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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045654/crop-seedling-susceptibility-to-armadillidium-vulgare-isopoda-armadillidiidae-and-ommatoiulus-moreletii-diplopoda-iulidae
#1
Josh Douglas, Sarina Macfadyen, Ary Hoffmann, Paul Umina, Frank Peairs
The isopod, Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille) (Isopoda: Armadillidiidae), and the millipede, Ommatoiulus moreletii (Lucas) (Diplopoda: Iulidae), are increasingly being reported as pests of emerging broadacre crop seedlings in southern Australia. This is thought to be due to the increased adoption of stubble retention practices, leading to increased abundance of these soil-dwelling organisms. Here, we evaluate the propensity of A. vulgare and O. moreletii to damage a range of crop seedlings. Through the combined analysis of a controlled feeding trial and field reports, we show A...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043047/relationships-between-aboveground-biomass-and-plant-cover-at-two-spatial-scales-and-their-determinants-in-northern-tibetan-grasslands
#2
Yanbin Jiang, Yangjian Zhang, Yupeng Wu, Ronggui Hu, Juntao Zhu, Jian Tao, Tao Zhang
The relationships between cover and AGB for the dominant and widely distributed alpine grasslands on the northern Tibetan Plateau is still not fully examined. The objectives of this study are to answer the following question: (1) How does aboveground biomass (AGB) of alpine grassland relate to plant cover at different spatial scales? (2) What are the major biotic and abiotic factors influencing on AGB-cover relationship? A community survey (species, cover, height, and abundance) was conducted within 1 m × 1 m plots in 70 sites along a precipitation gradient of 50-600 m...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041832/enhanced-vitamin-b12-production-in-an-innovative-lupin-tempeh-is-due-to-synergic-effects-of-rhizopus-and-propionibacterium-in-cofermentation
#3
Camilla Signorini, Aristodemo Carpen, Luigi Coletto, Gigliola Borgonovo, Elisabetta Galanti, Jessica Capraro, Chiara Magni, Ambra Abate, Stuart K Johnson, Marcello Duranti, Alessio Scarafoni
Fermentation represents a valuable and cost-effective approach for food stabilisation and nutritional improvement. Tempeh is an example of soybean solid-state fermentation. In this work, we investigated the possibility of producing a tempeh analogue containing high amounts of vitamin B12 using seeds of three different species of the legume lupin, namely Lupinus albus, L. angustifolius and L. mutabilis, with Rhizopus oligosporus and Propionibacterium freudenreichii cofermentation. Synergic effects of Rhizopus and Propionibacterium in increasing vitamin B12 up to 1230 ng/g dw was observed...
October 18, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039970/food-groups-and-risk-of-coronary-heart-disease-stroke-and-heart-failure-a-systematic-review-and-dose-response-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#4
Angela Bechthold, Heiner Boeing, Carolina Schwedhelm, Georg Hoffmann, Sven Knüppel, Khalid Iqbal, Stefaan De Henauw, Nathalie Michels, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Sabrina Schlesinger, Lukas Schwingshackl
BACKGROUND: Despite growing evidence for food-based dietary patterns' potential to reduce cardiovascular disease risk, knowledge about the amounts of food associated with the greatest change in risk of specific cardiovascular outcomes and about the quality of meta-evidence is limited.Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to synthesize the knowledge about the relation between intake of 12 major food groups (whole grains, refined grains, vegetables, fruit, nuts, legumes, eggs, dairy, fish, red meat, processed meat, and sugar-sweetened beverages [SSB]) and the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke and heart failure (HF)...
October 17, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037264/cold-acclimation-increases-cold-tolerance-independently-of-diapause-programing-in-the-bean-bug-riptortus-pedestris
#5
J Rozsypal, M Moos, S G Goto
The bean bug (Riptortus pedestris) is a pest of soybeans and other legumes in Japan and other Asian countries. It enters a facultative adult diapause on exposure to short days. While photoperiodism and diapause are well understood in R. pedestris, knowledge of cold tolerance is very limited, as is information on the effect of diapause on cold tolerance. We examined the effect of photoperiod, cold acclimation, and feeding status on cold tolerance in R. pedestris. We found that cold acclimation significantly increased survival at -10°C in both long- and short-day adult R...
