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Jose M Diaz, M Shane Gadberry, Paul A Beck, John T Richeson, G Douglas Hufstedler, Don S Hubbell, John D Tucker, Tom Hess, Ky G Pohler
The objective of this study was to evaluate a combination of best management practices strategy for steer calves grazing tall fescue pastures with a range of toxicity. The experiment was conducted over two grazing seasons (fall 2015 for 91 days and spring 2016 for 84 days). Steers (n = 80 within season, BW = 197.0 ± 15.43 kg [fall] and 116.9 ± 4.88 [spring]) were stocked at 2.45 and 4.1 calves/hectare in fall and spring, respectively, to 16 pastures with varying levels of toxicity based on interim ergovaline (EV) concentration within season...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Fei Gao, Xue Wang, Xuming Li, Mingyue Xu, Huayun Li, Merhaba Abla, Huigai Sun, Shanjun Wei, Jinchao Feng, Yijun Zhou
Background: Ammopiptanthus nanus is a rare broad-leaved shrub in the desert and arid regions of Central Asia. This plant species exhibits extremely high tolerance to drought and freezing and has been used in abiotic tolerance research in plants. As a relic of the Tertiary period, A. nanus is of great significance to plant biogeographic research in the ancient Mediterranean region. Here we report a draft genome assembly using the PacBio platform and gene annotation for A. nanus. Findings: A total of 64...
June 18, 2018: GigaScience
Ning Jia, Yali Zhu, Fang Xie
Transient gene expression systems using protoplasts have been widely used for rapid functional characterization of genes and high-throughput analysis in many model and crop species. Here, we describe a simplified and highly efficient root protoplast isolation and transient expression system in the model legumes Lotus japonicus and Medicago truncatula. Firstly, we presented an efficient protocol for isolating protoplasts from L. japonicus and M. truncatula roots. We then established an efficient transient expression system in these legumes root protoplasts...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Dionisia Carballo, Guillermina Font, Emilia Ferrer, Houda Berrada
Simultaneous determination of twenty-seven mycotoxins in ready-to-eat food samples using “Quick Easy Cheap Rough and Safe” (QuEChERS) extraction and chromatographic methods coupled to mass spectrometry in tandem is described in this study. Mycotoxins included in this survey were aflatoxins (B₁, B₂, G₁, G₂), enniatins (A, A₁, B, B₁), beauvericin (BEA), fumonisins (FB₁, FB₂), sterigmatocystin (STG), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), neosolaniol (NEO), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), fusarenon-X (FUS-X), zearalenone (ZEA), α-zearalanol (αZAL), β-zearalenone (βZAL), α-zearalenol (αZOL), β-zearalenol (βzol), T2, and HT-2 toxin...
June 15, 2018: Toxins
Hossein Farhadnejad, Farshad Teymoori, Golaleh Asghari, Parvin Mirmiran, Fereidoun Azizi
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies indicate that the risk for diabetes associated with high consumption of potato differs in various populations. We aimed to investigate the associations between total, boiled and fried potato intake and the risk for incident diabetes in Tehranian adults. METHODS: This cohort study was conducted in 1,981 adults, aged 19 to 70 years, who participated in the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study and were followed up for 6 years. Usual dietary potato intakes were assessed using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire...
February 26, 2018: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
F K Gomes, M D B L Oliveira, B G C Homem, R M Boddey, T F Bernardes, M P Gionbelli, M A S Lara, D R Casagrande
Maintenance of mixed grass-legume pastures for stand longevity and improved animal utilization is a challenge in warm-season climates. The goal of this study was to assess grazing management on stand persistence, forage intake, and N balance of beef heifers grazing mixed pastures of Brachiaria brizantha and Arachis pintoi. A two-year experiment was carried out in Brazil, where four grazing management were assessed: rest period interrupted at 90%, 95%, and 100% of light interception (LI) and a fixed rest period of 42 days (90LI, 95LI, 100LI, and 42D, respectively)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Dušan Veličković, Beverly J Agtuca, Sylwia A Stopka, Akos Vertes, David W Koppenaal, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Gary Stacey, Christopher R Anderton
In this study, the three-dimensional spatial distributions of a number of metabolites involved in regulating symbiosis and biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) within soybean root nodules were revealed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (MALDI-MSI). While many metabolites exhibited distinct spatial compartmentalization, some metabolites were asymmetrically distributed throughout the nodule (e.g., S-adenosylmethionine). These results establish a more complex metabolic view of plant-bacteria symbiosis (and BNF) within soybean nodules than previously hypothesized...
