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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161277/women-s-opinion-on-the-justification-of-physical-spousal-violence-a-quantitative-approach-to-model-the-most-vulnerable-households-in-bangladesh
#1
Raaj Kishore Biswas, Nusma Rahman, Enamul Kabir, Farabi Raihan
Bangladesh is a culturally conservative nation with limited freedom for women. A number of studies have evaluated intimate partner violence (IPV) and spousal physical violence in Bangladesh; however, the views of women have been rarely discussed in a quantitative manner. Three nationwide surveys in Bangladesh (2007, 2011, and 2014) were analyzed in this study to characterize the most vulnerable households, where women themselves accepted spousal physical violence as a general norm. 31.3%, 31.9% and 28.7% women in the surveys found justification for physical violence in household in 2007, 2011 and 2014 respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161175/performance-discrepancies-on-the-boston-naming-test-in-african-american-and-non-hispanic-white-american-young-adults
#2
Sabrina Na, Tricia Z King
The Boston Naming Test (BNT) is one of the most commonly used naming measures in neuropsychology. Although research in the older adult population has shown that African-American (AA) adults perform more poorly on the BNT than non-Hispanic White American (WA) adults, these findings have yet to be replicated in younger adults. The BNT and measures of word reading (WJ-Letter Word ID) and vocabulary (Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence Vocabulary) were administered to 50 WA and 33 AA young adults. Performance was age-normed based on published norms and transformed into z-scores...
November 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161072/sexual-assertiveness-skills-and-sexual-decision-making-in-adolescent-girls-randomized-controlled-trial-of-an-online-program
#3
Laura Widman, Carol E Golin, Kristyn Kamke, Jeni L Burnette, Mitchell J Prinstein
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of an interactive, Web-based sexual health program (Health Education and Relationship Training [HEART]) for developing sexual assertiveness skills and enhancing sexual decision-making in adolescent girls. METHODS: Participants were 222 tenth-grade girls (mean age = 15.2; 38% White, 29% Hispanic, 25% Black) in the Southeastern United States who were randomized in fall 2015 to the HEART intervention or an attention-matched control...
November 21, 2017: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160930/brain-responses-to-social-norms-meta-analyses-of-fmri-studies
#4
Oksana Zinchenko, Marie Arsalidou
Social norms have a critical role in everyday decision-making, as frequent interaction with others regulates our behavior. Neuroimaging studies show that social-based and fairness-related decision-making activates an inconsistent set of areas, which sometimes includes the anterior insula, anterior cingulate cortex, and others lateral prefrontal cortices. Social-based decision-making is complex and variability in findings may be driven by socio-cognitive activities related to social norms. To distinguish among social-cognitive activities related to social norms, we identified 36 eligible articles in the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) literature, which we separate into two categories (a) social norm representation and (b) norm violations...
November 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160603/relationship-between-self-reported-cognitive-difficulties-objective-neuropsychological-test-performance-and-psychological-distress-in-chronic-pain
#5
K S Baker, S J Gibson, N Georgiou-Karistianis, M J Giummarra
BACKGROUND: Persons with chronic pain often report problems with cognitive abilities, such as memory or attention. There is limited understanding of whether objective performance is consistent with subjective reports, and how psychological factors contribute. We aimed to investigate these relationships in a group of patients expressing cognitive concerns, and evaluate the utility of self-report tools for pain management settings. METHOD: Participants with chronic pain (n = 41) completed standardized neuropsychological tests, and self-report measures of cognitive functioning, pain, mood and sleep, as part of a broader study investigating cognitive performance in pain...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160192/sibship-size-and-young-women-s-transitions-to-adulthood-in-india
#6
K G Santhya, A J Francis Zavier
In India, a substantial proportion of young people are growing up in smaller families with fewer siblings than earlier generations of young people. Studies exploring the associations between declines in sibship size and young people's life experiences are limited. Drawing on data from a sub-nationally representative study conducted in 2006-08 of over 50,000 youths in India, this paper examines the associations between surviving sibship size and young women's (age 20-24) transitions to adulthood. Young women who reported no or a single surviving sibling were categorized as those with a small surviving sibship size, and those who reported two or more surviving siblings as those with a large surviving sibship size...
November 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160191/small-family-norms-and-family-well-being-in-indonesia-2006-2014
#7
S Sujarwoto
This study examines the consequences of the universalization of small family norms in Indonesia for family well-being over the past decade (2006-2014) using contrasting views of Malthusian theory. Data came from Indonesia's 2006-2014 Socio-Economic Survey (Susenas) conducted by Indonesia's Bureau of Statistics and from official statistics. The survey covered 2.3 million households in 483 districts of the country. The findings show a steady small family ratio and an increase in family well-being over this period...
