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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445585/c-type-starches-and-their-derivatives-structure-and-function
#1
REVIEW
Zebin Guo, Xiangze Jia, Beibei Zhao, Shaoxiao Zeng, Jianbo Xiao, Baodong Zheng
The C-type starches are widely distributed in seeds or rhizomes of various legumes, medicinal plants, and crops. These carbohydrate polymers directly affect the application of starchy plant resources. The structural and crystal properties of starches are crucial parameters of starch granules, which significantly influence their physicochemical and mechanical properties. The unique crystal structure consisting of both A- and B-type polymorphs endows C-type starches with specific crystal adjustability. Furthermore, large proportions of resistant starches and slowly digestible starches are C-type starches, which contribute to benign glycemic response and proliferation of gut microflora...
April 26, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441038/phytoextraction-of-nitrogen-and-phosphorus-by-crops-grown-in-a-heavily-manured-dark-brown-chernozem-under-contrasting-soil-moisture-conditions
#2
Ikechukwu Agomoh, Xiying Hao, Francis Zvomuya
Repeated uptake of excess nutrients by crops in soils with a long history of manure application may be a viable option for reducing the nutrient levels. In this greenhouse study, we examined the effectiveness of six 40-day cycles of barley, canola, corn, oat, pea, soybean, and triticale, all grown under two moisture regimes (100% and 50% soil field capacity, SFC), at extracting nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from a Dark Brown Chernozem that had received 180 Mg ha(-1) (wet wt.) of beef cattle feedlot manure annually for 38 years...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439863/large-scale-phenotyping-of-root-traits-in-the-model-legume-lotus-japonicus
#3
Marco Giovannetti, Anna Małolepszy, Christian Göschl, Wolfgang Busch
Plants are sessile organisms that can tune their body architecture to the environment. This is very pronounced in their root system. In particular, nutrient availability strongly influences the architecture of the root system; depending on the abundance of specific nutrients, root growth rates and lateral root number are modulated. The extent of these effects is important for plant adaptation and has a major impact on plant fitness. However, the assessment of quantitative effects on a scale large enough for identifying genes and variants using quantitative genetics is difficult, and well-developed methods have been largely restricted to the model species Arabidopsis thaliana...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439854/user-guide-for-the-lore1-insertion-mutant-resource
#4
Terry Mun, Anna Małolepszy, Niels Sandal, Jens Stougaard, Stig U Andersen
Lotus japonicus is a model legume used in the study of plant-microbe interactions, especially in the field of biological nitrogen fixation due to its ability to enter into a symbiotic relationship with a soil bacterium, Mesorhizobium loti. The LORE1 mutant population is a valuable resource for reverse genetics in L. japonicus due to its non-transgenic nature, high tagging efficiency, and low copy count. Here, we outline a workflow for identifying, ordering, and establishing homozygous LORE1 mutant lines for a gene of interest, LjFls2, including protocols for growth and genotyping of a segregating LORE1 population...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438996/morphotype-of-bacteroids-in-different-legumes-correlates-with-the-number-and-type-of-symbiotic-ncr-peptides
#5
Jesús Montiel, J Allan Downie, Attila Farkas, Péter Bihari, Róbert Herczeg, Balázs Bálint, Peter Mergaert, Attila Kereszt, Éva Kondorosi
In legume nodules, rhizobia differentiate into nitrogen-fixing forms called bacteroids, which are enclosed by a plant membrane in an organelle-like structure called the symbiosome. In the Inverted Repeat-Lacking Clade (IRLC) of legumes, this differentiation is terminal due to irreversible loss of cell division ability and is associated with genome amplification and different morphologies of the bacteroids that can be swollen, elongated, spherical, and elongated-branched, depending on the host plant. In Medicago truncatula, this process is orchestrated by nodule-specific cysteine-rich peptides (NCRs) delivered into developing bacteroids...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438173/preliminary-results-demonstrating-the-impact-of-mediterranean-diet-on-bone-health
