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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346846/legislative-norms-to-control-cannabis-use-in-the-light-of-its-prevalence-in-czech-republic-poland-slovakia-and-hungary
#1
Róbert Čecho, Tibor Baška, Viera Švihrová, Henrieta Hudečková
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346480/changing-collective-social-norms-in-favour-of-reduced-harmful-use-of-alcohol-a-review-of-reviews
#2
Peter Anderson, Eva Jané-Llopis, Omer Syed Muhammad Hasan, Jürgen Rehm
Background: Public sector bodies have called for policies and programmes to shift collective social norms in disfavour of the harmful use of alcohol. This article aims to identify and summarize the evidence and propose how policies and programmes to shift social norms could be implemented and evaluated. Design: Review of reviews for all years to July 2017. Data sources: Searches on OVID Medline, Healthstar, Embase, PsycINFO, AMED, Social Work Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Mental Measurements Yearbook, Joanna Briggs Institute EBP, Health and Psychosocial Instruments, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, International Political Science Abstracts, NASW Clinical Register and Epub Ahead of Print databases...
January 16, 2018: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346094/reweighted-low-rank-matrix-analysis-with-structural-smoothness-for-image-denoising
#3
Hengyou Wang, Yigang Cen, Zhiquan He, Zhihai He, Ruizhen Zhao, Fengzhen Zhang
In this paper, we develop a new low-rank matrix recovery algorithm for image denoising. We incorporate the total variation (TV) norm and the pixel range constraint into the existing reweighted low-rank matrix analysis to achieve structural smoothness and to significantly improve quality in the recovered image. Our proposed mathematical formulation of the low-rank matrix recovery problem combines the nuclear norm, TV norm, and norm, thereby allowing us to exploit the low-rank property of natural images, enhance the structural smoothness, and detect and remove large sparse noise...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345207/thresholds-and-interpretations-how-clinical-competency-committees-identify-pediatric-residents-with-performance-concerns
#4
Daniel J Schumacher, Catherine Michelson, Sue Poynter, Michelle M Barnes, Su-Ting T Li, Natalie Burman, Daniel J Sklansky, Lynn Thoreson, Sharon Calaman, Beth King, Alan Schwartz, Sean Elliott, Tanvi Sharma, Javier Gonzalez Del Rey, Kathleen Bartlett, Shannon E Scott-Vernaglia, Kathleen Gibbs, Jon F McGreevy, Lynn C Garfunkel, Caren Gellin, John G Frohna
BACKGROUND: Clinical competency committee (CCC) identification of residents with performance concerns is critical for early intervention. METHODS: Program directors and 94 CCC members at 14 pediatric residency programs responded to a written survey prompt asking them to describe how they identify residents with performance concerns. Data was analyzed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Six themes emerged from analysis and were grouped into two domains...
January 2018: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344833/violence-against-women-in-cambodia-towards-a-culturally-responsive-theory-of-change
#5
Maurice Eisenbruch
Almost one in four women in Cambodia is a victim of physical, emotional or sexual violence. This article brings together two seldom connected fields: Theory of Change (ToC) and cultural responsiveness in international development. It applies these approaches to a priority in global health, which is to prevent violence against women (VAW) and, drawing on my research on the epigenesis of VAW in Cambodia, develops an argument on the need for interventions to work with tradition and culture rather than only highlight it in problematic terms...
January 17, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343203/cognition-health-related-quality-of-life-and-depression-ten-years-after-moderate-to-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-prospective-cohort-study
#6
Erik Grauwmeijer, Majanka Heijenbrok-Kal, Lianne Peppel, Chantal Hartjes, Iain Haitsma, Inge de Koning, Gerard Ribbers
The aim of this study was to evaluate cognitive function ten years after moderate-severe TBI and to investigate the associations between cognitive function, depression and Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL). In this prospective cohort study, with measurements at 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 120 months post-TBI, patients aged 18-67 years (N=113) with moderate-severe TBI were recruited. Main outcome measures were depression (CES-D), subjective cognitive functioning (CFQ), objective cognitive functioning, and HRQoL (SF-36)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341347/employing-the-arts-for-knowledge-production-and-translation-visualizing-new-possibilities-for-women-speaking-up-about-safety-concerns-in-maternity
#7
Nicola Mackintosh, Jane Sandall, Claire Collison, Wendy Carter, James Harris
OBJECTIVES: This project used animated film to translate research findings into accessible health information aimed at enabling women to speak up and secure professional help for serious safety concerns during pregnancy and after birth. We tested as proof of concept our use of the arts both as product (knowledge production) and process (enabling involvement). BACKGROUND: Emergencies during pregnancy and birth, while unusual, can develop rapidly and unexpectedly, with catastrophic consequences...
