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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145428/abnormal-brain-white-matter-microstructure-is-associated-with-both-pre-hypertension-and-hypertension
#1
Hideaki Suzuki, He Gao, Wenjia Bai, Evangelos Evangelou, Ben Glocker, Declan P O'Regan, Paul Elliott, Paul M Matthews
OBJECTIVES: To characterize effects of chronically elevated blood pressure on the brain, we tested for brain white matter microstructural differences associated with normotension, pre-hypertension and hypertension in recently available brain magnetic resonance imaging data from 4659 participants without known neurological or psychiatric disease (62.3±7.4 yrs, 47.0% male) in UK Biobank. METHODS: For assessment of white matter microstructure, we used measures derived from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) including the intracellular volume fraction (an estimate of neurite density) and isotropic volume fraction (an index of the relative extra-cellular water diffusion)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131244/a-review-on-irisin-a-new-protagonist-that-mediates-muscle-adipose-bone-neuron-connectivity
#2
B Grygiel-Górniak, M Puszczewicz
Physical activity improves the quality of life and decreases the risk of several diseases (i.e. stroke, hypertension, myocardial infarction, obesity, and malignancies). Skeletal muscles are considered as an endocrine organ that produces myokines characterized by a paracrine or endocrine activity. Irisin is a circulating hormone-like myokine and is secreted as a product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 from skeletal muscle in response to exercise. This molecule regulates the energy metabolism and acts in adipose tissue, bones, and nervous system...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111361/cerebral-venous-collagen-remodeling-in-a-modified-white-matter-lesions-animal-model
#3
Jing Lin, Linfang Lan, Dilong Wang, Baoshan Qiu, Yuhua Fan
To mimic the expected pathological changes of white matter lesions (WMLs) and increase the stability, we applied modified two-vessel occlusion (modified 2VO) (1-week interval bilateral carotid artery occlusion) in stroke-prone renovascular hypertensive rats (RHRSP) and established a modified WMLs model (RHRSP/modified 2VO) that compared their phenotypes with RHRSP and sham-operated rats. In addition, we tried to differentiate small veins from small arteries through the presence of smooth muscle to study the pathological changes of small veins detailed in the model...
October 31, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106439/increased-diastolic-blood-pressure-is-associated-with-mri-biomarkers-of-dementia-related-brain-pathology-in-normative-ageing
#4
Christopher J McNeil, Phyo Kyaw Myint, Anca-Larisa Sandu, John F Potter, Roger Staff, Lawrence J Whalley, Alison D Murray
Background: hypertension is a risk for brain ageing, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected biomarkers of brain ageing include white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), a marker of cerebrovascular disease, and hippocampal volume, a marker of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Objective: to examine relationships between blood pressure (BP) components and brain pathology in older adults. Subjects: two hundred and twenty-seven members of the Aberdeen 1936 Birth Cohort between ages 64 and 68 years...
