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soft laser

J Baumann, C Herzog, M Spanier, D Grötzsch, L Lühl, K Witte, A Jonas, S Günther, F Förste, R Hartmann, M Huth, D Kalok, D Steigenhöfer, M Krämer, T Holz, R Dietsch, L Strüder, B Kanngießer, I Mantouvalou
Grazing incidence and grazing emission X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (GI/GE-XRF) are techniques that enable nondestructive, quantitative analysis of elemental depth profiles with a resolution in the nanometer regime. A laboratory setup for soft X-ray GEXRF measurements is presented. Reasonable measurement times could be achieved by combining a highly brilliant laser produced plasma (LPP) source with a scanning-free GEXRF setup, providing a large solid angle of detection. The detector, a pnCCD, was operated in a single photon counting mode in order to utilize its energy dispersive properties...
January 10, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
K A Wang, G S Wu, Y Sun, Z F Xia
Scar contracture deformity, which can lead to dysfunction of hand and low quality of life, is one of the common complication after hand burns. The prevention measures of scar contracture after hand burns include large skin grafting, prevention of infection, insistence on wearing pressure gloves, use of silicone sheets, wearing orthosis, accepting proper physical therapy, and early functional exercise. The primary treatments of postburn contractures of the hand are surgery, drugs, laser treatment, and rehabilitation therapy...
January 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Ravini U Chandrasena, Weibing Yang, Qingyu Lei, Mario Ulises Delgado-Jaime, Kanishka D Wijesekara, Maryam Golalikhani, Bruce Davidson, Elke Arenholz, Keisuke Kobayashi, Masaaki Kobata, Frank M F de Groot, Ulrich Aschauer, Nicola A Spaldin, Xiaoxing Xi, Alexander X Gray
We demonstrate a novel pathway to control and stabilize oxygen vacancies in complex transition-metal oxide thin films. Using atomic layer-by-layer pulsed laser deposition (PLD) from two separate targets, we synthesize high-quality single-crystalline CaMnO3 films with systematically varying oxygen vacancy defect formation energies as controlled by coherent tensile strain. The systematic increase of the oxygen vacancy content in CaMnO3 as a function of applied in-plane strain is observed and confirmed experimentally using high-resolution soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) in conjunction with bulk-sensitive hard x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES)...
January 19, 2017: Nano Letters
Stefano Bonetti
Understanding how spins move in time and space is the aim of both fundamental and applied research in modern magnetism. Over the past three decades, research in this field has led to technological advances that have had a major impact on our society, while improving the understanding of the fundamentals of spin physics. However, important questions still remain unanswered, because it is experimentally challenging to directly observe spins and their motion with a combined high spatial and temporal resolution...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Doru Alexandrescu, Sabrina Fabi, Lindsey C Yeh, Richard E Fitzpatrick, Mitchel P Goldman
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of keloids involves a hyperproliferative state due to molecular abnormalities, cellular driving pathways, such as TGF, VEGF, and the inactivation of proapoptotic genes. We reviewed the literature and compared various treatment combina- tions in the treatment of keloids in a one patient observation. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Treatment modalities consisted of: intralesional 5- uorouracil (5-FU)/triamcinolone (TMC), 5-FU/verapamil, enal- april alone, verapamil alone, and fractional carbon dioxide laser...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Gulbahar Ustaoglu, Esra Ercan, Mustafa Tunali
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on wound healing at free gingival graft (FGG) donor sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty patients requiring FGG were selected for this randomized, controlled, and double-blinded prospective clinical trial. The FGG donor sites were treated with LLLT and compared with an untreated control group. The Wound-Healing Index (WHI), tissue consistency, color match, and H2O2 bubbling test for the evaluation of complete wound epithelialization were recorded on the 3rd, 7th, 14th and 21st days...
January 12, 2017: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
Pol Grasland-Mongrain, Yuankang Lu, Frederic Lesage, Stefan Catheline, Guy Cloutier
This article describes the generation of elastic shear waves in a soft medium using a laser beam. Our experiments show two different regimes depending on laser energy. Physical modeling of the underlying phenomena reveals a thermoelastic regime caused by a local dilatation resulting from temperature increase, and an ablative regime caused by a partial vaporization of the medium by the laser. Computed theoretical displacements are close to experimental measurements. A numerical study based on the physical modeling gives propagation patterns comparable to those generated experimentally...