January 17, 2018: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341318/cognitive-trajectories-and-spectrum-of-neuropathology-in-superagers-the-first-ten-cases
#8
Emily Rogalski, Tamar Gefen, Qinwen Mao, Maureen Connelly, Sandra Weintraub, Changiz Geula, Eileen H Bigio, M-Marsel Mesulam
On average, memory capacity is significantly higher in populations of 50-60 year olds than in populations of 80 year olds. We define SuperAgers as individuals 80 or older whose episodic memory capacity is at least as good as that of cognitively average individuals in their 50s and 60s. SuperAgers therefore have memory capacity that is superior for age. Previous work showed that SuperAgers have greater cortical volumes and greater resistance to age-related cortical atrophy than 'cognitively average' individuals of the same age...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340977/new-strategies-for-improving-the-development-and-performance-of-amorphous-solid-dispersions
#9
Abbe Haser, Feng Zhang
The understanding of amorphous solid dispersions has grown significantly in the past decade. This is evident from the number of approved commercial amorphous solid dispersion products. While amorphous formulation is considered an enabling technology, it has become the norm for formulating poorly soluble compounds. Despite this success, improvements can still be made that enable early development formulation decisions, to develop a rationale for selecting a manufacturing process, to overcome degradation and phase separation during processing, to help achieve physical stability during storage, and to optimize dissolution behavior...
January 16, 2018: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340969/on-the-predictive-validity-of-various-corpus-based-frequency-norms-in-l2-english-lexical-processing
#10
Xiaocong Chen, Yanping Dong, Xiufen Yu
The predictive validity of various corpus-based frequency norms in first-language lexical processing has been intensively investigated in previous research, but less attention has been paid to this issue in second-language (L2) processing. To bridge the gap, in the present study we took English as a case in point and compared the predictive power of a large set of corpus-based frequency norms for the performance of an L2 English visual lexical decision task (LDT). Our results showed that, in general, the frequency norms from SUBTLEX-US and WorldLex-Blog tended to predict L2 performance better in reaction times, whereas the frequency norms from corpora with a mixture of written and spoken genres (CELEX, WorldLex-Blog, BNC, ANC, and COCA) tended to predict L2 accuracy better...
January 16, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340684/evolving-societal-norms-of-obesity-what-is-the-appropriate-response
#11
Mary A Burke, Frank W Heiland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339817/cooperating-with-machines
#12
Jacob W Crandall, Mayada Oudah, Tennom, Fatimah Ishowo-Oloko, Sherief Abdallah, Jean-François Bonnefon, Manuel Cebrian, Azim Shariff, Michael A Goodrich, Iyad Rahwan
Since Alan Turing envisioned artificial intelligence, technical progress has often been measured by the ability to defeat humans in zero-sum encounters (e.g., Chess, Poker, or Go). Less attention has been given to scenarios in which human-machine cooperation is beneficial but non-trivial, such as scenarios in which human and machine preferences are neither fully aligned nor fully in conflict. Cooperation does not require sheer computational power, but instead is facilitated by intuition, cultural norms, emotions, signals, and pre-evolved dispositions...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339480/local-policy-proposals-can-bridge-latino-and-most-white-americans-response-to-immigration
#13
Yuen J Huo, John F Dovidio, Tomás R Jiménez, Deborah J Schildkraut
In the past 15 years, the adoption of subnational immigration policies in the United States, such as those established by individual states, has gone from nearly zero to over 300 per year. These include welcoming policies aimed at attracting and incorporating immigrants, as well as unwelcoming policies directed at denying immigrants access to public resources and services. Using data from a 2016 random digit-dialing telephone survey with an embedded experiment, we examine whether institutional support for policies that are either welcoming or hostile toward immigrants differentially shape Latinos' and whites' feelings of belonging in their state (Arizona/New Mexico, adjacent states with contrasting immigration policies)...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339194/vaginal-construction-and-treatment-providers-experiences-a-qualitative-analysis
#14
Katrina Roen, Sarah M Creighton, Peter Hegarty, Lih-Mei Liao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate specialist clinicians' experiences of treating vaginal agenesis. DESIGN: Semi-structured interviews. SETTING: 12 hospitals in Sweden and the UK. SAMPLE: 32 health professionals connected to multidisciplinary teams including medical specialists and psychologists. METHODS: Theoretical thematic analysis of recorded verbatim data. RESULTS: The gynecologist and psychologist interviewees share certain observations including the importance of psychological readiness for and appropriate timing of treatment...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338922/alcohol-consumption-masculinity-and-alcohol-related-violence-and-anti-social-behaviour-in-sportspeople