November 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160190/far-below-replacement-fertility-in-urban-china
#8
Zhongwei Zhao, Qinzi Xu, Xin Yuan
China's urban population has experienced rapid fertility decline over the past six decades. This drastic change will have a significant impact on China's demographic, social and economic future. However, the patterns and characteristics of urban China's fertility decline have not been systematically examined. This study analyses the trends and age patterns of fertility in urban China since the 1950s, and summarizes the major characteristics of reproductive behaviours into four 'lows': extremely 'low' level of fertility; 'low' proportion of two and higher parity births; 'low' mean age at birth; and 'low' level of childlessness...
November 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160187/the-role-of-community-structure-in-shaping-african-fertility-pattern-evidence-from-demographic-and-health-surveys
#9
Clifford Odimegwu, Sunday A Adedini
Anthropological explanations of demographic outcomes have emphasized the need to understand how community structures contribute to those outcomes. However, studies on fertility dynamics in Africa have largely focused on micro-level factors, thus ignoring the influence of community contexts. Using the most recent Demographic and Health Survey data from Egypt (Northern Africa), Cameroon (Middle Africa), Kenya (Eastern Africa), Nigeria (Western Africa) and Zimbabwe (Southern Africa), the study employed multilevel Poisson regression models to examine the influence of community factors on African fertility levels and patterns...
November 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159774/pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics-and-safety-of-rasagiline-transdermal-patch-a-preliminary-study-in-healthy-chinese-subjects
#10
Wenjia Zhou, Chengzhe Lv, Quanying Zhang, Shunlin Zong, Meng Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Rasagiline tablet is an oral MAO-B inhibitor applied in early or advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). However, when patients with PD cannot take their usual oral medications, a rasagiline transdermal patch can be used as a way to offer continuous rasagiline while avoiding plasma concentration peaks and troughs. The objectives of this study were to investigate the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of the rasagiline transdermal patch in healthy Chinese subjects...
November 20, 2017: Clinical Drug Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158965/colour-change-of-twig-mimicking-peppered-moth-larvae-is-a-continuous-reaction-norm-that-increases-camouflage-against-avian-predators
#11
Amy Eacock, Hannah M Rowland, Nicola Edmonds, Ilik J Saccheri
Camouflage, and in particular background-matching, is one of the most common anti-predator strategies observed in nature. Animals can improve their match to the colour/pattern of their surroundings through background selection, and/or by plastic colour change. Colour change can occur rapidly (a few seconds), or it may be slow, taking hours to days. Many studies have explored the cues and mechanisms behind rapid colour change, but there is a considerable lack of information about slow colour change in the context of predation: the cues that initiate it, and the range of phenotypes that are produced...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158204/definition-of-a-snomed-ct-pathology-subset-and-microglossary-based-on-1-17-million-biological-samples-from-the-catalan-pathology-registry
#12
Xavier Sanz, Laura Pareja, Ariadna Rius, Pepi Rodenas, Núria Abdón, Jordi Gálvez, Laura Esteban, Josep Maria Escribà, Josep Maria Borràs, Josepa Ribes
SNOMED CT terminology is not backed by standard norms of encoding among pathologists. The vast number of concepts ordered in hierarchies and axes, together with the lack of rules of use, complicates the functionality of SNOMED CT for coding, extracting, and analyzing the data. Defining subgroups of SNOMED CT by discipline could increase its functionality. The challenge lies in how to choose the concepts to be included in a subset from a total of over 300,000. Besides, SNOMED CT does not cover daily need, as the clinical reality is dynamic and changing...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157645/law-based-arguments-and-messages-to-advocate-for-later-school-start-time-policies-in-the-united-states
#13
REVIEW
Clark J Lee, Dennis M Nolan, Steven W Lockley, Brent Pattison
The increasing scientific evidence that early school start times are harmful to the health and safety of teenagers has generated much recent debate about changing school start times policies for adolescent students. Although efforts to promote and implement such changes have proliferated in the United States in recent years, they have rarely been supported by law-based arguments and messages that leverage the existing legal infrastructure regulating public education and child welfare in the United States. Furthermore, the legal bases to support or resist such changes have not been explored in detail to date...