October 17, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036913/alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides-at-low-dose-improve-liver-steatosis-in-a-high-fat-diet-mouse-model
#6
Eric Chappuis, Fanny Morel-Depeisse, Bruno Bariohay, Julien Roux
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the major liver disease worldwide and is linked to the development of metabolic syndrome and obesity. As alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides (α-GOS) from legumes have been shown to reduce body weight and hyperphagia in overweight adults, it was hypothesized that they would exert benefits on the development of metabolic syndrome and associated NAFLD in a rodent model. C57Bl/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet until they developed metabolic syndrome and were then orally treated either with α-GOS at a physiological dose (2...
October 14, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035322/analysis-of-genetic-diversity-and-structure-pattern-of-indigofera-pseudotinctoria-in-karst-habitats-of-the-wushan-mountains-using-aflp-markers
#7
Yan Fan, Chenglin Zhang, Wendan Wu, Wei He, Li Zhang, Xiao Ma
Indigofera pseudotinctoria Mats is an agronomically and economically important perennial legume shrub with a high forage yield, protein content and strong adaptability, which is subject to natural habitat fragmentation and serious human disturbance. Until now, our knowledge of the genetic relationships and intraspecific genetic diversity for its wild collections is still poor, especially at small spatial scales. Here amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) technology was employed for analysis of genetic diversity, differentiation, and structure of 364 genotypes of I...
October 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033922/endophytic-bacteria-improve-plant-growth-symbiotic-performance-of-chickpea-cicer-arietinum-l-and-induce-suppression-of-root-rot-caused-by-fusarium-solani-under-salt-stress
#8
Dilfuza Egamberdieva, Stephan J Wirth, Vyacheslav V Shurigin, Abeer Hashem, Elsayed F Abd Allah
Salinity causes disturbance in symbiotic performance of plants, and increases susceptibility of plants to soil-borne pathogens. Endophytic bacteria are an essential determinant of cross-tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. The aim of this study was to isolate non-rhizobial endophytic bacteria from the root nodules of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.), and to assess their ability to improve plant growth and symbiotic performance, and to control root rot in chickpea under saline soil conditions. A total of 40 bacterial isolates from internal root tissues of chickpea grown in salinated soil were isolated...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032780/prediction-of-the-amino-acid-digestibility-of-legume-seeds-in-growing-pigs-a-meta-analysis-approach
#9
F Messad, M P Létourneau-Montminy, E Charbonneau, D Sauvant, F Guay
On pig farms, a high proportion of the cost of production comes from feed costs. However, the use of alternative ingredients such as legume seeds may help to reduce this cost. In fact, legume seeds are an important source of essential amino acids (EAA) and can therefore be an alternative to oilseed meals. However, the accurate use of these legume seeds requires a precise knowledge of the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of EAA, which may vary depending on its botanical variety. A meta-analysis was performed on a database compiling data from 41 studies published between 1981 and 2013 and 178 dietary treatments...
October 16, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032632/linking-agriculture-and-nutrition-education-to-improve-infant-and-young-child-feeding-lessons-for-future-programmes
#10
Ellen Muehlhoff, Ramani Wijesinha-Bettoni, Elizabeth Westaway, Theresa Jeremias, Stacia Nordin, Julia Garz
Agriculture and food systems play a central role in nutrition by supplying nutritious, healthy and affordable foods. When integrated with nutrition education for behaviour change, agricultural interventions that supply diverse affordable foods from all food groups have great scope for improving young child and family diets. In 2014, process reviews were conducted in Cambodia and Malawi of food security projects that provided agricultural support and community-based nutrition education on improved infant and young child feeding (IYCF)...
