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Chathuni Jayathilake, Rizliya Visvanathan, Afka Deen, Ruksheela Bangamuwage, Barana C Jayawardana, Srinivas Nammi, Ruvini Liyanage
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a legume consumed as a high-quality plant protein source in many parts of the world. High protein and carbohydrate contents with relatively low fat content and complementary amino acid pattern to that of cereal grains make cowpea an important nutritional food in the human diet. Cowpea has gained more attention recently from consumers and researchers worldwide due to its exerted health beneficial properties including anti-diabetic, anti-cancer, anti-hyperlipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive properties...
April 15, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Emily A Rue, Michael D Rush, Richard B van Breemen
Procyanidins are polyphenols abundant in dietary fruits, vegetables, nuts, legumes, and grains with a variety of chemopreventive biological effects. Rapid structure determination of these compounds is needed, notably for the more complex polymeric procyanidins. We review the recent developments in the structure elucidation of procyanidins with a focus on mass spectrometric approaches, especially liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) MS/MS...
February 2018: Phytochemistry Reviews: Proceedings of the Phytochemical Society of Europe
Keita Tamura, Koki Yoshida, Yasuko Hiraoka, Daiki Sakaguchi, Ayaka Chikugo, Keiichi Mochida, Mareshige Kojoma, Nobutaka Mitsuda, Kazuki Saito, Toshiya Muranaka, Hikaru Seki
Glycyrrhiza uralensis (licorice) is a widely used medicinal plant belonging to the Fabaceae. Its main active component, glycyrrhizin, is an oleanane-type triterpenoid saponin widely used as a medicine and as a natural sweetener. Licorice also produces other triterpenoids, including soyasaponins. Recent studies have revealed various oxidosqualene cyclases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) required for the biosynthesis of triterpenoids in licorice. Of these enzymes, β-amyrin synthase (bAS) and β-amyrin C-24 hydroxylase (CYP93E3) are involved in the biosynthesis of soyasapogenol B (an aglycone of soyasaponins) from 2,3-oxidosqualene...
April 1, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Lukas Wille, Monika M Messmer, Bruno Studer, Pierre Hohmann
Root and foot diseases severely impede grain legume cultivation worldwide. Breeding lines with resistance against individual pathogens exist, but these resistances are often overcome by the interaction of multiple pathogens in field situations. Novel tools allow to decipher plant-microbiome interactions in unprecedented detail and provide insights into resistance mechanisms that consider both simultaneous attacks of various pathogens and the interplay with beneficial microbes. Although it has become clear that plant-associated microbes play a key role in plant health, a systematic picture of how and to what extend plants can shape their own detrimental or beneficial microbiome remains to be drawn...
April 12, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Martinus Schneijderberg, Lucas Schmitz, Xu Cheng, Sharon Polman, Carolien Franken, Rene Geurts, Ton Bisseling
BACKGROUND: Diazotrophic Bradyrhizobium spp. are well known for their ability to trigger nodule formation on a variety of legume species. In nodules, Bradyrhizobium utilizes plant-derived carbohydrates in exchange for fixed nitrogen. The genes essential for the nodulation and nitrogen-fixation trait are clustered in a genomic region, which is known as the 'symbiotic island'. Recently, novel non-diazotrophic Bradyrhizobium spp. have been found to be highly abundant in soils, suggesting that these species can also have a 'free-living' life history...
April 11, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Lijun Xu, Xingliang Xu, Xuejuan Tang, Xiaoping Xin, Liming Ye, Guixia Yang, Huajun Tang, Shijie Lv, Dawei Xu, Zhao Zhang
Reclamation of degraded grasslands as managed grasslands has been increasingly accelerated in recent years in China. Land use change affects soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions. However, it remains unclear how large-scale grassland reclamation will impact the grassland ecosystem as a whole. Here, we investigated the effects of the conversion from native to managed grasslands on soil N dynamics and N2O emissions by field experiments in Hulunber in northern China. Soil (0-10cm), nitrate (NO3 - ), ammonium (NH4 + ), and microbial N were measured in plots in a temperate steppe (Leymus chinensis grassland) and two managed grasslands (Medicago sativa and Bromus inermis grasslands) in 2011 and 2012...
