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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214450/in-silico-structural-and-functional-analysis-of-mesorhizobium-acc-deaminase
#1
Krishnendu Pramanik, Tithi Soren, Soumik Mitra, Tushar Kanti Maiti
Nodulation is one of the very important processes of legume plants as it is the initiating event of fixing nitrogen. Although ethylene has essential role in normal plant metabolism but it has also negative impact on plants particularly in nodule formation in legume plants. It is also produced due to a variety of biotic or abiotic stresses. 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase is a rhizobial enzyme which cleaves ACC (immediate precursor of ethylene) into α-ketobutyrate and ammonia. As a result, the level of ethylene from the plant cells is decreased and the negative impact of ethylene on nodule formation is reduced...
February 11, 2017: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214058/phylogenetic-multilocus-sequence-analysis-of-indigenous-slow-growing-rhizobia-nodulating-cowpea-vigna-unguiculata-l-in-greece
#2
Anastasia P Tampakaki, Christos T Fotiadis, Georgia Ntatsi, Dimitrios Savvas
Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a promiscuous grain legume, capable of establishing efficient symbiosis with diverse symbiotic bacteria, mainly slow-growing rhizobial species belonging to the genus Bradyrhizobium. Although much research has been done on cowpea-nodulating bacteria in various countries around the world, little is known about the genetic and symbiotic diversity of indigenous cowpea rhizobia in European soils. In the present study, the genetic and symbiotic diversity of indigenous rhizobia isolated from field-grown cowpea nodules in three geographically different Greek regions were studied...
February 2, 2017: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213038/hydrolysate-from-a-mixture-of-legume-flours-with-antifungal-activity-as-an-ingredient-for-prolonging-the-shelf-life-of-wheat-bread
#3
Carlo Giuseppe Rizzello, Michela Verni, Stefano Bordignon, Valerio Gramaglia, Marco Gobbetti
Aiming at identifying antifungal compounds from plant matrices to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, a water/salt-soluble extract (WSE) was produced from a legume enzyme hydrolysate, consisting of a mixture of pea, lentil, and faba bean flours, and assayed towards Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. Agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the optimal processing conditions for hydrolysis. As shown by hyphal radial growth rate, the inhibition was observed towards several fungi, including Aspergillus parasiticus CBS971...
June 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211601/biogeography-of-nodulated-legumes-and-their-nitrogen-fixing-symbionts
#4
REVIEW
Janet I Sprent, Julie Ardley, Euan K James
Contents I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. VIII. References SUMMARY: In the last decade, analyses of both molecular and morphological characters, including nodulation, have led to major changes in our understanding of legume taxonomy. In parallel there has been an explosion in the number of genera and species of rhizobia known to nodulate legumes. No attempt has been made to link these two sets of data or to consider them in a biogeographical context. This review aims to do this by relating the data to the evolution of the two partners: it highlights both longitudinal and latitudinal trends and considers these in relation to the location of major land masses over geological time...
February 17, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205235/differences-in-the-nutrient-concentrations-in-vitro-methanogenic-potential-and-other-fermentative-traits-of-tropical-grasses-and-legumes-for-beef-production-systems-in-northern-australia
#5
Zoey Durmic, Carlos A Ramírez-Restrepo, Chris Gardiner, Christopher J O'Neill, Eman Hussein, Phillip E Vercoe
BACKGROUND: In northern Australia, beef cattle grazed extensively on tropical rangelands are responsible for 5 % of the nation's total greenhouse gas emissions. Methane (CH4 ) is a potent greenhouse gas and in grazing ruminants might be mitigated by selecting forages that, when consumed, produce less CH4 when fermented by rumen microbes. This study examined variability in the in vitro fermentation patterns including CH4 production of selected tropical grasses and legumes to identify candidates for CH4 mitigation in grazing livestock in northern Australia...
February 16, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203240/experimental-air-warming-of-a-stylosanthes-capitata-vogel-dominated-tropical-pasture-affects-soil-respiration-and-nitrogen-dynamics
#6
Miquel A Gonzalez-Meler, Lais B C Silva, Eduardo Dias-De-Oliveira, Charles E Flower, Carlos A Martinez
Warming due to global climate change is predicted to reach 2°C in tropical latitudes. There is an alarming paucity of information regarding the effects of air temperature on tropical agroecosystems, including foraging pastures. Here, we investigated the effects of a 2°C increase in air temperature over ambient for 30 days on an established tropical pasture (Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo, Brazil) dominated by the legume Stylosanthes capitata Vogel, using a T-FACE (temperature free-air controlled enhancement) system...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199080/characterization-of-cyp115-as-a-gibberellin-3-oxidase-indicates-that-certain-rhizobia-can-produce-bioactive-gibberellin-a4
#7
Ryan S Nett, Tiffany Contreras, Reuben J Peters
The gibberellin (GA) phytohormones are produced not only by plants but also by fungi and bacteria. Previous characterization of a cytochrome P450 (CYP)-rich GA biosynthetic operon found in many symbiotic, nitrogen-fixing rhizobia led to the elucidation of bacterial GA biosynthesis and implicated GA9 as the final product. However, GA9 does not exhibit hormonal/biological activity and presumably requires further transformation to elicit an effect in the legume host plant. Some rhizobia that contain the GA operon also possess an additional CYP (CYP115), and here we show that this acts as a GA 3-oxidase to produce bioactive GA4 from GA9...