July 4, 2017: Age and Ageing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100854/white-matter-hyperintensity-associated-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-vascular-risk-factors
#5
Nidhi Gupta, Alexis N Simpkins, Emi Hitomi, Christian Dias, Richard Leigh
BACKGROUND: White matter hyperintensities (WMH), the hallmark of vascular cognitive impairment, are associated with vascular risk factors (VRF). WMH can also be associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption. The purpose of this study was to look for associations between VRF and BBB disruption in stroke patients with WMH. METHODS: Magnetic resonance images of stroke patients were reviewed for the presence of WMH. Blood-brain permeability images were retrospectively generated...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093276/alpha-2-macroglobulin-as-a-promising-biological-marker-of-endothelial-function
#6
Ryo Shimomura, Tomohisa Nezu, Naohisa Hosomi, Shiro Aoki, Takamichi Sugimoto, Naoto Kinoshita, Mutsuko Araki, Tetsuya Takahashi, Hirofumi Maruyama, Masayasu Matsumoto
AIMS: Alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2MG) is thought to be associated with inflammatory reactions and procoagulant properties that might cause ischemic stroke. Endothelial dysfunction plays an important role in atherosclerosis development and in the occurrence of cardiovascular events. In this study, we investigated whether serum α2MG levels, endothelial function, and endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) number were associated in patients with chronic stroke or cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Patients with a history of stroke or any established cardiovascular risk factors were enrolled in this study (n=102; 69 men, 70...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29083274/executive-dysfunction-and-blockage-of-brain-microvessels-in-a-rat-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#7
Kristopher D Langdon, Chris A Cordova, Shirley Granter-Button, Jamie D Boyd, James Peeling, Timothy H Murphy, Dale Corbett
Most research focuses on overt stroke caused by blockage of major blood vessels. Less attention has been paid to small vessel disease which gives rise to covert stroke that often leads to vascular cognitive impairment (VCI). One reason for this may be the relative lack of relevant animal models. Herein, we describe, a model of VCI induced in middle-aged Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to a diet high in saturated fats, salt and refined sugar (HFSS). In Experiment 1, rats were fed HFSS and subjected to a small mediodorsal (MD) thalamic stroke with or without concomitant permanent bilateral carotid artery occlusion...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069436/structural-brain-abnormalities-in-successfully-treated-hiv-infection-associations-with-disease-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers
#8
Rosan A Van Zoest, Jonathan Underwood, Davide De Francesco, Caroline A Sabin, James H Cole, Ferdinand W Wit, Matthan W A Caan, Neeltje A Kootstra, Dietmar Fuchs, Henrik Zetterberg, Charles B L M Majoie, Peter Portegies, Alan Winston, David J Sharp, Magnus Gisslén, Peter Reiss
Background: Brain structural abnormalities have been reported in persons with HIV (PWH) on suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but their pathophysiology remains unclear. Methods: We investigated factors associated with brain tissue volumes and white matter microstructure (fractional anisotropy) in 134 PWH on suppressive cART and 79 comparable HIV-negative controls, aged ≥45 years from the Co-morBidity in Relation to AIDS (COBRA) cohort, using multimodal neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033410/total-small-vessel-disease-score-in-neurologically-healthy-japanese-adults-in-the-kashima-scan-study
#9
Yusuke Yakushiji, Andreas Charidimou, Tomoyuki Noguchi, Masashi Nishihara, Makoto Eriguchi, Yusuke Nanri, Atsushi Kawaguchi, Tatsumi Hirotsu, David J Werring, Hideo Hara
Objective We explored the association between the total small vessel disease (SVD) score obtained with magnetic resonance imaging and risk factors and outcomes in the Japanese population. Methods The presence of SVD features, including lacunes, cerebral microbleeds, white matter changes, and basal ganglia perivascular spaces on MRI, was summed to obtain a "total SVD score" (range 0-4). Ordinal and multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association of higher total SVD scores with vascular risk factors, the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score, and cerebral atrophy...
October 16, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027843/the-impact-of-vascular-risk-factors-on-brain-volume-and-lesion-load-in-patients-with-early-multiple-sclerosis
#10
Alexander Pichler, Michael Khalil, Christian Langkammer, Daniela Pinter, Stefan Ropele, Siegrid Fuchs, Gerhard Bachmaier, Christian Enzinger, Franz Fazekas
BACKGROUND: Vascular risk factors (VRF) in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients have been associated with lower brain volumes. It is currently unknown if this association already exists in early MS and how it develops over time. METHODS: We identified 82 patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) ( n = 61) or with early relapsing-remitting MS ( n = 21) and assessed their VRF including arterial hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes mellitus and smoking. We analysed T2-lesion load, normalized brain volume (NBV), cortical grey (cGMV) and white matter volumes (WMV), thalamic and basal ganglia volumes at baseline and follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and assessed the percentage of brain volume change (PBVC) using SIENA...