October 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032630/risk-factors-of-poor-complementary-feeding-practices-in-pakistani-children-aged-6-23%C3%A2-months-a-multilevel-analysis-of-the-demographic-and-health-survey-2012-2013
#11
Muzi Na, Víctor M Aguayo, Mary Arimond, Christine P Stewart
Appropriate feeding practices are crucial for survival, growth, and development in childhood. This paper analyzes Pakistan's Demographic and Health Survey 2012-2013 to fill the knowledge gap in risk factors of poor complementary feeding practices in Pakistani children. Multilevel models were applied to fit the multistage cluster sample of 2,827 children aged 6-23 months from 489 communities. Introduction of solid, semi-solid, or soft foods (intro) was achieved in 67% infants aged 6-8 months. Among children aged 6-23 months, the proportion of children meeting minimum meal frequency, dietary diversity (MDD), and acceptable diet criteria were 63%, 22% and 15%, respectively...
October 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030416/genome-wide-identification-of-medicago-peptides-involved-in-macronutrient-responses-and-nodulation
#12
Thomas de Bang, Peter Knut Lundquist, Xinbin Dai, Clarissa Boschiero, Zhaohong Zhuang, Pooja Pant, Ivone Torres-Jerez, Sonali Roy, Joaquina Nogales, Vijaykumar Veerappan, Rebecca Dickstein, Michael K Udvardi, Patrick Xuechun Zhao, Wolf Scheible
Growing evidence indicates that small, secreted peptides (SSPs) play critical roles in legume growth and development, yet annotation of SSP-coding genes is far from complete. Systematic re-annotation of the Medicago truncatula genome identified 1,970 homologs of established SSP gene families and an additional 2,455 potential SSP genes. Expression patterns of known and putative SSP genes based on 144 RNA-seq datasets covering various stages of macronutrient deficiencies and symbiotic interactions with rhizobium and mycorrhiza were investigated...
October 13, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025952/permanent-draft-genome-sequences-for-mesorhizobium-sp-strains-lcm-4576-lcm-4577-and-ors3428-salt-tolerant-nitrogen-fixing-bacteria-isolated-from-senegalese-soils
#13
Nathalie Diagne, Erik Swanson, Céline Pesce, Fatoumata Fall, Fatou Diouf, Niokhor Bakhoum, Dioumacor Fall, Mathieu Ndigue Faye, Rediet Oshone, Stephen Simpson, Krystalynne Morris, W Kelley Thomas, Lionel Moulin, Diegane Diouf, Louis S Tisa
The genus Mesorhizobium contains many species that are able to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on plants of the legume family. Here, we report the draft genome sequences for three Mesorhizobium strains. The genome sizes of strains LCM 4576, LCM 4577, and ORS3428 were 7.24, 7.02, and 6.55 Mbp, respectively.
October 12, 2017: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025916/a-predictive-model-for-time-to-flowering-in-the-common-bean-based-on-qtl-and-environmental-variables
#14
Mehul S Bhakta, Salvador A Gezan, Jose A Clavijo Michelangeli, Melissa Carvalho, Li Zhang, James W Jones, Kenneth J Boote, Melanie J Correll, James Beaver, Juan M Osorno, Raphael Colbert, Idupulapati Rao, Stephen Beebe, Abiezer Goanzalez, Jaumer Ricaurte, C Eduardo Vallejos
The common bean is a tropical facultative short day legume that is now grown in tropical and temperate zones. This observation underscores how domestication and modern breeding can change the adaptive phenology of a species. A key adaptive trait is the optimal timing of the transition from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. This trait is responsive to genetically controlled signal transduction pathways and local climatic cues. A comprehensive characterization of this trait can be started by assessing the quantitative contribution of the genetic and environmental factors, and their interactions...
October 12, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025409/genes-for-asparagine-metabolism-in-lotus-japonicus-differential-expression-and-interconnection-with-photorespiration
#15
Margarita García-Calderón, Carmen M Pérez-Delgado, Alfredo Credali, José M Vega, Marco Betti, Antonio J Márquez
BACKGROUND: Asparagine is a very important nitrogen transport and storage compound in plants due to its high nitrogen/carbon ratio and stability. Asparagine intracellular concentration depends on a balance between asparagine biosynthesis and degradation. The main enzymes involved in asparagine metabolism are asparagine synthetase (ASN), asparaginase (NSE) and serine-glyoxylate aminotransferase (SGAT). The study of the genes encoding for these enzymes in the model legume Lotus japonicus is of particular interest since it has been proposed that asparagine is the principal molecule used to transport reduced nitrogen within the plant in most temperate legumes...