February 16, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197647/the-overproduction-of-indole-3-acetic-acid-iaa-in-endophytes-upregulates-nitrogen-fixation-in-both-bacterial-cultures-and-inoculated-rice-plants
#8
Roberto Defez, Anna Andreozzi, Carmen Bianco
Endophytic bacteria from roots and leaves of rice plants were isolated and identified in order to select the diazotrophs and improve their nitrogen-fixing abilities. The nitrogen-fixing endophytes were identified by PCR amplification of the nifH gene fragment. For this purpose, two isolates, Enterobacter cloacae RCA25 and Klebsiella variicola RCA26, and two model bacteria (Herbaspirillum seropedicae z67 and Sinorhizobium fredii NGR234) were transformed to increase the biosynthesis of the main plant auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA)...
February 14, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197163/quinolizidine-alkaloid-biosynthesis-in-lupins-and-prospects-for-grain-quality-improvement
#9
REVIEW
Karen M Frick, Lars G Kamphuis, Kadambot H M Siddique, Karam B Singh, Rhonda C Foley
Quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) are toxic secondary metabolites found within the genus Lupinus, some species of which are commercially important grain legume crops including Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, NLL), L. luteus (yellow lupin), L. albus (white lupin), and L. mutabilis (pearl lupin), with NLL grain being the most largely produced of the four species in Australia and worldwide. While QAs offer the plants protection against insect pests, the accumulation of QAs in lupin grain complicates its use for food purposes as QA levels must remain below the industry threshold (0...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197154/cowpea-and-groundnut-haulms-fodder-trading-and-its-lessons-for-multidimensional-cowpea-improvement-for-mixed-crop-livestock-systems-in-west-africa
#10
Anandan Samireddypalle, Ousmane Boukar, Elaine Grings, Christian A Fatokun, Prasad Kodukula, Ravi Devulapalli, Iheanacho Okike, Michael Blümmel
Cowpea is an important legume crop in Africa, valued highly for its grain and also haulms, which are a tradable commodity in fodder markets. Fodder market surveys in Northern Nigeria showed that groundnut haulms were priced higher than cowpea haulms, probably because of their superior nutritive value. The economic value of haulms has prompted cowpea breeders and livestock nutritionists to explore haulm fodder traits as additional selection and breeding criteria. Fifty cowpea genotypes cultivated across five locations in Nigeria in 2013 and 2014 were evaluated for food fodder traits...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194158/role-and-regulation-of-acc-deaminase-gene-in-sinorhizobium-meliloti-is-it-a-symbiotic-rhizospheric-or-endophytic-gene
#11
Alice Checcucci, Elisa Azzarello, Marco Bazzicalupo, Anna De Carlo, Giovanni Emiliani, Stefano Mancuso, Giulia Spini, Carlo Viti, Alessio Mengoni
Plant-associated bacteria exhibit a number of different strategies and specific genes allow bacteria to communicate and metabolically interact with plant tissues. Among the genes found in the genomes of plant-associated bacteria, the gene encoding the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase (acdS) is one of the most diffused. This gene is supposed to be involved in the cleaving of plant-produced ACC, the precursor of the plant stress-hormone ethylene toning down the plant response to infection...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193168/genome-wide-snp-identification-linkage-map-construction-and-qtl-mapping-for-seed-mineral-concentrations-and-contents-in-pea-pisum-sativum-l
#12
Yu Ma, Clarice J Coyne, Michael A Grusak, Michael Mazourek, Peng Cheng, Dorrie Main, Rebecca J McGee
BACKGROUND: Marker-assisted breeding is now routinely used in major crops to facilitate more efficient cultivar improvement. This has been significantly enabled by the use of next-generation sequencing technology to identify loci and markers associated with traits of interest. While rich in a range of nutritional components, such as protein, mineral nutrients, carbohydrates and several vitamins, pea (Pisum sativum L.), one of the oldest domesticated crops in the world, remains behind many other crops in the availability of genomic and genetic resources...
February 13, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192540/transcriptome-analysis-of-two-recombinant-inbred-lines-of-common-bean-contrasting-for-symbiotic-nitrogen-fixation
#13
Kelvin Kamfwa, Dongyan Zhao, James D Kelly, Karen A Cichy
Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) fixes atmospheric nitrogen (N2) through symbiotic nitrogen fixation (SNF) at levels lower than other grain legume crops. An understanding of the genes and molecular mechanisms underlying SNF will enable more effective strategies for the genetic improvement of SNF traits in common bean. In this study, transcriptome profiling was used to identify genes and molecular mechanisms underlying SNF differences between two common bean recombinant inbred lines that differed in their N-fixing abilities...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188654/dry-matter-yield-chemical-composition-and-estimated-extractable-protein-of-legume-and-grass-species-during-the-spring-growth
#14
Zeinab Solati, Uffe Jørgensen, Jørgen Eriksen, Karen Søegaard
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of the variation of extractable protein amount in legumes and grasses as affected by harvest time is important for identifying optimal combinations to enable a high protein production in a bioefinery. The extractability of protein was estimated using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System across six harvests during the spring growth. RESULTS: The estimated extractable protein (g CP kg(-1) DM) defined as the easily available fractions B1 +B2 was significantly higher in white clover and lucerne at all harvests whilst if the more cell wall attached fraction B3 can be extracted, white clover had the highest extractable protein amongst all species...