October 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018653/chiari-type-1-malformation-induced-intracranial-hypertension-with-diffuse-brain-edema-treated-with-foramen-magnum-decompression-a-case-report
#11
Toshiki Fukuoka, Yusuke Nishimura, Masahito Hara, Shoichi Haimoto, Kaoru Eguchi, Satoshi Yoshikawa, Toshihiko Wakabayashi, Howard J Ginsberg
Chiari type 1 malformation (CM1) rarely causes papilloedema, which is indicative of high intracranial pressure with or without ventricular dilatation. Furthermore, concomitant brain parenchymal abnormalities have not been reported to date. In this paper, the authors report on a young woman of CM1-induced intracranial hypertension (ICH) with diffuse brain edema with a focus on venous sinus assessment, and discuss the surgical strategy. A 24-year-old woman presented to Nagoya University Hospital complaining of 4-year history of severe occipital headache and blurry vision with slowly progressive worsening...
October 2017: NMC Case Rep J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018129/neuroimaging-correlates-of-cerebral-microbleeds-the-aric-study-atherosclerosis-risk-in-communities
#12
MULTICENTER STUDY
Jonathan Graff-Radford, Jeannette Simino, Kejal Kantarci, Thomas H Mosley, Michael E Griswold, B Gwen Windham, A Richey Sharrett, Marilyn S Albert, Rebecca F Gottesman, Clifford R Jack, Prashanthi Vemuri, David S Knopman
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral microbleed (CMB) location (deep versus strictly lobar) may elucidate underlying pathology with deep CMBs being more associated with hypertensive vascular disease and lobar CMBs being more associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy. The objective of this study was to determine whether neuroimaging signs of vascular disease and Alzheimer pathology are associated with different types of CMBs. METHODS: Among 1677 nondemented ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) participants (mean age=76±5 years; 40% men; 26% black) with 3-Tesla MRI scans at the fifth examination (2011-2013), we fit multinomial logistic regression models to quantify relationships of brain volumes (Alzheimer disease signature regions, total gray matter, frontal gray matter, and white matter hyperintensity volumes), infarct frequencies (lacunar, nonlacunar, and total), and apolipoprotein E (number of ε4 alleles) with CMB location (none, deep/mixed, or strictly lobar CMBs)...
November 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989805/migraine-and-stroke
#13
REVIEW
Yonghua Zhang, Aasheeta Parikh, Shuo Qian
Migraines are generally considered a relatively benign neurological condition. However, research has shown an association between migraines and stroke, and especially between migraine with aura and ischaemic stroke. Patients can also suffer from migrainous infarction, a subset of ischaemic stroke that often occurs in the posterior circulation of younger women. The exact pathogenesis of migrainous infarct is not known, but it is theorised that the duration and local neuronal energy level from cortical spreading depression may be a key factor...
September 2017: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989801/blood-pressure-gradients-in-cerebral-arteries-a-clue-to-pathogenesis-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#14
Pablo J Blanco, Lucas O Müller, J David Spence
RATIONALE: The role of hypertension in cerebral small vessel disease is poorly understood. At the base of the brain (the 'vascular centrencephalon'), short straight arteries transmit blood pressure directly to small resistance vessels; the cerebral convexity is supplied by long arteries with many branches, resulting in a drop in blood pressure. Hypertensive small vessel disease (lipohyalinosis) causes the classically described lacunar infarctions at the base of the brain; however, periventricular white matter intensities (WMIs) seen on MRI and WMI in subcortical areas over the convexity, which are often also called 'lacunes', probably have different aetiologies...
September 2017: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967461/clinical-manifestations-associated-with-the-n-terminal-acetyltransferase-naa10-gene-mutation-in-a-girl-ogden-syndrome
#15
Mandeep Sidhu, Lauren Brady, Mark Tarnopolsky, Gabriel M Ronen
BACKGROUND: Ogden syndrome is a rare X-linked disorder caused by pathogenic variants in the NAA10 gene. This syndrome, reported in just over 20 children, has been associated with dysmorphic features, failure to thrive, developmental impairments, hypotonia, and cardiac arrhythmias. PATIENT DESCRIPTION: We describe a 14-year-old girl who presented in infancy with hypotonia, global developmental delay, and dysmorphic features. She later developed autism spectrum disorder, epileptic encephalopathy, extrapyramidal signs, early morning lethargy with hypersomnolence, and hypertension with left ventricular hypertrophy...
