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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926681/influence-of-immediate-and-delayed-lower-limb-amputation-compared-with-lower-limb-salvage-on-functional-and-mental-health-outcomes-post-rehabilitation-in-the-u-k-military
#1
Peter Ladlow, Rhodri Phillip, Russell Coppack, John Etherington, James Bilzon, M Polly McGuigan, Alexander N Bennett
BACKGROUND: Medical practitioners face difficult decisions over whether to amputate or to salvage a lower limb that has undergone trauma. To our knowledge, there has been little evidence reporting the impact of different surgical decisions on functional and mental health outcomes following intensive rehabilitation that might inform decision-making. METHODS: This study is a retrospective, independent-group comparison of rehabilitation outcomes from a U.K. military complex trauma rehabilitation center...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925752/emergent-structural-mechanisms-for-high-density-collective-motion-inspired-by-human-crowds
#2
Arianna Bottinelli, David T J Sumpter, Jesse L Silverberg
Collective motion of large human crowds often depends on their density. In extreme cases like heavy metal concerts and black Friday sales events, motion is dominated by physical interactions instead of conventional social norms. Here, we study an active matter model inspired by situations when large groups of people gather at a point of common interest. Our analysis takes an approach developed for jammed granular media and identifies Goldstone modes, soft spots, and stochastic resonance as structurally driven mechanisms for potentially dangerous emergent collective motion...
November 25, 2016: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925601/stability-analysis-of-networked-control-systems-with-aperiodic-sampling-and-time-varying-delay
#3
Jie Chen, Su Meng, Jian Sun
This paper addresses the stability of networked control systems with aperiodic sampling and time-varying network-induced delay. The sampling intervals are assumed to vary within a known interval. The transmission delay is assumed to belong to a given interval. The closed-loop system is first converted to a discrete-time system with multiple time-varying delays and norm-bounded uncertainties resulting from the variation of the sampling intervals. And then, it is transformed into a delay-free system being form of an interconnection of two subsystems...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925599/sparse-regularization-in-fuzzy-c-means-for-high-dimensional-data-clustering
#4
Xiangyu Chang, Qingnan Wang, Yuewen Liu, Yu Wang
In high-dimensional data clustering practices, the cluster structure is commonly assumed to be confined to a limited number of relevant features, rather than the entire feature set. However, for high-dimensional data, identifying the relevant features and discovering the cluster structure are still challenging problems. To solve these problems, this paper proposes a novel fuzzy c-means (FCM) model with sparse regularization (ℓq(0<q≤1)-norm regularization), by reformulating the FCM objective function into the weighted between-cluster sum of square form and imposing the sparse regularization on the weights...
December 1, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925479/psychological-adjustment-to-craniofacial-conditions-excluding-oral-clefts-a-review-of-the-literature
#5
Kristin Billaud Feragen, Nicola Marie Stock
OBJECTIVE: A congenital craniofacial anomaly (CFA) is expected to impact upon several domains of psychological, emotional and social functioning, yet no recent reviews have comprehensively summarised the available literature. Further, existing reviews tend to draw upon literature in the field of cleft lip and palate, and do not give substantive attention to other types of CFAs. DESIGN: A review of 41 papers published between January 2000 and March 2016 pertaining to psychological adjustment to CFAs...
December 7, 2016: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925435/predicting-the-intention-to-use-condoms-and-actual-condom-use-behaviour-a-three-wave-longitudinal-study-in-ghana
#6
Enoch Teye-Kwadjo, Ashraf Kagee, Hermann Swart
BACKGROUND: Growing cross-sectional research shows that the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) is robust in predicting intentions to use condoms and condom use behaviour. Yet, little is known about the TPB's utility in explaining intentions to use condoms and condom use behaviour over time. METHODS: This study used a longitudinal design and latent variable structural equation modelling to test the longitudinal relationships postulated by the TPB. School-going youths in Ghana provided data on attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control, intentions, and behaviour regarding condom use at three time points, spaced approximately three months apart...
December 7, 2016: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925122/-abortion-and-stigma-an-analysis-of-the-scientific-literature-on-the-theme
#7
Leila Adesse, Claudia Bonan Jannotti, Katia Silveira da Silva, Vania Matos Fonseca
This article analyzes the scientific output on abortion and social stigma and the potential of the stigma category for abortion care in Brazil. An integrative review of publications on scientific databases without a time limit was conducted. Sixty-five publications with the social representations of women who had an abortion and the professionals who attended them were analyzed. The obstacles to the implementation of abortion laws and the protocols and norms that facilitate access to quality services care was explored...