November 28, 2016: Applied Physics Letters
H Li, R Wu, F Poenisch, L Zhang, M Palmer, A Gautam, N Sahoo, X Zhang, P Balter, M Gillin, B Gunn, S Frank, X Zhu
PURPOSE: To implement soft-tissue image-guided proton therapy using inroom mobile CT. METHODS: Anthropomorphic phantom was first used to determine the setup accuracy using in- room mobile CT. Laser and bbs were used for the initial setup (marked isocenter). CT data was then acquired with in-room mobile CT (daily CT). The shift between the marked isocenter and the planned isocenter (final isocenter) was determined from the daily CT using in-house Computer Assisted Targeting (CAT) software...
June 2016: Medical Physics
Jian Yu, Shenye Liu, Jin Li, Zhiwen Yang, Ming Chen, Luting Guo, Li Yao, Shali Xiao
In this paper, we introduce a new method to calibrate the absolute sensitivity of a soft X-ray streak camera (SXRSC). The calibrations are done in the static mode by using a small laser-produced X-ray source. A calibrated X-ray CCD is used as a secondary standard detector to monitor the X-ray source intensity. In addition, two sets of holographic flat-field grating spectrometers are chosen as the spectral discrimination systems of the SXRSC and the X-ray CCD. The absolute sensitivity of the SXRSC is obtained by comparing the signal counts of the SXRSC to the output counts of the X-ray CCD...
December 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Thanh Hung Dinh, Yoshiki Kondo, Toshiki Tamura, Yuichi Ono, Hiroyuki Hara, Hiroki Oikawa, Yoichi Yamamoto, Masahiko Ishino, Masaharu Nishikino, Tetsuya Makimura, Padraig Dunne, Gerry O'Sullivan, Shigeru Ohta, Ken Kitano, Takeo Ejima, Tadashi Hatano, Takeshi Higashiguchi
A flat-field grazing incidence spectrometer operating on the spectral region from 1 to 10 nm was built for research on physics of high temperature and high energy density plasmas. It consists of a flat-field grating with 2400 lines/mm as a dispersing element and an x-ray charged coupled device (CCD) camera as the detector. The diffraction efficiency of the grating and the sensitivity of the CCD camera were directly measured by use of synchrotron radiation at the BL-11D beamline of the Photon Factory (PF). The influence of contamination to the spectrometer also was characterized...
December 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
Hreedish Kakoty, Rajarshi Banerjee, Chandan Dasgupta, Ambarish Ghosh
Controlling an assembly of colloidal particles under external forces can be helpful in developing soft nanomaterials with novel functionalities. How external impurities organize within such confined systems is of fundamental and technological interest, especially when the system sizes are so small that even a single dopant can interact with an appreciable fraction of the system. To address this question, we use a defocused laser beam to form two-dimensional colloidal crystallites containing foreign dopants...
December 16, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Jacek Matys, Marzena Dominiak
BACKGROUND: Different methods aimed at decreasing pain during some soft tissue procedures in dentistry are still under research. Modern devices as lasers could be a method to reduce the pain and duration of second stage implant surgery. OBJECTIVES: To assess the pain and the impression quality when uncovering implants with a laser and with a scalpel. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis included 60 implants (Dentium SuperLine, Suwon, Korea) in 30 patients (23 women and 7 men) aged 25-69...
November 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Mathew J Cherukara, Kiran Sasikumar, Wonsuk Cha, Badri Narayanan, Steven Leake, Eric Dufresne, Tom Peterka, Ian McNulty, Haidan Wen, Subramanian K R S Sankaranarayanan, Ross Harder
Imaging the dynamical response of materials following ultrafast excitation can reveal energy transduction mechanisms and their dissipation pathways, as well as material stability under conditions far from equilibrium. Such dynamical behaviour is challenging to characterize, especially operando at nanoscopic spatiotemporal scales. In this letter, we use x-ray coherent diffractive imaging to show that ultrafast laser excitation of a ZnO nanocrystal induces a rich set of deformation dynamics including characteristic 'hard' or inhomogeneous and 'soft' or homogeneous modes at different time scales, corresponding respectively to the propagation of acoustic phonons and resonant oscillation of the crystal...
