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Andrei Stefan, Jannick Van Cauwenberghe, Craita M Rosu, Catalina Stedel, Nikolaos E Labrou, Emmanouil Flemetakis, Rodica C Efrose
The identification and conservation of indigenous rhizobia associated with legume plants and their application as biofertilizers is becoming an agricultural worldwide priority. However, little is known about the genetic diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia in Romania. In the present study, the genetic diversity and population composition of Rhizobium leguminosarum symbiovar trifolii isolates from 12 clover plants populations located across two regions in Romania were analyzed. Red clover isolates were phenotypically evaluated and genotyped by sequencing 16S rRNA gene, 16S-23S intergenic spacer, three chromosomal genes (atpD, glnII and recA) and two plasmid genes (nifH and nodA)...
February 3, 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Ana Claudia Flores, Virginia Dalla Via, Virginia Savy, Ulises Mancini Villagra, María Eugenia Zanetti, Flavio Blanco
BACKGROUND: Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches in several processes that involve polar cell growth, participating mainly in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton rearrangements. This gene superfamily has largely expanded in plants through evolution as compared with other Kingdoms, leading to the suggestion that members of each subfamily might have acquired new functions associated to plant-specific processes. Legume plants engage in a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction with rhizobia in a process that involves polar growth processes associated with the infection throughout the root hair...
February 16, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Issa Diédhiou, Diaga Diouf
Root endosymbioses are mutualistic interactions between plants and the soil microorganisms (Fungus, Frankia or Rhizobium) that lead to the formation of nitrogen-fixing root nodules and/or arbuscular mycorrhiza. These interactions enable many species to survive in different marginal lands to overcome the nitrogen-and/or phosphorus deficient environment and can potentially reduce the chemical fertilizers used in agriculture which gives them an economic, social and environmental importance. The formation and the development of these structures require the mediation of specific gene products among which the transcription factors play a key role...
February 15, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Nicolas Carton, Christophe Naudin, Guillaume Piva, Rim Baccar, Guénaëlle Corre-Hellou
Early strategies of crop growth and N acquisition can be critical for determining competitive interactions between weeds and crops. Grain legumes and especially lupins are known to be poor competitors against weeds. Grain legumes are known to have low mineral soil N uptake abilities. However, inter- and intraspecific differences in N uptake ability in relation to below-ground traits have received little attention. Our objectives were (i) to measure differences among lupins for a set of traits associated with early growth and N acquisition; (ii) to examine how this variation compares to differences between lupin and a cereal, triticale, and (iii) to assess if mixing lupin with triticale provides a higher potential than does pure lupin regarding plant biomass and mineral soil N acquisition early in the crop cycle...
February 2018: AoB Plants
Adriana Monge, Martín Lajous, Eduardo Ortiz-Panozo, Beatriz L Rodríguez, José Juan Góngora, Ruy López-Ridaura
BACKGROUND: Research has found that diet and dietary patterns are associated with blood pressure and hypertension. Limited research in this area has been conducted in a Mexican population. METHODS: We investigated the relation between dietary patterns (principal component analysis) and the incidence of self-reported treated hypertension in 62,913 women from the Mexican Teachers' Cohort, a large population-based cohort of female Mexican teachers, who were free of hypertension at baseline in 2006-2008 when diet was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire...
February 14, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Adnan Šišić, Jelena Baćanović-Šišić, Petr Karlovsky, Raphaël Wittwer, Florian Walder, Enio Campiglia, Emanuele Radicetti, Hanna Friberg, Jörg Peter Baresel, Maria R Finckh
Leguminous cover crop and living mulch species show not only great potential for providing multiple beneficial services to agro-ecosystems, but may also present pathological risks for other crops in rotations through shared pathogens, especially those of the genus Fusarium. Disease severity on roots of subterranean clover, white clover, winter and summer vetch grown as cover crop and living mulch species across five European sites as well as the frequency, distribution and aggressiveness to pea of Fusarium spp...
2018: PloS One
Faqiang Wu, Yoshie Hanzawa
Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is an important crop species and has become a legume model for the studies of genetic and biochemical pathways. Therefore, it is important to establish an efficient transient gene expression system in soybean. Here, we report a simple protocol for the preparation of soybean protoplasts and its application for transient functional analyses. We found that young unifoliate leaves from soybean seedlings resulted in large quantities of high quality protoplasts. By optimizing a PEG-calcium-mediated transformation method, we achieved high transformation efficiency using soybean unifoliate protoplasts...
