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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785741/intergroup-contact-attitudes-across-peer-networks-in-school-selection-influence-and-implications-for-cross-group-friendships
#1
Deborah Rivas-Drake, Muniba Saleem, David R Schaefer, Michael Medina, Robert Jagers
This study offers new insights into the power of peer networks for shaping intergroup relations in a diverse school. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of sixth-eighth graders (N = 524; MageT1  = 11.87; 48% girls; 9% Asian American/Pacific Islander, 28% African American, 13% Latino, 1% Native American, 31% White, 5% Other, and 11% Multiracial) in the Midwestern United States. Students with more positive intergroup contact attitudes (ICA) were most likely to be friends with similarly minded students...
May 22, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784112/technology-based-interventions-to-reduce-sexually-transmitted-infections-and-unintended-pregnancy-among-youth
#2
REVIEW
Laura Widman, Jacqueline Nesi, Kristyn Kamke, Sophia Choukas-Bradley, J L Stewart
PURPOSE: Technology-based interventions to promote sexual health have proliferated in recent years, yet their efficacy among youth has not been meta-analyzed. This study synthesizes the literature on technology-based sexual health interventions among youth. METHODS: Studies were included if they (1) sampled youth ages 13-24; (2) utilized technology-based platforms; (3) measured condom use or abstinence as outcomes; (4) evaluated program effects with experimental or quasi-experimental designs; and (5) were published in English...
June 2018: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784050/exploring-hiv-risks-testing-and-prevention-among-sub-saharan-african-community-members-in-australia
#3
Amy B Mullens, Jennifer Kelly, Joseph Debattista, Tania M Phillips, Zhihong Gu, Fungisai Siggins
BACKGROUND: Significant health disparities persist regarding new and late Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) diagnoses among sub-Saharan African (SSA) communities in Australia. Personal/cultural beliefs and practices influence HIV (risk, prevention, testing) within Australia and during visits to home countries. METHOD: A community forum was conducted involving 23 male and female adult African community workers, members and leaders, and health workers; facilitated by cultural workers and an experienced clinician/researcher...
May 21, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782516/how-a-smiley-protects-health-a-pilot-intervention-to-improve-hand-hygiene-in-hospitals-by-activating-injunctive-norms-through-emoticons
#4
Susanne Gaube, Dimitrios Tsivrikos, Daniel Dollinger, Eva Lermer
Hand hygiene practice in hospitals is unfortunately still widely insufficient, even though it is known that transmitting pathogens via hands is the leading cause of healthcare-associated infections. Previous research has shown that improving knowledge, providing feedback on past behaviour and targeting social norms are promising approaches to improve hand hygiene practices. The present field experiment was designed to direct people on when to perform hand hygiene and prevent forgetfulness. This intervention is the first to examine the effect of inducing injunctive social norms via an emoticon-based feedback system on hand hygiene behaviour...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781785/intention-of-older-women-to-consume-100-watermelon-juice-for-vascular-health-an-application-of-theory-of-planned-behavior
#5
Seung Eun Jung, Amy C Ellis, Kristi Crowe-White
To strengthen randomized controlled trials (RCT) evaluating the efficacy of 100% watermelon juice on vascular function of older women, theory-driven behavioral analysis as well as comparative sensory analysis of the intervention and placebo were conducted. The Theory of Planned Behavior was adopted to assess psychosocial determinants of intention to consume watermelon juice. Sensory attributes were assessed utilizing hedonic scales. Analysis included Structural Equation Modeling with maximum likelihood. The measurement model provided a good fit (x2  = 70...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781679/exploring-the-socio-ecological-levels-for-prevention-of-sexual-risk-behaviours-of-the-youth-in-umgungundlovu-district-municipality-kwazulu-natal
#6
Nelisiwe Khuzwayo, Myra Taylor
BACKGROUND: Prevention of youth sexual risk behaviour among the youth in uMgungundlovu District Municipality continues to be a primary challenge for public health and health promotion. Current prevention interventions are targeted at an individual level, whilst youth behaviour is influenced by many social and environmental factors. AIM: The aim of the study was to explore the factors influencing sexual risk behaviours of the youth at different socio-ecological levels in uMgungundlovu District Municipality...
March 7, 2018: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781392/adolescent-athletes-with-learning-disability-display-atypical-maturational-trajectories-on-concussion-baseline-testing-implications-based-on-a-finnish-sample
#7
Kati Peltonen, Matti Vartiainen, Tiina Laitala-Leinonen, Sanna Koskinen, Teemu Luoto, Jon Pertab, Laura Hokkanen
Previous research has reported lower cognitive test scores on baseline testing in athletes reporting multiple previous concussions or a history of learning disability (LD). Age also has an important influence on cognitive performance. While these factors have been considered individually in previous studies, the present study is the first to explore the interaction of age, self-reported LD, and history of concussion on baseline Immediate Post-Concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT®) in a nationwide study of adolescent athletes...