#6
Maria Cristina Savanelli, Luigi Barrea, Paolo Emidio Macchia, Silvia Savastano, Andrea Falco, Andrea Renzullo, Elisabetta Scarano, Immacolata Cristina Nettore, Annamaria Colao, Carolina Di Somma
BACKGROUND: Nutrition is an environmental factor affecting bone health. Nutrition is considered essential to achieve and maintain optimal bone mass. Mediterranean diet (MD) has shown to prevent bone disease. Aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between bone health status and adherence the MD. METHODS: Four-hundred eighteen healthy people (105 males and 313 females, age 50 ± 14 years) were recruited in the outdoor hospital of the "Campus Salute Onlus" held in Piazza del Plebiscito in Naples, October 17-20th 2013 and 09-11th October 2014...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437159/specific-host-responsive-associations-between-medicago-truncatula-accessions-and-sinorhizobium-strains
#7
Théophile Kazmierczak, Marianna Nagymihály, Florian Lamouche, Quentin Barrière, Ibtissem Guefrachi, Benoit Alunni, Mouna Ouadghiri, Jamal Ibijbijen, Éva Kondorosi, Peter Mergaert, Véronique Gruber
Legume plants interact with rhizobia to form nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Legume-rhizobium interactions are specific and only compatible rhizobia and plant species will lead to nodule formation. Even within compatible interactions, the genotype of both the plant and the bacterial symbiont will impact on the efficiency of nodule functioning and nitrogen-fixation activity. The model legume Medicago truncatula forms nodules with several species of the Sinorhizobium genus. However, the efficiency of these bacterial strains is highly variable...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436343/implications-of-feed-concentrate-reduction-in-organic-grassland-based-dairy-systems-a-long-term-on-farm-study
#8
F Leiber, I K Schenk, A Maeschli, S Ivemeyer, J O Zeitz, S Moakes, P Klocke, P Staehli, C Notz, M Walkenhorst
In response to increasing efforts for reducing concentrate inputs to organic dairy production in grassland-rich areas of Europe, a long-term study was conducted, which assessed the impacts of concentrate reductions on cows' performance, health, fertility and average herd age. In total, 42 Swiss commercial organic dairy cattle farms were monitored over 6 years ('Y0', 2008/09 until 'Y5', 2013/14). In comparison with overall data of Swiss herdbooks (including conventional and organic farms), the herds involved in the project had lower milk yields, similar milk solids, shorter calving intervals and higher average lactation numbers...
April 24, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434795/near-eastern-plant-domestication-a-history-of-thought
#9
REVIEW
Shahal Abbo, Avi Gopher
The Agricultural Revolution and plant domestication in the Near East (among its components) have fascinated generations of scholars. Here, we narrate the history of ideas underlying plant domestication research since the late 19th century. Biological and cultural perspectives are presented through two prevailing models: one views plant domestication as a protracted, unconscious evolutionary mutualistic (noncentric) process. The second advocates a punctuated, knowledge-based human initiative (centric). We scrutinize the research landscape while assessing the underlying evolutionary and cultural mechanisms...
April 20, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429079/the-r2r3-myb-tt2b-and-the-bhlh-tt8-genes-are-the-major-regulators-of-proanthocyanidin-biosynthesis-in-the-leaves-of-lotus-species
#10
Francisco José Escaray, Valentina Passeri, Ana Perea-García, Cristian Javier Antonelli, Francesco Damiani, Oscar Adolfo Ruiz, Francesco Paolocci
By exploiting interspecific hybrids and their progeny, we identified key regulatory and transporter genes intimately related to proanthocyanidin biosynthesis in leaves of Lotus spp. Proanthocyanidins (PAs), known as condensed tannins, are polymeric flavonoids enriching forage legumes of key nutritional value to prevent bloating in ruminant animals. Unfortunately, major forage legumes such as alfalfa and clovers lack PAs in edible tissues. Therefore, engineering the PA trait in herbage of forage legumes is paramount to improve both ecological and economical sustainability of cattle production system...