January 25, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Humeera M Mulla, Nupura Vibhute, Rajendra Baad, N D Shashikiran, Mustaq Parker, R C Parmod, Uzma Belgaumi, Vidya Kadashetti, Sushma Bommanawar
Introduction: Foreign bodies and tissue reactions to foreign materials are commonly encountered in the oral cavity. Exogenous materials causing foreign body reactions may be metallic (amalgam) or nonmetallic (suture materials, vegetable matter). Implantation of food particles in the oral tissues has been known to cause reactive lesions such as oral pulse granuloma. Implantation could be through extraction sockets, deep periodontal pockets, associated with tumor growth, interdental areas of teeth, unfilled root canals, and grossly decayed teeth...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Dental Research: Official Publication of Indian Society for Dental Research
Eric J B von Wettberg, Peter L Chang, Fatma Başdemir, Noelia Carrasquila-Garcia, Lijalem Balcha Korbu, Susan M Moenga, Gashaw Bedada, Alex Greenlon, Ken S Moriuchi, Vasantika Singh, Matilde A Cordeiro, Nina V Noujdina, Kassaye Negash Dinegde, Syed Gul Abbas Shah Sani, Tsegaye Getahun, Lisa Vance, Emily Bergmann, Donna Lindsay, Bullo Erena Mamo, Emily J Warschefsky, Emmanuel Dacosta-Calheiros, Edward Marques, Mustafa Abdullah Yilmaz, Ahmet Cakmak, Janna Rose, Andrew Migneault, Christopher P Krieg, Sevgi Saylak, Hamdi Temel, Maren L Friesen, Eleanor Siler, Zhaslan Akhmetov, Huseyin Ozcelik, Jana Kholova, Canan Can, Pooran Gaur, Mehmet Yildirim, Hari Sharma, Vincent Vadez, Kassahun Tesfaye, Asnake Fikre Woldemedhin, Bunyamin Tar'an, Abdulkadir Aydogan, Bekir Bukun, R Varma Penmetsa, Jens Berger, Abdullah Kahraman, Sergey V Nuzhdin, Douglas R Cook
Domesticated species are impacted in unintended ways during domestication and breeding. Changes in the nature and intensity of selection impart genetic drift, reduce diversity, and increase the frequency of deleterious alleles. Such outcomes constrain our ability to expand the cultivation of crops into environments that differ from those under which domestication occurred. We address this need in chickpea, an important pulse legume, by harnessing the diversity of wild crop relatives. We document an extreme domestication-related genetic bottleneck and decipher the genetic history of wild populations...
February 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Elena S George, Adrienne Forsyth, Catherine Itsiopoulos, Amanda J Nicoll, Marno Ryan, Siddharth Sood, Stuart K Roberts, Audrey C Tierney
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide. In the absence of effective pharmacotherapies, clinical guidelines focus primarily on weight loss to treat this condition. Established consensus, evidence-based, and clinical dietary recommendations for NAFLD are currently lacking. The aim of this paper is to provide evidence-based practical dietary recommendations for the prevention and management of NAFLD in adults. A literature review focusing on established principles for the development of clinical practice recommendations was employed using the following criteria: based on substantial evidence, ensures risk minimization, is flexible for an individual patient approach, and is open to further modification as evidence emerges...
January 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Satsuki Une, Koji Nonaka, Junich Akiyama
In this study, we investigated the chemical and biological profile of lectin isolated from Japanese red sword beans (Canavalia gladiata; RSBs). RSB lectin was purified using maltamyl-Sepharose 4B and subjected to amino acid composition and partial amino acid sequencing analyses, and evaluated for blood and carbohydrate specificity, mitogenic activity, splenic natural killer (NK) cell activity, and its effect on B16 melanoma cell proliferation, compared with Concanavalin A (Con A). The amino acid composition and sequences of RSB lectin were similar to those of Con A...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Ping Li, Yanxia Zhang, Xuexia Wu, Yujiao Liu
Water scarcity is a major abiotic stress factor that strongly influences growth, development and yield of grain legumes in arid and semi-arid area of the world. Drought stress frequently occurs during the seedling stage and finally affects yield of faba bean (Vicia faba L.). However, the responses of plant leaf to drought have not been documented very well at the proteomic level. "Ga da dou" of the drought-tolerant faba bean cultivar was exposed to drought to examine the proteome changes of leaves. In this study, 2-week-old seedlings were subjected to water deficit by 7 days drought stress, whereas control plants were regularly irrigated...
February 2018: 3 Biotech
Dalila Ribeiro Rodrigues, Aleksandro Ferreira da Silva, Maria Idaline Pessoa Cavalcanti, Indra Elena Costa Escobar, Ana Carla Resende Fraiz, Paula Rose de Almeida Ribeiro, Reginaldo Alves Ferreira Neto, Ana Dolores Santiago de Freitas, Paulo Ivan Fernandes-Júnior
Erythrina velutina ("mulungu") is a legume tree from Caatinga that associates with rhizobia but the diversity and symbiotic ability of "mulungu" rhizobia are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to characterize "mulungu" rhizobia from Caatinga. Bacteria were obteined from Serra Talhada and Caruaru in Caatinga under natural regeneration. The bacteria were evaluated to the amplification of nifH and nodC and to metabolic characteristics. Ten selected bacteria identified by 16S rRNA sequences. They were tested in vitro to NaCl and temperature tolerance, auxin production and calcium phosphate solubilization...