April 2018: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Thiago Carrazoni, Christine Nguyen, Lucas F Maciel, Andres Delgado-Cañedo, Bryan A Stewart, Angela B Lange, Chariston A Dal Belo, Celia R Carlini, Ian Orchard
BACKGROUND: Plants have developed a vast range of mechanisms to compete with phytophagous insects, including entomotoxic proteins such as ureases. The legume Canavalia ensiformis produces several urease isoforms, of which the more abundant is called Jack Bean Urease (JBU). Previews work has demonstrated the potential insecticidal effects of JBU, by mechanisms so far not entirely elucidated. In this work, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the JBU-induced activity upon neurotransmitter release on insect neuromuscular junctions...
April 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Carlos De la Rosa, Alejandra Alicia Covarrubias, José Luis Reyes
Plant microRNAs are commonly encoded in transcripts containing a single microRNA precursor. Processing by DICER-LIKE 1 and associated factors results in the production of a small RNA, followed by its incorporation into an AGO-containing protein complex to guide silencing of an mRNA possessing a complementary target sequence. Certain microRNA loci contain more that one precursor stem-loop structure, thus encoding more than one microRNA in the same transcript. Here we describe a unique case where the evolutionary-conserved miR398a is encoded in the same transcript as the legume-specific miR2119...
April 6, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Disha Tandon, Mohammed Monzoorul Haque, Saravanan R, Shafiq Shaikh, Sriram P, Ashok Kumar Dubey, Sharmila S Mande
The human gut microbiome contributes to a broad range of biochemical and metabolic functions that directly or indirectly affect human physiology. Several recent studies have indicated that factors like age, geographical location, genetic makeup, and individual health status significantly influence the diversity, stability, and resilience of the gut microbiome. Of the mentioned factors, geographical location (and related dietary/socio-economic context) appears to explain a significant portion of microbiome variation observed in various previously conducted base-line studies on human gut microbiome...
2018: PloS One
Neha Gupta, Prakash S Bisen, Sameer Suresh Bhagyawant
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer demands safe adjuvant to overcome the side effects of standard drug tomoxifen. Diet derived bioactive compounds are reported to exhibit modulation of tumor growth leading to cell death. Chickpea is a protein rich edible legume with several bioactive compounds that includes lectin as well. Characterization of chickpea lectin and its effect against cancer cell has been investigated in this study. METHOD: Cicer arietinum L. lectin (CAL) agglutinating trypsin-treated rabbit blood cells was purified employing DEAE-cellulose and SP-sephadex ion exchange chromatography...
April 6, 2018: Protein and Peptide Letters
Sara Bautista-Expósito, Elena Peñas, Montserrat Dueñas, José Manuel Silván, Juana Frias, Cristina Martínez-Villaluenga
Legumes offer the possibility to develop multifunctional foods with benefits for metabolic syndrome. Our objective was to study the effect of alkaline fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum and Savinase (FLPS) as well the individual effects of both processes on peptides, phenolics and bioactivity of lentil. FLPS increased peptides and some flavonoids and enhanced antioxidant activity, inhibition of angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) and intestinal maltase activities of lentil soluble fraction. Savinase contributed to peptide release, ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activities of lentil soluble fraction...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Ellen A Struijk, José R Banegas, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Esther Lopez-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Meat is an important source of high-quality protein and vitamin B but also has a relatively high content of saturated and trans fatty acids. Although protein and vitamin B intake seems to protect people from functional limitations, little is known about the effect of habitual meat consumption on physical function. The objective of this study was to examine the prospective association between the intake of meat (processed meat, red meat, and poultry) and physical function impairment in older adults...
April 5, 2018: BMC Medicine
Tommaso Filippini, Bernhard Michalke, Lauren A Wise, Carlotta Malagoli, Marcella Malavolti, Luciano Vescovi, Chiara Salvia, Annalisa Bargellini, Sabina Sieri, Vittorio Krogh, Margherita Ferrante, Marco Vinceti
Selenium is a trace element of both nutritional and toxicological interest, depending on its dose and chemical form. Diet is the primary source of exposure for most individuals. We sought to investigate the influence of food intake on serum levels of selenium species. Among fifty subjects randomly selected from a Northern Italian population, we assessed dietary habits using a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. We also measured circulating levels of selenium species in serum using high pressure liquid chromatography associated with inductively-coupled plasma dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometer...
April 2, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Vera I Safronova, Anna L Sazanova, Irina G Kuznetsova, Andrey A Belimov, Evgeny E Andronov, Elizaveta R Chirak, Janna P Popova, Alla V Verkhozina, Anne Willems, Igor A Tikhonovich
Gram-negative strains Tri-36, Tri-38, Tri-48T and Tri-53 were isolated from root nodules of the relict legume Oxytropis triphylla (Pall.) Pers. originating from Zunduk Cape (Baikal Lake region, Russia). 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the novel isolates were phylogenetically closest to the type strains Phyllobacterium sophorae LMG 27899T , Phyllobacterium brassicacearum LMG 22836T , Phyllobacterium endophyticum LMG 26470T and Phyllobacterium bourgognense LMG 22837T while similarity levels between the isolates and the most closely related strain P...