#15
Kerry S O'Brien, Walter Forrest, Iain Greenlees, Daniel Rhind, Sophia Jowett, Ilana Pinsky, Albert Espelt, Marina Bosque-Prous, Anders Larrabee Sonderlund, Matteo Vergani, Muhammad Iqbal
OBJECTIVES: There is no research examining alcohol-related aggression and anti-social behaviour in UK or European sportspeople (athletes), and no research has examined relationships between masculinity, alcohol consumption, and alcohol-related aggression and antisocial behaviour in sportspeople (athletes). This study addresses this gap. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS: A sample (N=2048; women=892, 44%) of in season sportspeople enrolled at UK universities (response 83%), completed measures of masculinity, alcohol consumption, within-sport (on-field) violence, and having been the perpetrator and/or victim of alcohol-related violent/aggressive and antisocial behaviour (e...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338699/assessing-predictors-of-intention-to-prescribe-sick-leave-among-primary-care-physicians-using-the-theory-of-planned-behaviour
#16
Yogarabindranath Swarna Nantha, Lei Hum Wee, Caryn Mei-Hsien Chan
BACKGROUND: Providing sickness certification is a decision that primary care physicians make on a daily basis. The majority of sickness certification studies in the literature involve a general assessment of physician or patient behaviour without the use of a robust psychological framework to guide research accuracy. To address this deficiency, this study utilized the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to specifically gauge the intention and other salient predictors related to sickness certification prescribing behaviour amongst primary care physicians...
January 16, 2018: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338558/the-influence-of-masculine-norms-and-occupational-factors-on-mental-health-evidence-from-the-baseline-of-the-australian-longitudinal-study-on-male-health
#17
Allison Milner, Anne Kavanagh, Tania King, Dianne Currier
Men employed in male-dominated occupations are at elevated risk of work-related fatalities, injuries, and suicide. Prior research has focused on associations between psychosocial and physical exposures at work and health outcomes. However, masculine norms may also contribute to mental health. We used data from the baseline survey of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Male Health to examine whether: (a) men in male-dominated jobs report greater adherence to masculine norms; (b) being in a male-dominated occupation is associated with poorer mental health; and (c) being in a male-dominated occupation modifies the association between masculine norms and mental health...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338555/positive-neighborhood-norms-buffer-ethnic-diversity-effects-on-neighborhood-dissatisfaction-perceived-neighborhood-disadvantage-and-moving-intentions
#18
Jasper Van Assche, Frank Asbrock, Arne Roets, Mathias Kauff
Positive neighborhood norms, such as strong local networks, are critical to people's satisfaction with, perceived disadvantage of, and intentions to stay in their neighborhood. At the same time, local ethnic diversity is said to be detrimental for these community outcomes. Integrating both frameworks, we tested whether the negative consequences of diversity occur even when perceived social norms are positive. Study 1 ( N = 1,760 German adults) showed that perceptions of positive neighborhood norms buffered against the effects of perceived diversity on moving intentions via neighborhood satisfaction and perceived neighborhood disadvantage...
January 1, 2018: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338121/does-confucianism-allow-for-body-donation
#19
REVIEW
D Gareth Jones, Jing-Bao Nie
Confucianism has been widely perceived as a major moral and cultural obstacle to the donation of bodies for anatomical purposes. The rationale for this is the Confucian stress on xiao (filial piety), whereby individuals' bodies are to be intact at death. In the view of many, the result is a prohibition on the donation of bodies to anatomy departments for the purpose of dissection. The role of dissection throughout the development of anatomy within a Confucian context is traced, and in contemporary China the establishment of donation programs and the appearance of memorial monuments is noted...
January 16, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338118/impact-of-quality-of-research-on-patient-outcomes-in-the-institute-of-medicine-2013-report-on-dietary-sodium
#20
Aaron Lucko, Chelsea Ta Doktorchik, Norm Rc Campbell
The 2013 Institute of Medicine report entitled "Sodium Intake in Populations: Assessment of Evidence" found inconsistent evidence of health benefit with dietary sodium intake <2300 mg/d. Different studies reported benefit and harm of population dietary intake <2300 mg/d. The Institute of Medicine committee, however, did not assess whether the methodology used in each of the studies was appropriate to examine dietary sodium and health outcomes. This review investigates the association of methodological rigor and outcomes of studies in the Institute of Medicine report...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
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