May 21, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781341/bullying-and-attitudes-toward-masculinity-in-croatian-schools-behavioral-and-emotional-characteristics-of-students-who-bully-others
#8
Natko Gereš, Pamela Orpinas, Urelija Rodin, Danijela Štimac-Grbić, Aida Mujkić
Prevention of bullying is paramount to creating a positive and welcoming school environment. This study compared the following characteristics reported by students who had perpetrated bullying in Croatian schools and those who did not: gender, type of school, family wealth, negative emotionality, behaviors that may compromise health, and endorsement of traditional masculinity. Within the framework of the "Croatian Adolescent Masculinity Study," second and third grade students of secondary schools (equivalent to tenth and eleventh grade in the United States) in the city of Zagreb ( N = 4,072) completed a cross-sectional, paper-and-pencil survey...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781129/the-role-of-competitive-and-cooperative-norms-in-the-development-of-deviant-evaluations
#9
Luke McGuire, Michael T Rizzo, Melanie Killen, Adam Rutland
The present study examined how peer group norms influence children's evaluations of deviant ingroup members. Following the manipulation of competitive or cooperative norms, participants (children, Mage  = 8.69; adolescents, Mage  = 13.81; adults, Mage  = 20.89; n = 263) evaluated deviant ingroup members from their own and the group's perspective. Children rated cooperative deviancy positively and believed their group would do the same. Adolescents and adults believed that their group would negatively evaluate cooperative deviancy when their group supported a competitive allocation strategy...
May 20, 2018: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780764/gender-differences-in-the-relationship-between-built-environment-and-non-communicable-diseases-a-systematic-review
#10
Joanna Sara Valson, V Raman Kutty
Non-communicable diseases are on the rise globally. Risk factors of non-communicable diseases continue to be a growing concern in both developed and developing countries. With significant rise in population and establishment of buildings, rapid changes have taken place in the built environment. Relationship between health and place, particularly with non-communicable diseases has been established in previous literature. This systematic review assesses the current evidence on influence of gender in the relationship between built environment and non-communicable diseases...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Public Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780762/framing-and-visual-type-effect-on-future-zika-vaccine-uptake-intent
#11
Jeanine P D Guidry, Kellie E Carlyle, Jessica G LaRose, Paul Perrin, Mark Ryan, Marcus Messner, Jay Adams
Introduction: The Zika virus is associated with the birth defect microcephaly, and while a vaccine was not available in early- 2017, several were under development. This study's purpose was to identify effective communication strategies to promote uptake of a new vaccine, particularly among women of reproductive age. Design and methods: In order to study the effects of Zika message framing (gain vs . loss) and visual type (photo vs . infographic) on future Zika vaccine uptake intent, a 2×2 between-subjects experiment was performed via an online survey in 2017 among 339 U...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Public Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778958/building-on-common-ground-to-address-biodiversity-conflicts-and-foster-collaboration-in-environmental-management
#12
Lou Lecuyer, Rehema M White, Birgit Schmook, Sophie Calmé
Conservation biology faces critical challenges that require collaborative approaches, including novel strategies to support interactions among actors in biodiversity conflicts. The goals of this study were to investigate the concept of common ground across multiple issues and to explore its practical application for the support of environmental management. We conceptually defined common ground as the areas of relevance underlying the suite of issues expressed by people regarding environmental management in a particular context...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777963/red-wolf-canis-rufus-sperm-quality-and-quantity-is-affected-by-semen-collection-method-extender-components-and-post-thaw-holding-temperature
#13
Ashley D Franklin, William T Waddell, Karen L Goodrowe
Cryopreserving genetic resources is becoming increasingly important for species management. In the zoo-based red wolf (Canis rufus) population, inbreeding continues to increase in the absence of new founders. Through banking sperm, we preserve genetic diversity and create the ability to decrease inbreeding accumulation in the future. The quality and quantity of banked sperm can be affected by cryopreservation media and semen collection methods. This study's objectives were to further optimize semen extender used for red wolf sperm cryopreservation, investigate effects of post-thaw holding temperature, and to determine if urethral catheterization is an effective method for semen collection in this species...
May 16, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777956/how-do-gender-relations-affect-the-working-lives-of-close-to-community-health-service-providers-empirical-research-a-review-and-conceptual-framework
#14
Rosalind Steege, Miriam Taegtmeyer, Rosalind McCollum, Kate Hawkins, Hermen Ormel, Maryse Kok, Sabina Rashid, Lilian Otiso, Mohsin Sidat, Kingsley Chikaphupha, Daniel Gemechu Datiko, Rukhsana Ahmed, Rachel Tolhurst, Woedem Gomez, Sally Theobald
Close-to-community (CTC) providers have been identified as a key cadre to progress universal health coverage and address inequities in health service provision due to their embedded position within communities. CTC providers both work within, and are subject to, the gender norms at community level but may also have the potential to alter them. This paper synthesises current evidence on gender and CTC providers and the services they deliver. This study uses a two-stage exploratory approach drawing upon qualitative research from the six countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique) that were part of the REACHOUT consortium...