December 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157259/a-qualitative-exploration-of-perceptions-and-experiences-of-contraceptive-use-abortion-and-post-abortion-family-planning-services-pafp-in-three-provinces-in-china
#14
Yan Che, Esther Dusabe-Richards, Shangchun Wu, Yi Jiang, Xiaojing Dong, Jian Li, Wei-Hong Zhang, Marleen Temmerman, Rachel Tolhurst
BACKGROUND: The INPAC project aims to evaluate the effectiveness of integrated post-abortion family planning (PAFP) services into existing hospital based abortion services in China. A qualitative study was conducted in three provinces to contribute to developing effective PAFP services through understanding influences on contraceptive use, experiences of abortion and existing PAFP, and their effect on future contraceptive practices from the perspective of users, in the context of social and institutional change...
November 21, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157005/quantitative-structure-activity-relationship-of-anti-hiv-integrase-and-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-using-norm-indexes
#15
Y Wang, F Yan, Q Jia, Y Dai, Q Wang
The development of new and safe anti-human immunodeficiency virus (anti-HIV) drugs has been an urgent task for medical research recently. Herein, based on the norm-index descriptors proposed in this work and previous works, a couple of models were developed for investigating the quantitative structure-activity/toxicity relationship (QSAR/QSTR) of dual-target anti-HIV integrase (IN) and reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitors. The validation results proved that the developed models were stable and reliable, both in statistical quality and predictive capacity...
November 20, 2017: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156446/who-is-watching-user-generated-alcohol-posts-on-social-media
#16
Eilin K Erevik, Ståle Pallesen, Cecilie S Andreassen, Øystein Vedaa, Torbjørn Torsheim
AIM: To examine students' exposure to user-generated alcohol content on social media, and identify characteristics (i.e. demographics, personality traits, alcohol use, alcohol-related cognitions, and social media factors) associated with monthly or more frequent exposure. METHOD: College/university students (N=11,236) in Bergen, Norway, completed a web-survey measuring exposure to alcohol on social media - both frequency and interpretations of alcohol content. The survey included questions regarding demographics, personality, alcohol-related cognitions, and general use of social media and alcohol...
November 14, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156358/peer-norms-moderate-the-association-between-mental-health-and-sexual-risk-behaviors-among-young-men-living-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#17
L M Hill, J Moody, N C Gottfredson, L J Kajula, B W Pence, V F Go, S Maman
BACKGROUND: Young men living in Dar es Salaam's informal settlements face environmental stressors that may expose them to multiple determinants of HIV risk including poor mental health and risky sexual behavior norms. We aimed to understand how these co-occurring risk factors not only independently affect men's condom use and sexual partner concurrency, but also how they interact to shape these risk behaviors. METHODS: Participants in the study were male members of 59 social groups known as "camps" in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania...
November 4, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155134/the-expected-value-of-the-squared-cophenetic-metric-under-the-yule-and-the-uniform-models
#18
Gabriel Cardona, Arnau Mir, Francesc Rosselló, Lucia Rotger
The cophenetic metrics dφ, p, for p ∈ {0} ∪ [1, ∞), are a recent addition to the kit of available distances for the comparison of phylogenetic trees. Based on a fifty years old idea of Sokal and Rohlf, these metrics compare phylogenetic trees on a same set of taxa by encoding them by means of their vectors of cophenetic values of pairs of taxa and depths of single taxa, and then computing the L(p) norm of the difference of the corresponding vectors. In this paper we compute the expected value of the square of dφ, 2 on the space of fully resolved rooted phylogenetic trees with n leaves, under the Yule and the uniform probability distributions...
November 16, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154639/developmental-relations-between-alcohol-expectancies-and-social-norms-in-predicting-alcohol-onset
#19
Tim Janssen, Hayley Treloar Padovano, Jennifer E Merrill, Kristina M Jackson
Expectations about alcohol's effects and perceptions of peers' behaviors and beliefs related to alcohol use are each shown to strongly influence the timing of drinking onset during adolescence. The present study builds on prior work by examining the conjoint effects of within-person changes in these social-cognitive factors on age of adolescent drinking onset. We related youths' alcohol status (i.e., alcohol-naive, initiation during study, prior initiation) to increases in positive and negative alcohol outcome expectancies (AOEs), as well as increases in perceived peer/close friend alcohol use and acceptance, during adolescence...
November 20, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154607/situation-specific-social-norms-as-mediators-of-social-influence-on-snacking
#20
Benjamin Schüz, Thalia Papadakis, Stuart G Ferguson
OBJECTIVE: Social factors are among the most powerful and pervasive influences on eating behavior, snacking in particular. Previous research has shown that being in the presence of people who are eating significantly increases the likelihood of eating and affects the types as well as the amount of food consumed. Much less is known about the processes underlying social influence, but previous research has suggested social norms as mediators. In this study, we extended this perspective to everyday settings and examined whether the presence of other people eating leads to a change in perceived momentary norms, and whether this change predicts snack consumption in real life...
November 20, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
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