April 20, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424729/genome-wide-identification-and-analyses-of-calmodulins-and-calmodulin-like-proteins-in-lotus-japonicas
#11
Jinqiu Liao, Jiabin Deng, Zongzhi Qin, Jiayong Tang, Maorong Shu, Chunbang Ding, Jing Liu, Chao Hu, Ming Yuan, Yan Huang, Ruiwu Yang, Yonghong Zhou
L. japonicus, a model plant of legumes plants, is widely used in symbiotic nitrogen fixation. A large number of studies on it have been published based on the genetic, biochemical, structural studies. These results are secondhand reports that CaM is a key regulator during Rhizobial infection. In plants, there are multiple CaM genes encoding several CaM isoforms with only minor amino acid differences. Moreover, the regulation mechanism of this family of proteins during rhizobia infection is still unclear. In the current study, a family of genes encoding CaMs and CMLs that possess only the Ca(2+)-binding EF-hand motifs were analyzed...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424256/dietary-patterns-and-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-literature-review-and-meta-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#12
Franziska Jannasch, Janine Kröger, Matthias B Schulze
Background: Different methodologic approaches for constructing dietary patterns and differences in their composition limit conclusions on healthful patterns for diabetes prevention.Objective: We summarized evidence from prospective studies that examined associations of dietary patterns with type 2 diabetes by considering different methodologic approaches.Methods: The literature search (MEDLINE and Web of Science) identified prospective studies (cohorts or trials) that associated dietary patterns with diabetes incidence in nondiabetic and apparently healthy participants...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423366/legume-intake-and-risk-of-prostate-cancer-a-meta-analysis-of-prospective-cohort-studies
#13
Jie Li, Qi-Qi Mao
Previous studies regarding the relationship between legume intake and risk of prostate cancer have reported inconsistent results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to summarize evidence on this association. A systematic literature search of articles published through June 2016 was performed using PubMed and Web of Science databases. The combined relative risk (RR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) for the highest versus the lowest intake of legumes was calculated with a random-effects model...
April 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422119/current-lifestyle-factors-that-increase-risk-of-t2dm-in-china
#14
REVIEW
N Zhang, S M Du, G S Ma
The Report on the Status of Nutrition and Chronic Diseases of Chinese residents (2015) indicated that the prevalence of diabetes was 9.7% among adults aged ⩾18 years, which markedly increased from 2.6% in 2002 within 10 years. In addition to the social economic factors, transitions in food consumption, behavioral and lifestyle playing the important roles in the fast increase of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In 2010-2012, the cereal food consumption of Chinese residents was 337 g/d, vegetables consumption 269 g/d, fruit consumption 41 g/d, legume and legume products 11 g/d, dairy and dairy products consumption 25 g/d, meat consumption 90 g/d, edible oil consumption 42 g/d and dietary fiber 10...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421088/non-host-resistance-dna-damage-is-associated-with-sa-signaling-for-induction-of-pr-genes-and-contributes-to-the-growth-suppression-of-a-pea-pathogen-on-pea-endocarp-tissue
#15
Lee A Hadwiger, Kiwamu Tanaka
Salicylic acid (SA) has been reported to induce plant defense responses. The transcriptions of defense genes that are responsible for a given plant's resistance to an array of plant pathogens are activated in a process called non-host resistance. Biotic signals capable of carrying out the activation of pathogenesis-related (PR) genes in pea tissue include fungal DNase and chitosan, two components released from Fusarium solani spores that are known to target host DNA. Recent reports indicate that SA also has a physical affinity for DNA...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421084/characterization-of-the-heme-pocket-structure-and-ligand-binding-kinetics-of-non-symbiotic-hemoglobins-from-the-model-legume-lotus-japonicus