June 13, 2018: ISME Journal
Ionara F Conterato, Maria Teresa Schifino-Wittmann, Divanilde Guerra, Miriam V Büttow, Miguel Dall' Agnol, Nair Dahmer
Trifolium polymorphum Poir. is an amphicarpic forage legume from southern Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay and Chile. Information on the genetic diversity of natural populations in natural grasslands in southern Brazil is limited. In order to increase the knowledge about this species, an analysis of the genetic diversity was carried out in 10 natural populations of T. polymorphum with the use of 20 microsatellite markers. The expected heterozygosity in T. polymorphum populations ranged from 0.40 to 0.43, with a mean of 0...
April 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Petra C Vinke, Eva Corpeleijn, Louise H Dekker, David R Jacobs, Gerjan Navis, Daan Kromhout
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Many diet quality scores exist, but fully food-based scores based on contemporary evidence are scarce. Our aim was to develop a food-based diet score based on international literature and examine its discriminative capacity and socio-demographic determinants. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Between 2006 and 2013, dietary intake of 129,369 participants of the Lifelines Cohort (42% male, 45 ± 13 years (range 18-93)) was assessed with a 110-item food frequency questionnaire...
June 12, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Sören Meyer, Mariya Markova, Gabriele Pohl, Talke A Marschall, Olga Pivovarova, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Tanja Schwerdtle
Multi-element determination in human samples is very challenging. Especially in human intervention studies sample volumes are often limited to a few microliters and due to the high number of samples a high-throughput is indispensable. Here, we present a state-of-the-art ICP-MS/MS-based method for the analysis of essential (trace) elements, namely Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mo, Se and I, as well as food-relevant toxic elements such as As and Cd. The developed method was validated regarding linearity of the calibration curves, method LODs and LOQs, selectivity and trueness as well as precision...
September 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Benoit Nemery, Célestin Banza Lubaba Nkulu
In this narrative account based on a keynote presentation on exposure biomonitoring of metals in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), we first briefly address practical issues that have arisen from our experience during the conduct of various surveys in LMIC. These have included the statistical handling of multiple pollutants in the same subject, the problem of correctly adjusting for urinary flow in spot samples of urine, and the possible external contamination of samples when doing field surveys in challenging environments...
June 9, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Sonia Mejri, Yassine Mabrouk, Omrane Belhadj, Mouldi Saidi
PURPOSE: Broomrape produces serious damage to many legume crops and particularly becomes a limiting factor for faba bean (Vicia faba L.) production in the Mediterranean basin. Currently, several traditional methods of control have been developed, but none has proved to be effective for this parasite. However, breeding for resistance to this pest remains as one of the most feasible and environmentally friendly methods for managing broomrape, but the mechanisms governing the interaction between the parasite and the host are not yet well understood...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Biology
Conor P Kerley
Evidence supporting the role of nutrition in heart failure (HF) incidence and severity is growing. A comprehensive search of online databases was conducted using relevant keywords to identify human studies including diet and HF. Several plant-based diets have consistently been associated with decreased HF incidence and severity, notably the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Mediterranean diets. Several other plant-based dietary patterns, including low-fat diets and the rice diet, also show promise...
May 2018: Cardiac failure review
Naveed Ahmad, Salim Ur-Rehman, Muhammad Asim Shabbir, Abdullah, Muhammad Asif Shehzad, Zia Ud-Din, Thomas H Roberts
Durum wheat semolina (DWS) can be enriched with legume flours to produce more nutritious but high-quality pasta. DWS was substituted with detoxified matri ( Lathyrus sativus ) flour (DMF) at 5-25%, which in spaghetti increased the levels of protein, lipid, fibre and ash but decreased nitrogen-free extract. Water absorption, arrival time and dough development time increased from 63.1 to 69.2%, 1.7 to 2.4 and 2.3 to 3.3 min, respectively, while dough stability, consistency and tolerance index decreased. DMF addition increased cooking loss (4...