December 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924442/spanish-norms-for-completion-of-restricted-length-word-stems
#8
María José Soler, Carmen Dasí, Juan Carlos Ruiz, Teresa Cervera
This study presents a normative database of Spanish restricted length word stems that provides useful information for the selection of stimuli in memory experiments with Word Stem Completion (WSC) tasks. The database includes indices relative to stems (total baseline completion, priming baseline completion, priming, number of completions, ratio between given and deleted letters, and syllabic structure), and indices relative to characteristics of the words used to obtain the stems (frequency, familiarity, number of meanings, length, number of syllables, arousal, and valence)...
December 6, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924013/the-proteomexchange-consortium-in-2017-supporting-the-cultural-change-in-proteomics-public-data-deposition
#9
Eric W Deutsch, Attila Csordas, Zhi Sun, Andrew Jarnuczak, Yasset Perez-Riverol, Tobias Ternent, David S Campbell, Manuel Bernal-Llinares, Shujiro Okuda, Shin Kawano, Robert L Moritz, Jeremy J Carver, Mingxun Wang, Yasushi Ishihama, Nuno Bandeira, Henning Hermjakob, Juan Antonio Vizcaíno
The ProteomeXchange (PX) Consortium of proteomics resources (http://www.proteomexchange.org) was formally started in 2011 to standardize data submission and dissemination of mass spectrometry proteomics data worldwide. We give an overview of the current consortium activities and describe the advances of the past few years. Augmenting the PX founding members (PRIDE and PeptideAtlas, including the PASSEL resource), two new members have joined the consortium: MassIVE and jPOST. ProteomeCentral remains as the common data access portal, providing the ability to search for data sets in all participating PX resources, now with enhanced data visualization components...
October 18, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923863/using-the-theory-of-normative-social-behavior-to-understand-compliance-with-a-smoke-free-law-in-a-middle-income-country
#10
M J Byron, J E Cohen, S Frattaroli, J Gittelsohn, D H Jernigan
Smoke-free laws, which ban smoking in public venues, can be effective in protecting public health, but it has been difficult to achieve compliance with these laws in low- and middle-income countries. This study was conducted to understand the social norms around public smoking and learn how to improve compliance in Bogor, the first Indonesian city to pass a comprehensive smoke-free law. Eleven stratified focus groups were conducted (n = 89). Data were analyzed using the theory of normative social behavior, which posits that the influence of descriptive norms (perceptions about what other people do) on behavior is moderated by injunctive norms (perceptions about what one is expected to do), outcome expectations and group identity...
December 2016: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923303/workplace-pressures-are-driving-nurses-out-of-emergency-care
#11
Flavia Munn
Nurses are being deterred from working in pressured emergency departments (EDs) because of the associated stress, MPs have warned. A Commons health committee report on winter pressures in emergency care says poor performance has 'become the norm' for some NHS trusts, due to increasing demand for services, insufficient staff numbers and bed-blocking.
December 7, 2016: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921329/preventive-dental-visiting-a-critical-interpretive-synthesis-of-theory-explaining-how-inequalities-arise
#12
Rebecca V Harris, Andrew Pennington, Margaret Whitehead
BACKGROUND: In many countries, those with lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by poor oral health. This can be attributed, at least in part, to differences in preventive dental visiting. While several theories have been applied to the area, they generally fail to capture the recursive nature of dental visiting behaviour, and fall short of informing the design of complex interventions to tackle inequalities. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a systematic review and synthesis of theory in order to provide an overview of the pathways which bring about socioeconomic inequalities in early dental visiting, and identify possible intervention points...
December 6, 2016: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921274/evaluating-determinants-of-rural-villagers-engagement-in-conservation-and-waste-management-behaviors-based-on-integrated-conceptual-framework-of-pro-environmental-behavior
#13
Piyapong Janmaimool, Chaweewan Denpaiboon
This study aims to evaluate determinants of villagers' engagement in pro-environmental behavior (PEB), including ecological conservation behavior (ECB) and waste management behavior (WMB). An integrated exploratory model representing the proposed relationship between villagers' engagement in ECB/WMB and their determinants was created based on the integration of the theory of planned behavior (TPB), the Stern's value belief norm (VBN) theory, environmental education and psychosocial characteristic perspectives...