#16
Laura Calvo-Begueria, Bert Cuypers, Sabine Van Doorslaer, Stefania Abbruzzetti, Stefano Bruno, Herald Berghmans, Sylvia Dewilde, Javier Ramos, Cristiano Viappiani, Manuel Becana
Plant hemoglobins (Hbs) are found in nodules of legumes and actinorhizal plants but also in non-symbiotic organs of monocots and dicots. Non-symbiotic Hbs (nsHbs) have been classified into two phylogenetic groups. Class 1 nsHbs show an extremely high O2 affinity and are induced by hypoxia and nitric oxide (NO), whereas class 2 nsHbs have moderate O2 affinity and are induced by cold and cytokinins. The functions of nsHbs are still unclear, but some of them rely on the capacity of hemes to bind diatomic ligands and catalyze the NO dioxygenase (NOD) reaction (oxyferrous Hb + NO → ferric Hb + nitrate)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420109/comparison-of-biogenic-amines-and-mycotoxins-in-alfalfa-and-red-clover-fodder-depending-on-additives
#17
Jiri Skladanka, Vojtech Adam, Ondrej Zitka, Veronika Mlejnkova, Libor Kalhotka, Pavel Horky, Klara Konecna, Lucia Hodulikova, Daniela Knotova, Marie Balabanova, Petr Slama, Petr Skarpa
In the production of fermented feed, each crop can be contaminated with a variety of microorganisms that may produce natural pollutants. Biogenic amines, mycotoxins, and undesirable organic acids can decrease health feed safety. The aim of this study was to compare the counts of microorganisms, levels of biogenic amines, and the mycotoxins in forage legumes, and also to compare the occurrence of microorganisms and levels of mycotoxins in green fodder and subsequently produced silage and the influence of additives on the content of natural harmful substances in silage...
April 14, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419381/enhancing-faba-bean-vicia-faba-l-genome-resources
#18
James W Cooper, Michael H Wilson, Martijn F L Derks, Sandra Smit, Karl J Kunert, Christopher Cullis, Christine H Foyer
Grain legume improvement is currently impeded by a lack of genomic resources. The paucity of genome information for faba bean can be attributed to the intrinsic difficulties of assembling/annotating its giant (~13 Gb) genome. In order to address this challenge, RNA-sequencing analysis was performed on faba bean (cv. Wizard) leaves. Read alignment to the faba bean reference transcriptome identified 16 300 high quality unigenes. In addition, Illumina paired-end sequencing was used to establish a baseline for genomic information assembly...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414935/cdna-cloning-molecular-modeling-and-docking-calculations-of-l-type-lectins-from-swartzia-simplex-var-grandiflora-leguminosae-papilionoideae-a-member-of-the-tribe-swartzieae
#19
Paulo A C Maranhão, Claudener S Teixeira, Bruno L Sousa, Ito L Barroso-Neto, José E Monteiro-Júnior, Andreia V Fernandes, Marcio V Ramos, Ilka M Vasconcelos, José F C Gonçalves, Bruno A M Rocha, Valder N Freire, Thalles B Grangeiro
The genus Swartzia is a member of the tribe Swartzieae, whose genera constitute the living descendants of one of the early branches of the papilionoid legumes. Legume lectins comprise one of the main families of structurally and evolutionarily related carbohydrate-binding proteins of plant origin. However, these proteins have been poorly investigated in Swartzia and to date, only the lectin from S. laevicarpa seeds (SLL) has been purified. Moreover, no sequence information is known from lectins of any member of the tribe Swartzieae...
April 14, 2017: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408686/permanent-draft-genome-sequence-of-the-french-bean-symbiont-rhizobium-sp-strain-rsm-3-isolated-from-the-eastern-himalayan-region-of-india
#20
Ritu Rai, Erik Swanson, Indrani Sarkar, Dorjay Lama, Feseha Abebe-Aleke, Stephen Simpson, Krystalynne Morris, W Kelley Thomas, Pallab Kar, Maher Gtari, Arnab Sen, Louis S Tisa
The genus Rhizobium contains many species able to form nitrogen-fixing nodules on plants of the legume family. Here, we report the 6.9-Mbp draft genome sequence of Rhizobium sp. strain RSm-3, with a G+C content of 61.4% and 6,511 candidate protein-coding genes.
April 13, 2017: Genome Announcements
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