December 27, 2016: Nano Letters
Th Keil, S V Popruzhenko, D Bauer
Photoelectron spectra obtained from the ab initio solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation can be in striking disagreement with predictions by the strong-field approximation (SFA), not only at low energy but also around twice the ponderomotive energy where the transition from the direct to the rescattered electrons is expected. In fact, the relative enhancement of the ionization probability compared to the SFA in this regime can be several orders of magnitude. We show for which laser and target parameters such an enhancement occurs and for which the SFA prediction is qualitatively good...
December 9, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Mario Migliario, Manuela Rizzi, Alberta Greco Lucchina, Filippo Renò
The gold standard to arrange impacted teeth in the dental arch is represented by a surgical approach followed by orthodontic traction force application. In the literature, many surgical approaches are proposed to reach such a scope. The aim of the present study is to demonstrate how laser technique could positively assist surgical approaches.Study population was composed by 16 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment of 20 impacted teeth. In 10 patients (population A) surgical exposure of the impacted teeth was performed using a 980 nm diode laser, while in the other 10 patients (population B), surgical incision was performed using a traditional lancet...
November 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Louis B G Cortes, Yongxiang Gao, Roel P A Dullens, Dirk G A L Aarts
We report on the confinement of colloidal liquid crystals in three dimensional chambers with a square footprint. To this end we use colloidal silica rods and exploit their relatively large density difference with respect to the dispersing solvent to study isotropic, nematic and smectic phases confined into a single chamber. Combining laser scanning confocal microscopy and soft-lithography techniques enables us to characterize the configurations down to the single particle level. We will focus on the smectic phase and compare to recent theories and simulations...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Tim Joda, Marco Ferrari, German O Gallucci, Julia-Gabriela Wittneben, Urs Brägger
Digital protocols are increasingly influencing prosthodontic treatment concepts. Implant-supported single-unit and short-span reconstructions will benefit mostly from the present digital trends. In these protocols, monolithic implant crowns connected to prefabricated titanium abutments, which are created based on data obtained from an intraoral scan followed by virtual design and production, without the need of a physical master cast, have to be considered in lieu of conventional manufacturing techniques for posterior implant restorations...
February 2017: Periodontology 2000
Constanza E Fernández, Marcelo B Aspiras, Michael W Dodds, Carlos González-Cabezas, Alexander H Rickard
AIM: Saliva has been previously used as an inoculum for in-vitro oral biofilm studies. However, the microbial community profile of saliva is markedly different from hard and soft tissue-associated oral biofilms. Here, we investigated the changes in the biofilm architecture and microbial diversity of in-vitro oral biofilms developed from saliva, tongue or plaque-derived inocula under different salivary shear forces. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four inoculum-types (saliva, bacteria harvested from the tongue, toothbrush and curette-harvested plaque) were collected and pooled...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Yin Huang, Ning Zheng, Zhiqiang Cheng, Ying Chen, Bingwei Lu, Tao Xie, Xue Feng
Flexible and stretchable electronics offer a wide range of unprecedented opportunities beyond conventional rigid electronics. Despite their vast promise, a significant bottleneck lies in the availability of a transfer printing technique to manufacture such devices in a highly controllable and scalable manner. Current technologies usually rely on manual stick-and-place and do not offer feasible mechanisms for precise and quantitative process control, especially when scalability is taken into account. Here, we demonstrate a spatioselective and programmable transfer strategy to print electronic microelements onto a soft substrate...
December 28, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Amanda R Falk, Thomas G Kaye, Zhonghe Zhou, David A Burnham
In this paper we report the discovery of non-plumage soft tissues in Confuciusornis, a basal beaked bird from the Early Cretaceous Jehol Biota in northeastern China. Various soft tissues are visualized and interpreted through the use of laser-stimulated fluorescence, providing much novel anatomical information about this early bird, specifically reticulate scales covering the feet, and the well-developed and robust pro- and postpatagium. We also include a direct comparison between the forelimb soft tissues of Confuciusornis and modern avian patagia...
2016: PloS One
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