December 2016: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921002/intention-for-cesarean-section-versus-vaginal-delivery-among-pregnant-women-in-isfahan-correlates-and-determinants
#14
Zahra Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Farideh Khalajabadi-Farahani
BACKGROUND: Iran has the second highest rate of cesarean section in the world. the corresponding rate in the third metropolitan city of Iran, Isfahan, is even higher. This paper aimed to assess correlates and determinants of intention for cesarean section versus normal vaginal delivery (NVD) among pregnant women in Isfahan. METHODS: A study was conducted among 400 pregnant women aged 18-38 years, with gestational age of 24-40 weeks who attended labor clinics of nine hospitals in Isfahan during June and July 2014...
October 2016: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920503/adverse-events-and-patients-perceived-health-related-quality-of-life-at-the-end-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-in-namibia
#15
Evans L Sagwa, Nunurai Ruswa, Farai Mavhunga, Timothy Rennie, Hubert Gm Leufkens, Aukje K Mantel-Teeuwisse
PURPOSE: The health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients completing multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) treatment in Namibia and whether the occurrence of adverse events influenced patients' rating of their HRQoL was evaluated. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional analytic survey of patients completing or who recently completed MDR-TB treatment was conducted. The patients rated their HRQoL using the simplified Short Form-™ (SF-8) questionnaire consisting of eight Likert-type questions...
2016: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919546/brain-morphometry-predicts-individual-creative-potential-and-the-ability-to-combine-remote-ideas
#16
David Bendetowicz, Marika Urbanski, Clarisse Aichelburg, Richard Levy, Emmanuelle Volle
For complex mental functions such as creative thinking, inter-individual variability is useful to better understand the underlying cognitive components and brain anatomy. Associative theories propose that creative individuals have flexible semantic associations, which allows remote elements to be formed into new combinations. However, the structural brain variability associated with the ability to combine remote associates has not been explored. To address this question, we performed a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study and explored the anatomical connectivity of significant regions...
November 15, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919394/the-other-side-of-the-coin-harm-due-to-the-non-use-of-health-related-data
#17
Kerina H Jones, Graeme Laurie, Leslie Stevens, Christine Dobbs, David V Ford, Nathan Lea
INTRODUCTION: It is widely acknowledged that breaches and misuses of health-related data can have serious implications and consequently they often carry penalties. However, harm due to the omission of health data usage, or data non-use, is a subject that lacks attention. A better understanding of this 'other side of the coin' is required before it can be addressed effectively. APPROACH: This article uses an international case study approach to explore why data non-use is difficult to ascertain, the sources and types of health-related data non-use, its implications for citizens and society and some of the reasons it occurs...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919390/scaling-up-health-information-systems-to-improve-hiv-treatment-an-assessment-of-initial-patient-monitoring-systems-in-mozambique
#18
Mindy Hochgesang, Sophia Zamudio-Haas, Lissa Moran, Leopoldo Nhampossa, Laura Packel, Hannah Leslie, Janise Richards, Starley B Shade
INTRODUCTION: The rapid scale-up of HIV care and treatment in resource-limited countries requires concurrent, rapid development of health information systems to support quality service delivery. Mozambique, a country with an 11.5% prevalence of HIV, has developed nation-wide patient monitoring systems (PMS) with standardized reporting tools, utilized by all HIV treatment providers in paper or electronic form. Evaluation of the initial implementation of PMS can inform and strengthen future development as the country moves towards a harmonized, sustainable health information system...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917977/discontinuity-in-pastoral-development-time-to-update-the-method
#19
S KrÄtli
Most off-the-shelf basic methodological tools currently used in pastoral development (e.g. technical definitions and conventional scales of observation) retain underlying assumptions about stability and uniformity being the norm (i.e. 'equilibrium thinking'). Such assumptions reflect a theoretical framework which had been questioned since the 1970s and was openly disproved in scientific circles during the 1990s, when it was shown to be fundamentally inadequate. Today, lingering equilibrium assumptions in the methodological legacy of pastoral development get in the way of operationalising state-of-the-art understanding of pastoral systems and drylands...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917973/institutional-development-from-legal-pluralism-to-institutional-bricolage-in-west-african-pastoralism
#20
G Fokou, B Bonfoh
Pastoralists in Africa are increasingly vulnerable to the effects of globalisation, climate change and changes in land use. They are confronted with problems related to access to scarce natural resources and their regulation, the management of mobility, and too little investment in health systems, livestock production and social service delivery. However, this paper focuses on positive trends and vital innovations in pastoral societies. These rely on robust institutions and policy frameworks that contribute to economically secure, politically stable, and environmentally sustainable livelihoods for African pastoral societies...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
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