February 11, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187365/low-glycemic-load-diets-protect-against-metabolic-syndrome-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-the-male-nile-rat
#15
Julia Bolsinger, Michelle Landstrom, Andrzej Pronczuk, Andrew Auerbach, K C Hayes
BACKGROUND: Dietary modification helps prevent and manage Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) in humans and Nile rats. Specifically fibrous legumes, like lentils, benefit humans, but whether this reflects a specific change in the Glycemic Load (GLoad) remains controversial. Accordingly, low-GLoad foods were tested in the glucose-sensitive Nile rat. METHODS: 131 male Nile rats aged 3 weeks to 15 months were challenged during four experiments with 15 dietary exposures that varied Glycemic Index (GI, 36-88), GLoad (102-305/2000 kcal), and cumulative GLoad (Cum GLoad=days×GLoad, 181-537g total glucose)...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183449/consumption-of-red-and-processed-meat-and-refined-grains-for-4weeks-decreases-insulin-sensitivity-in-insulin-resistant-adults-a-randomized-crossover-study
#16
Yoona Kim, Jennifer B Keogh, Peter M Clifton
BACKGROUND: Red and processed meat and refined grains are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Interventions are limited. We hypothesized that a diet high in red and processed meat and refined grains (HMD) would decrease insulin sensitivity compared to a diet high in whole grains, nuts, dairy and legumes with no red meat (HWD). METHODS: Forty-nine subjects without diabetes [15 men and 34 women, age, 35.6±15.7 years, body mass index (BMI), 27±5...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182297/cowpea-a-legume-crop-for-a-challenging-environment
#17
REVIEW
Márcia Carvalho, Teresa Lino-Neto, Eduardo Rosa, Valdemar Carnide
Cowpea is a grain legume native from Africa and is a primary source of protein for millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the developing world. The main important characteristics of this crop include the good protein quality with a high nutritional value, the nitrogen-fixing ability, and be more drought- and heat-tolerant than most of its legume relatives. In a research perspective, the studies with cowpea are relatively scarce, despite its relevance to agriculture in the developing world and its resilience to stress...
February 9, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179224/dietary-protein-is-associated-with-musculoskeletal-health-independently-of-dietary-pattern-the-framingham-third-generation-study
#18
Kelsey M Mangano, Shivani Sahni, Douglas P Kiel, Katherine L Tucker, Alyssa B Dufour, Marian T Hannan
Background: Above-average dietary protein, as a single nutrient, improves musculoskeletal health. Evaluating the link between dietary protein and musculoskeletal health from a whole-diet perspective is important, as dietary guidelines focus on dietary patterns.Objective: We examined the prospective association of novel dietary protein food clusters (derived from established dietary pattern techniques) with appendicular lean mass (ALM), quadriceps strength (QS), and bone mineral density (BMD) in 2986 men and women, aged 19-72 y, from the Framingham Third Generation Study...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177395/influence-of-cow-breed-type-age-and-previous-lactation-status-on-cow-height-calf-growth-and-patterns-of-body-weight-condition-and-blood-metabolites-for-cows-grazing-bahiagrass-pastures
#19
S W Coleman, C C Chase, D G Riley, M J Williams
This study was initiated to evaluate performance and patterns of cow traits and blood metabolites of 3 breeds of cows grazing bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge) pastures in central Florida. Purebred cows (n = 411) of either Angus (Bos taurus), Brahman (Bos indicus), or Romosinuano (Bos taurus) breeding, rotationally grazed (moved twice weekly) bahiagrass pastures year-round, and received bahiagrass hay supplemented with molasses and soyhulls or legume hay supplemented with unfortified molasses from October to June each production year...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169546/colloidal-vesicular-system-of-inositol-hexaphosphate-to-counteract-dmba-induced-dysregulation-of-markers-pertaining-to-cellular-proliferation-differentiation-and-inflammation-of-epidermal-layer-in-mouse-model
#20
Malti Arya, Prakash Tiwari, Chandra Bhushan Tripathi, Poonam Parashar, Mahendra Singh, Priyam Sinha, Narayan P Yadav, Gaurav Kaithwas, Krishna P Gupta, Shubhini A Saraf
Cancer is a global health problem and chemoprevention is a promising approach for reducing cancer burden. Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), a natural bioactive constituent of cereals, legumes etc., has momentous potential as an antiangiogenic agent, that specifically affects malignant cells. The shortcoming is its quick absorption on oral/ topical administration. Niosomes are flexible carriers for topical drug delivery. The central venture of current research was to optimize and characterize niosomal delivery system of IP6 for treatment of skin cancer...
February 7, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
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