oxygen, glucose and other compounds, potentially unleashing deleterious effects. In this study, we used Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats with or without pharmacological inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 by an experimental compound L-2286, to evaluate carotid artery remodeling and consequent damage of neuronal tissue during hypertension. We observed elevated oxidative stress and profound thickening of the vascular wall with fibrotic tissue accumulation induced by elevated blood pressure...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335021/mri-visible-perivascular-space-location-is-associated-with-alzheimer-s-disease-independently-of-amyloid-burden
#9
Gargi Banerjee, Hee Jin Kim, Zoe Fox, H Rolf Jäger, Duncan Wilson, Andreas Charidimou, Han Kyu Na, Duk L Na, Sang Won Seo, David J Werring
Perivascular spaces that are visible on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are a neuroimaging marker of cerebral small vessel disease. Their location may relate to the type of underlying small vessel pathology: those in the white matter centrum semi-ovale have been associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy, while those in the basal ganglia have been associated with deep perforating artery arteriolosclerosis. As cerebral amyloid angiopathy is an almost invariable pathological finding in Alzheimer's disease, we hypothesized that MRI-visible perivascular spaces in the centrum semi-ovale would be associated with a clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease, whereas those in the basal ganglia would be associated with subcortical vascular cognitive impairment...
April 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329254/periodic-limb-movements-and-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-first-ever-minor-stroke-or-high-risk-transient-ischemic-attack
#10
Mark I Boulos, Brian J Murray, Ryan T Muir, Fuqiang Gao, Gregory M Szilagyi, Menal Huroy, Alexander Kiss, Arthur S Walters, Sandra E Black, Andrew S Lim, Richard H Swartz
Study Objectives: Emerging evidence suggests that periodic limb movements (PLMs) may contribute to the development of cerebrovascular disease. White matter hyperintensities (WMHs), a widely accepted biomarker for cerebral small vessel disease, are associated with incident stroke and death. We evaluated the association between increased PLM indices and WMH burden in patients presenting with stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), while controlling for vascular risk factors and stroke severity...
March 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324763/interaction-of-apoe-e4-and-poor-glycemic-control-predicts-white-matter-hyperintensity-growth-from-73-to-76
#11
Simon R Cox, Stuart J Ritchie, David Alexander Dickie, Alison Pattie, Natalie A Royle, Janie Corley, Benjamin S Aribisala, Sarah E Harris, Maria Valdés Hernández, Alan J Gow, Susana Muñoz Maniega, John M Starr, Mark E Bastin, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
We examined whether apolipoprotein E (APOE) status interacts with vascular risk factors (VRFs) to predict the progression of white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) on brain MRI scans over a specific period of life in older age when the risk of dementia increases. At age 73 years, baseline VRFs were assessed via self-reported history of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and hypercholesterolemia, and via objective measures of blood HbA1c, body mass index, diastolic and systolic blood pressure, and blood high-density lipoprotein to total cholesterol (HDL) ratio...
February 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322777/preeclampsia-and-cognitive-impairment-later-in-life
#12
Julie A Fields, Vesna D Garovic, Michelle M Mielke, Kejal Kantarci, Muthuvel Jayachandran, Wendy M White, Alissa M Butts, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Brian D Lahr, Kent R Bailey, Virginia M Miller
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a risk factor for cerebrovascular disease and cognitive impairment. Women with hypertensive episodes during pregnancy report variable neurocognitive changes within the first decade following the affected pregnancy. However, long-term follow-up of these women into their postmenopausal years has not been conducted. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine whether women with a history of preeclampsia were at increased risk of cognitive decline 35-40 years after the affected pregnancy...
March 18, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320161/circulating-autoantibodies-against-the-nr2-peptide-of-the-nmda-receptor-are-associated-with-subclinical-brain-damage-in-hypertensive-patients-with-other-pre-existing-conditions-for-vascular-risk
#13
S González-García, A González-Quevedo, Z Hernandez-Diaz, L Alvarez Camino, M Peña-Sanchez, A Cordero-Eiriz, M Brown, J A Gaya, M Betancourt-Losa, I Fernandez-Almirall, M C Menendez-Sainz, R Fernandez-Carriera
Arterial hypertension (HT) and other vascular pre-existing conditions (PEC) generate asymptomatic brain damage which increases the occurrence of stroke and cognitive decline. The aim of this work was to explore if serum antibodies against the NR2 subunit of the NMDA receptor (NR2Ab) could predict subclinical brain damage (SBD) in hypertensive patients with PEC. Forty seven neurologically asymptomatic hypertensive subjects were classified according to the number of PEC (retinopathy, overweight/obesity, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia)...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314624/cerebral-white-matter-hypoperfusion-increases-with-small-vessel-disease-burden-data-from-the-third-international-stroke-trial
#14
Francesco Arba, Grant Mair, Trevor Carpenter, Eleni Sakka, Peter A G Sandercock, Richard I Lindley, Domenico Inzitari, Joanna M Wardlaw
BACKGROUND: Leukoaraiosis is associated with impaired cerebral perfusion, but the effect of individual and combined small-vessel disease (SVD) features on white matter perfusion is unclear. METHODS: We studied patients recruited with perfusion imaging in the Third International Stroke Trial. We rated individual SVD features (leukoaraiosis, lacunes) and brain atrophy on baseline plain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Separately, we assessed white matter at the level of the lateral ventricles in the cerebral hemisphere contralateral to the stroke for visible areas of hypoperfusion (present or absent) on 4 time-based perfusion imaging parameters...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289478/cerebral-white-matter-hyperintensities-on-mri-and-acceleration-of-epigenetic-aging-the-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities-study
#15
Abhay Raina, Xiaoping Zhao, Megan L Grove, Jan Bressler, Rebecca F Gottesman, Weihua Guan, James S Pankow, Eric Boerwinkle, Thomas H Mosley, Myriam Fornage
BACKGROUND: Cerebral white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are part of the spectrum of brain vascular injury accompanying aging and are associated with a substantial risk of stroke and dementia. We investigated the association of cerebral WMH burden on MRI with a DNA methylation-based biomarker of aging, termed DNA methylation age acceleration, which represents the deviation of the DNA methylation-predicted age from the chronologic age. RESULTS: In this cross-sectional observational study of 713 African-American participants of the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study, aged 51-73 years, estimates of predicted age were obtained based on two algorithms (Hannum et al...