July 19, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953609/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-leukoaraiosis-from-4683-hospitalized-patients-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Qing Lin, Wen-Qing Huang, Qi-Lin Ma, Cong-Xia Lu, Sui-Jun Tong, Jin-Hu Ye, Hui-Nuan Lin, Long Gu, Ke-Hui Yi, Liang-Liang Cai, Chi-Meng Tzeng
Leukoaraiosis (LA) refers to white matter hyperintensities or white matter lesions (WMLs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans of the brain; this disease is associated with an increased risk of stroke, dementia, and cognitive decline. The aims of the study are to assess the incidence of LA and its associated risk factors in a Chinese population.A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted that included 4683 patients who were 40 years or older. Data collected included age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, smoking, drinking, homocysteine (HCY), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels in the blood in addition to brain MRI information...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953319/bergmann-glia-translocation-a-new-disease-marker-for-vanishing-white-matter-identifies-therapeutic-effects-of-guanabenz-treatment
#17
S Dooves, M Bugiani, L E Wisse, T E M Abbink, M S van der Knaap, V M Heine
AIM: Vanishing White Matter (VWM) is a devastating leucoencephalopathy without effective treatment options. Patients have mutations in the EIF2B1-5 genes, encoding the five subunits of eIF2B, a guanine exchange factor that is an important regulator of protein translation. We recently developed mouse models for VWM that replicate the human disease. To study disease improvement after treatment in these mice, it is essential to have sensitive biomarkers related to disease stage. The Bergmann glia of the cerebellum, an astrocytic subpopulation, translocate into the molecular layer in symptomatic VWM mice and patients...
May 13, 2017: Neuropathology and Applied Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939709/topography-and-determinants-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-mri-visible-perivascular-spaces-in-a-large-memory-clinic-cohort
#18
Sara Shams, Juha Martola, Andreas Charidimou, Mykol Larvie, Tobias Granberg, Mana Shams, Maria Kristoffersen-Wiberg, Lars-Olof Wahlund
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging-visible perivascular spaces (PVS) are related to interstitial fluid clearance pathways (including amyloid-β) in the brain and are suggested to be a marker of cerebral small vessel disease. We investigated the role, topography, and possible implications of PVS in cognitive impairment. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 1504 patients undergoing memory clinic investigation and an associated brain magnetic resonance imaging scan were included in this cross-sectional study...
September 22, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936822/-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-triggerred-by-alcohol-withdrawal
#19
Tuğçe Mengi, Yaprak Seçil, Aysel Çoban, Yeşim Beckmann
INTRODUCTION: Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinico-radiological entity characterized by headache, altered mental status, epileptic seizures, visual disturbances and typically transient changes in posterior cerebral circulation areas. In this article, we present a case of alcohol withdrawal accompanied by PRES. CASE PRESENTATION: A 53-year-old male patient presented to the emergency department with visual hallucinations and meaningless speech...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935928/location-of-cerebral-microbleeds-and-their-association-with-carotid-intima-media-thickness-a-community-based-study
#20
Chih-Ping Chung, Kun-Hsien Chou, Wei-Ta Chen, Li-Kuo Liu, Wei-Ju Lee, An-Chun Huang, Liang-Kung Chen, Ching-Po Lin, Pei-Ning Wang
To assess whether high cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are associated with carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), a marker of systemic atherosclerosis, we cross-sectionally evaluated participants from a community-based study, the I-Lan Longitudinal Aging Study. The participants' demographics and cardiovascular risk factors were determined by questionnaire and/or laboratory measurements. CIMT was measured by ultrasonography. CMBs were assessed by susceptibility-weighted-imaging on 3 T MRI. Of the 962 subjects [62...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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