February 2, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Lanfen Wang, Jifeng Zhu, Xiaoming Li, Shumin Wang, Jing Wu
Mung bean and adzuki bean are warm-season legumes widely cultivated in China. However, bean production in major producing regions is limited by biotic and abiotic stress, such as drought and salt stress. Basic leucine zipper (bZIP) genes play key roles in responses to various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, only several bZIP genes involved in drought and salt stress in legumes, especially Vigna radiata and Vigna angularis, have been identified. In this study, we identified 54 and 50 bZIP proteins from whole-genome sequences of V...
February 6, 2018: Gene
Crystal Sweetman, Kathleen L Soole, Colin L D Jenkins, David A Day
Mitochondria isolated from chickpea (Cicer arietinum) possess substantial alternative oxidase (AOX) activity, even in non-stressed plants, and one or two AOX protein bands were detected immunologically, depending on the organ. Four different AOX isoforms were identified in the chickpea genome: CaAOX1 and CaAOX2A, B and D. CaAOX2A was the most highly expressed form and was strongly expressed in photosynthetic tissues, while CaAOX2D was found in all organs examined. These results are very similar to those of previous studies with soybean and siratro (Kearns et al...
February 9, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Victor J Pahua, Peter J N Stokes, Amanda C Hollowell, John U Regus, Kelsey A Gano-Cohen, Camille E Wendlandt, Kenjiro W Quides, Jonathan Y Lyu, Joel L Sachs
Legumes can preferentially select beneficial rhizobial symbionts and sanction ineffective strains that fail to fix nitrogen. Yet paradoxically, rhizobial populations vary from highly beneficial to ineffective in natural and agricultural soils. Classic models of symbiosis focus on the single dimension of symbiont cost-benefit to sympatric hosts, but fail to explain the widespread persistence of ineffective rhizobia. Here we test a novel framework predicting that spatio-temporal and community dynamics can maintain ineffective strains in rhizobial populations...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Anna Abrahão, Megan H Ryan, Etienne Laliberté, Rafael S Oliveira, Hans Lambers
During long-term ecosystem development and its associated decline in soil phosphorus (P) availability, the abundance of mycorrhizal plant species declines at the expense of non-mycorrhizal species with root specialisations for P-acquisition, such as massive exudation of carboxylates. Leaf manganese (Mn) concentration has been suggested as a proxy for such a strategy, Mn concentration being higher in non-mycorrhizal plants that release carboxylates than in mycorrhizal plants. Shifts in nitrogen (N)-acquisition strategies also occur; nodulation in legumes is expected at low N availability, when sufficient P is available...
February 8, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Mohamed F Azzazy
A palynological study of samples collected from the Tell el-Daba'a (Avaris) archaeological site, the capital of the Hyksos located in the Northeastern Nile Delta, Egypt, was conducted. A range of samples were analyzed for pollen content: mudbricks from tomb walls dating from the Middle (cal. 2124-1778 BC) and New Kingdom ages (cal. 1550-1750 BC), kitchen remains dating from the Middle Kingdom, kitchen middens from the 19th Dynasty (cal. 1750-1058 BC), and tomb offering jars from the Late Period (cal.1000-600 BC)...
2018: PloS One
Hamida Beghalem, Khadidja Aliliche, Ahmed Landoulsi
In legumes, LysM domains of receptors-like kinases (RLKs) mediate rhizobial NFs perception; which are required for infection and establishment of symbiosis without triggering the host immune response. In this study, we identify the LysM extracellular domain sequences of putative Sulla species Nod factor receptors (S. pallida, S. capitata and S. coronaria). The Blast search displayed high identity percentages with genes encoding LjNFR5-like of several legumes. Phylogenetic trees were built using the partial nod factor receptor and predicted amino acid sequences, which grouped Sulla in a separate clade...
February 1, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Angeliki Galeou, Andreas Roussis, Anastasia Prombona
The circadian clock is crucial for the synchronization of an organism's physiology and metabolism with the geophysical time. In plants, previous work on the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) has identified various differing aspects of clock function compared to the widely studied Arabidopsis thaliana clock. However, transformation of legumes for the study of the circadian clock regulatory mechanisms is extremely laborious. In the present work, we describe an easy-to-follow and rapid method of preparing bean leaf protoplasts with high transformation potential and a functional circadian clock...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
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