October 12, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024106/nutritional-evaluation-of-the-legume-macrotyloma-axillare-using-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-bioassays-in-sheep
#16
P M T Lima, G D Moreira, G Z Sakita, A S Natel, W T Mattos, F M A Gimenes, L Gerdes, C McManus, A L Abdalla, H Louvandini
This study consisted of two experiments with the following objectives: to evaluate the effects of tannins from the tropical legume macrotiloma (Macrotyloma axillare) on total gas and methane (CH4 ) production, as well as on ruminal fermentation parameters by performing an in vitro bioassay, with samples incubated with and without polyethylene glycol (PEG) in a semi-automatic system; and secondly in a 17 day in vivo experiment, to determine apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dietary nutrients and ruminal fermentation parameters of 12 intact 8- to 9-month-old Santa Inês (averaging 24...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024045/association-between-dietary-fiber-intake-and-bone-loss-in-the-framingham-offspring-study
#17
Zhaoli Dai, Yuqing Zhang, Na Lu, David T Felson, Douglas P Kiel, Shivani Sahni
Dietary fiber may increase calcium absorption, but its role in bone mineralization is unclear. Furthermore, the health effect of dietary fiber may be different between genders. We examined the association between dietary fiber (total fiber and fiber from cereal, fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes) and bone loss at the femoral neck, trochanter and lumbar spine (L2-4) in older men and women. In the Framingham Offspring Study, at baseline (1996-2001), diet was assessed using the Willett food frequency questionnaire and bone mineral density (BMD) was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022875/spatio-temporal-control-of-mutualism-in-legumes-helps-spread-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixation
#18
Benoit Daubech, Philippe Remigi, Ginaini Doin de Moura, Marta Marchetti, Cécile Pouzet, Marie-Christine Auriac, Chaitanya S Gokhale, Catherine Masson-Boivin, Delphine Capela
Mutualism is of fundamental importance in ecosystems. Which factors help to keep the relationship mutually beneficial and evolutionarily successful is a central question. We addressed this issue for one of the most significant mutualistic interactions on Earth, which associates plants of the leguminosae family and hundreds of nitrogen (N2)-fixing bacterial species. Here we analyze the spatio-temporal dynamics of fixers and non-fixers along the symbiotic process in the Cupriavidus taiwanensis-Mimosa pudica system...
October 12, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018468/legume-shrubs-are-more-nitrogen-homeostatic-than-non-legume-shrubs
#19
Yanpei Guo, Xian Yang, Christian Schöb, Youxu Jiang, Zhiyao Tang
Legumes are characterized as keeping stable nutrient supply under nutrient-limited conditions. However, few studies examined the legumes' stoichiometric advantages over other plants across various taxa in natural ecosystems. We explored differences in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) stoichiometry of different tissue types (leaf, stem, and root) between N2-fixing legume shrubs and non-N2-fixing shrubs from 299 broadleaved deciduous shrubland sites in northern China. After excluding effects of taxonomy and environmental variables, these two functional groups differed considerably in nutrient regulation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018432/maize-inoculation-with-azospirillum-brasilense-ab-v5-cells-enriched-with-exopolysaccharides-and-polyhydroxybutyrate-results-in-high-productivity-under-low-n-fertilizer-input
#20
André L M Oliveira, Odair J A P Santos, Paulo R F Marcelino, Karina M L Milani, Mónica Y A Zuluaga, Claudemir Zucareli, Leandro S A Gonçalves
Although Azospirillum strains used in commercial inoculant formulations presents diazotrophic activity, it has been reported that their ability to produce phytohormones plays a pivotal role in plant growth-promotion, leading to a general recommendation of its use in association with regular N-fertilizer doses. In addition, a high variability in the effectiveness of Azospirillum inoculants is still reported under field conditions, contributing to the adoption of the inoculation technology as an additional management practice rather than its use as an alternative practice to the use of chemical inputs in agriculture...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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