April 5, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Maria Daniela Artigas Ramirez, Jessica Danila Silva, Naoko Ohkama-Ohtsu, Tadashi Yokoyama
Aluminium (Al) toxicity is a major problem affecting soil fertility, microbial diversity, and nutrients uptake of plants. Rhizobia response and legume-interaction under Al conditions are still unknown and it is important to understand how to develop and improve legume cultivation under Al-stress. In this study, rhizobia-response was recorded under different Al-concentrations. Al-effect on rhizobial cells was characterized by combination with different two pH conditions. Symbiosis process was compared between α- and β-rhizobia inoculated onto soybean varieties...
April 5, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Lauren C Blekkenhorst, Catherine P Bondonno, Joshua R Lewis, Richard J Woodman, Amanda Devine, Nicola P Bondonno, Wai H Lim, Kun Zhu, Lawrence J Beilin, Peter L Thompson, Richard L Prince, Jonathan M Hodgson
BACKGROUND: Dietary patterns rich in fruits and vegetables are considered to reduce atherosclerotic disease presentation and are reported to be inversely associated with subclinical measures of atherosclerosis, such as carotid artery intima-media thickness (IMT) and plaque. However, the effect of vegetable intake alone, and relationships to specific types of vegetables containing different phytochemical profiles, is important. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations of total vegetable intake and specific vegetables grouped according to phytochemical constituents with common carotid artery IMT (CCA-IMT) and carotid plaque severity in a cohort of older adult women (aged ≥70 years)...
April 4, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Marion Tharrey, François Mariotti, Andrew Mashchak, Pierre Barbillon, Maud Delattre, Gary E Fraser
Background: Current evidence suggests that plant and animal proteins are intimately associated with specific large nutrient clusters that may explain part of their complex relation with cardiovascular health. We aimed at evaluating the association between specific patterns of protein intake with cardiovascular mortality. Methods: We selected 81 337 men and women from the Adventist Health Study-2. Diet was assessed between 2002 and 2007, by using a validated food frequency questionnaire...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Yue Jin, Zixuan Chen, Jun Yang, Kirankumar S Mysore, Jiangqi Wen, Jirong Huang, Nan Yu, Ertao Wang
Legume plants form symbiotic associations with either nitrogen-fixing bacteria or arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, which are regulated by a set of common symbiotic signaling pathway genes. Central to the signaling pathway is the activation of the DMI3/IPD3 protein complex by Ca2+ oscillations, and the initiation of nodule organogenesis and mycorrhizal symbiosis. DMI3 is essential for rhizobial infection and nodule organogenesis; however, ipd3 mutants have been shown to be impaired only in infection thread formation but not in root nodule organogenesis in Medicago truncatula ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Jui-Yee Eng, Foong-Ming Moy, Awang Bulgiba, Sanjay Rampal
BACKGROUND: Dietary pattern analysis is a complementary method to nutrient analysis in evaluating overall diet-disease hypotheses. Although studies have been conducted to derive dietary patterns among Malaysians, their consistency across subgroups has not been examined. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to derive dietary patterns empirically and to examine the consistency and generalizability of patterns across sex, ethnicity, and urban status in a working population. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study using data from the Clustering of Lifestyle Risk Factors and Understanding its Association with Stress on Health and Well-Being among School Teachers in Malaysia study collected between August 2014 and November 2015...
March 31, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Clémence Chaintreuil, Xavier Perrier, Guillaume Martin, Joël Fardoux, Gwilym P Lewis, Laurent Brottier, Ronan Rivallan, Mario Gomez-Pacheco, Mickaël Bourges, Léo Lamy, Béatrice Thibaud, Heriniaina Ramanankierana, Herizo Randriambanona, Hervé Vandrot, Pierre Mournet, Eric Giraud, Jean-François Arrighi
BACKGROUND: Among semi-aquatic species of the legume genus Aeschynomene, some have the unique property of being root and stem-nodulated by photosynthetic Bradyrhizobium lacking the nodABC genes necessary for the production of Nod factors. These species provide an excellent biological system with which to explore the evolution of nodulation in legumes. Among them, Aeschynomene evenia has emerged as a model legume to undertake the genetic dissection of the so-called Nod-independent symbiosis...
April 3, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
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