June 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Shweta Singh, Nikhil Ram Kumar, R Maniraj, R Lakshmikanth, K Y S Rao, N Muralimohan, T Arulprakash, K Karthik, N B Shashibhushan, T Vinutha, Debasis Pattanayak, Prasanta K Dash, P Ananda Kumar, Rohini Sreevathsa
Pigeon pea is an important legume infested by a plethora of insect pests amongst which gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera is very prominent. Imparting resistance to this insect herbivore is of global importance in attaining food security. Expression of insecticidal crystal proteins (ICP) in diverse crops has led to increased resistance to several pests. We report in this paper, expression of Cry2Aa in transgenic pigeon pea and its effectiveness towards H. armigera by employing Agrobacterium-mediated in planta transformation approach...
June 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Camille Clerissi, Marie Touchon, Delphine Capela, Mingxing Tang, Stéphane Cruveiller, Matthew A Parker, Lionel Moulin, Catherine Masson-Boivin, Eduardo P C Rocha
The emergence of symbiotic interactions has been studied using population genomics in nature and experimental evolution in the laboratory, but the parallels between these processes remain unknown. Here we compare the emergence of rhizobia after the horizontal transfer of a symbiotic plasmid in natural populations of Cupriavidus taiwanensis, over 10 MY ago, with the experimental evolution of symbiotic Ralstonia solanacearum for a few hundred generations. In spite of major differences in terms of time span, environment, genetic background, and phenotypic achievement, both processes resulted in rapid genetic diversification dominated by purifying selection...
June 11, 2018: Nature Communications
Pauline F D Scheelbeek, Frances A Bird, Hanna L Tuomisto, Rosemary Green, Francesca B Harris, Edward J M Joy, Zaid Chalabi, Elizabeth Allen, Andy Haines, Alan D Dangour
Environmental changes threaten agricultural production, food security, and health. Previous reviews suggest that environmental changes will substantially affect future yields of starchy dietary staples. To date, no comprehensive global analysis of the impacts of environmental change on (nonstaple) vegetables and legumes-important constituents of healthy diets-has been reported. We systematically searched for articles published between 1975 and 2016 on the effects of ambient temperature, tropospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ), and ozone (O3 ) concentrations, water availability, and salinization on yields and nutritional quality of vegetables and legumes...
June 11, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Saeideh Tabibian, Elnaz Daneshzad, Nick Bellissimo, Neil R Brett, Ahmad R Dorosty-Motlagh, Leila Azadbakht
AIM: To investigate the association between adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet with food security and weight status in adult women. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in 227 women-20-50 years of age-who were referred from 10 health centres. Dietary intakes were assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires. The DASH score was calculated using the Fung method based on eight food and nutrient components (high intake of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, nuts and legumes, low-fat dairy, low intakes of red and processed meats, sweetened beverages and sodium)...
June 10, 2018: Nutrition & Dietetics: the Journal of the Dietitians Association of Australia
Jianwei Lv, Nian Liu, Jianbin Guo, Zhijun Xu, Xinping Li, Zhendong Li, Huaiyong Luo, Xiaoping Ren, Li Huang, Xiaojing Zhou, Yuning Chen, Weigang Chen, Yong Lei, Jinxing Tu, Huifang Jiang, Boshou Liao
The peanut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important grain legume extensively cultivated worldwide, supplying edible oil and protein for human consumption. As in many other crops, plant height is a crucial factor in determining peanut architecture traits and has a unique effect on resistance to lodging and efficiency of mechanized harvesting as well as yield. Currently, the genetic basis underlying plant height remains unclear in peanut, which have hampered marker-assisted selection in breeding. In this study, we conducted a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis for peanut plant height by using two recombinant inbred line (RIL) populations including "Yuanza 9102 × Xuzhou 68-4 (YX)" and "Xuhua 13 × Zhonghua 6 (XZ)"...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ophelia Osei, Robert C Abaidoo, Benjamin D K Ahiabor, Robert M Boddey, Luc F M Rouws
The identification of locally-adapted rhizobia for effective inoculation of grain legumes in Africa's semiarid regions is strategic for developing and optimizing cheap nitrogen fixation technologies for smallholder farmers. This study was aimed at selecting and characterising effective native rhizobia, from Ghanaian soils for groundnut ( Arachis hypogaea L.) inoculation. From surface-disinfected root nodules of cowpea and groundnut plants grown on farmers' fields, 150 bacterial isolates were obtained, 30 of which were eventually found to nodulate groundnut plants...
June 2018: Applied Soil Ecology: a Section of Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
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