2017: Clinical Epigenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285092/visceral-to-subcutaneous-fat-ratio-is-independently-related-to-small-and-large-cerebrovascular-lesions-even-in-healthy-subjects
#16
Satoshi Higuchi, Yusuke Kabeya, Kiyoe Kato
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The severity of obesity is evaluated by visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio (VS ratio), which may be useful for predicting atherosclerosis. However, it is unclear how VS ratio affects different types of cerebrovascular lesions. This study was conducted to evaluate the clinical impact of visceral fat accumulation on the cerebrovascular lesions. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 980 apparently healthy Japanese adults who underwent a health check-up program focused toward atherosclerosis, between 2011 and 2014...
April 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279605/memory-alterations-and-white-matter-hyperintensities-in-elderly-patients-with-hypertension-the-adelahyde-2-study
#17
João Pedro Ferreira, Anna Kearney Schwartz, Ghassan Watfa, Lamiral Zohra, Jacques Felblinger, Jean-Marc Boivin, Serge Bracard, Gabriella Hossu, Antoine Verger, Laure Joly, Faiez Zannad, Patrick Rossignol, Athanase Benetos
OBJECTIVES: The longitudinal ADELAHYDE-2 study aims to identify the factors associated with cognitive impairment/decline and white matter hyperintensities burden. METHODS: Longitudinal single-center study comprising two visits separated by approximately 7 years. A total of 131 patients completed the two visits. The primary outcome was global memory composite scale, while the secondary outcome was white matter hyperintensities (WMH/Fazekas scale) load. RESULTS: Global memory at visit 2 (V2) was largely influenced by age, smoking status, glycated hemoglobin, and history of stroke already present at visit 1 (V1)...
March 6, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265034/extracellular-matrix-inflammation-in-vascular-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia
#18
REVIEW
Gary A Rosenberg
Vascular cognitive impairment and dementia (VCID) include a wide spectrum of chronic manifestations of vascular disease related to large vessel strokes and small vessel disease (SVD). Lacunar strokes and white matter (WM) injury are consequences of SVD. The main vascular risk factor for SVD is brain hypoperfusion from cerebral blood vessel narrowing due to chronic hypertension. The hypoperfusion leads to activation and degeneration of astrocytes with the resulting fibrosis of the extracellular matrix (ECM)...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255864/hyperinsulinemia-and-elevated-systolic-blood-pressure-independently-predict-white-matter-hyperintensities-with-associated-cognitive-decrement-in-the-middle-aged-offspring-of-dementia-patients
#19
Keith A Hawkins, Nazli Emadi, Godfrey D Pearlson, Anderson M Winkler, Beth Taylor, Latha Dulipsingh, Diana King, Brian Pittman, Karen Blank
Cerebrovascular disease is an independent risk factor for dementia that may also be synergistic with Alzheimer's disease. In recent years attention has switched from cerebral infarcts to microvascular disease as the primary cause of cerebrovascular cognitive decline, with damage to the white matter the primary mechanism. Uncertainties remain regarding the risks posed by different types vascular threat, the extent to which cerebrovascular damage occurs in middle age, and whether relatively "normal" amounts of white matter damage are accompanied by meaningful degrees of cognitive decline...
March 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235962/critical-illness-associated-cerebral-microbleeds
#20
Evgenia M Fanou, Jonathan M Coutinho, Patrick Shannon, Tim-Rasmus Kiehl, Marcel M Levi, M Elizabeth Wilcox, Richard I Aviv, Daniel M Mandell
- BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral microbleeds (petechial hemorrhages) are a well-known consequence of cerebral amyloid angiopathy and chronic hypertension among other causes. We report 12 patients with a clinically and radiologically distinct microbleed phenomenon in the cerebral white matter. METHODS: These patients were assessed at the University Health Network (Toronto, Canada) between 2004 and 2014. RESULTS: Median age was 40 years (range, 27-63 years), and 7 out of 12 patients were women...
February 24, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
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