May 5, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777641/social-norms-and-adolescents-sexual-health-an-introduction-for-practitioners-working-in-low-and-mid-income-african-countries
#15
Beniamino Cislaghi, Holly Shakya
Donors, practitioners and scholars are increasingly interested in harnessing the potential of social norms theory to improve adolescents' sexual and reproductive health outcomes. However, social norms theory is multifaceted, and its application in field interventions is complex. An introduction to social norms that will be beneficial for those who intend to integrate a social norms perspective in their work to improve adolescents' sexual health in Africa is presented. First three main schools of thought on social norms, looking at the theoretical standpoint of each, are discussed...
March 2018: African Journal of Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777640/factors-associated-with-parental-intent-not-to-circumcise-daughters-in-enugu-state-of-nigeria-an-application-of-the-theory-of-planned-behavior
#16
Cajetan I Ilo, Sandra A Darfour-Oduro, Jerome O Okafor, Diana S Grigsby-Toussaint, Ignatius O Nwimo, Chinagorom Onwunaka
This study explored intention of parents not to circumcise daughters in Enugu State, Nigeria using theory of planned behavior (TPB) as a framework. A survey of 1345 parents was carried out using structured questionnaire with FGM question items based on TPB constructs of attitude, subjective norm (SN), perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intention. Intention was dichotomized into two categories and logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the association between the constructs of TPB while controlling for some socio-demographic factors...
March 2018: African Journal of Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777420/what-role-do-masculine-norms-play-in-men-s-hiv-testing-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-scoping-review
#17
REVIEW
Katelyn M Sileo, Rebecca Fielding-Miller, Shari L Dworkin, Paul J Fleming
Men living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa are less likely to test for HIV than women. We conducted a scoping review in May of 2016 to identify how masculine norms influence men's HIV testing in sub-Saharan Africa. Our review yielded a total of 13 qualitative studies from 8 countries. Masculine norms create both barriers and facilitators to HIV testing. Barriers included emotional inexpression, gendered communication, social pressures to be strong and self-reliant, and the fear that an HIV positive result would threaten traditional social roles (i...
May 18, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776902/an-internet-based-radiology-course-in-medical-school-comparison-of-academic-performance-of-students-on-campus-versus-those-with-absenteeism-due-to-residency-interviews
#18
Andrew George Alexander, Deborah Deas, Paul Eric Lyons
BACKGROUND: Imaging and its optimal use are imperative to the practice of medicine, yet many students don't receive a formal education in radiology. Concurrently, students look for ways to take time away from medical school for residency interviewing. Web-based instruction provides an opportunity to combine these imperatives using online modalities. OBJECTIVE: A largely Web-based course in radiology during the 4th year of medical school was evaluated both for its acceptance to students who needed to be away from campus for interviews, and its effectiveness on a nationally administered standardized test...
May 18, 2018: JMIR Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776531/an-evaluation-of-a-college-campus-emergency-preparedness-intervention
#19
Christofer Skurka, Brian L Quick, Tobias Reynolds-Tylus, Todd Short, Ann L Bryan
INTRODUCTION: Given the range of emergencies that beset postsecondary institutions, university administrators must take a multimodal approach to prepare campus stakeholders for safety threats. One such strategy is emergency preparedness communication. METHODS: In the present investigation, we tested the efficacy of a professionally produced video that uses the federally endorsed slogan, Run-Hide-Fight(r). Undergraduate students participated in a quasi-experiment with a pretest-posttest-delayed posttest control group design...
June 2018: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776358/associations-between-local-descriptive-norms-for-overweight-obesity-and-insufficient-fruit-intake-individual-level-diet-and-10-year-change-in-body-mass-index-and-glycosylated-haemoglobin-in-an-australian-cohort
#20
Suzanne J Carroll, Theo Niyonsenga, Neil T Coffee, Anne W Taylor, Mark Daniel
BACKGROUND: Descriptive norms (what other people do) relate to individual-level dietary behaviour and health outcome including overweight and obesity. Descriptive norms vary across residential areas but the impact of spatial variation in norms on individual-level diet and health is poorly understood. This study assessed spatial associations between local descriptive norms for overweight/obesity and insufficient fruit intake (spatially-specific local prevalence), and individual-level dietary intakes (fruit, vegetable and sugary drinks) and 10-year change in body mass index (BMI) and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c )...
May 18, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
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