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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338202/nanoscale-domain-imaging-of-all-polymer-organic-solar-cells-by-photo-induced-force-microscopy
#1
Kevin L Gu, Yan Zhou, William A Morrison, Katherine Park, Sung Park, Zhenan Bao
Rapid nanoscale imaging of the bulk heterojunction layer in organic solar cells is essential to the continued development of high-performance devices. Unfortunately, commonly used imaging techniques such as tunneling electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) suffer from significant drawbacks. For instance, assuming domain identity from phase contrast or topographical features can lead to inaccurate morphological conclusions. Here we demonstrate a technique known as Photo-induced Force Microscopy (PiFM) for imaging organic solar cell bulk heterojunctions with nanoscale chemical specificity...
January 16, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337704/the-what-when-and-how-in-performing-and-interpreting-microbiological-diagnostic-tests-in-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections
#2
Carolina Navarro-San Francisco, Patricia Ruiz-Garbajosa, Rafael Cantón
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize and classify the most recent and relevant microbiological studies for each type of skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). RECENT FINDINGS: Following Infectious Diseases Society of America and Food and Drug Administration classifications of SSTIs, we differentiate between two large groups, the superficial or uncomplicated infections and the complicated infections with deep involvement. It is not usually necessary to obtain microbiological samples in uncomplicated infections, except in cases of recurrences or for epidemiological control purposes...
January 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332928/optical-coherence-tomography-for-precision-brain-imaging-neurosurgical-guidance-and-minimally-invasive-theranostics
#3
Yingwei Fan, Yan Xia, Xinran Zhang, Yu Sun, Jie Tang, Liwei Zhang, Hongen Liao
This review focuses on optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based neurosurgical application for imaging and treatment of brain tumors. OCT has emerged as one of the most innovative and successful translational biomedical-diagnostic techniques. It is a useful imaging tool for noninvasive, in vivo, in situ and real-time imaging in soft biological tissues, such as brain tumor imaging. OCT can detect the structure of biological tissue in a micrometer scale, and functional OCT has some clinical researches and applications, such as nerve fiber tracts and neurovascular imaging...
January 15, 2018: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328233/nonlinearity-aware-200%C3%A2-%C3%A2-gbit-s-dmt-transmission-for-c-band-short-reach-optical-interconnects-with-a-single-packaged-electro-absorption-modulated-laser
#4
Lu Zhang, Xuezhi Hong, Xiaodan Pang, Oskars Ozolins, Aleksejs Udalcovs, Richard Schatz, Changjian Guo, Junwei Zhang, Fredrik Nordwall, Klaus M Engenhardt, Urban Westergren, Sergei Popov, Gunnar Jacobsen, Shilin Xiao, Weisheng Hu, Jiajia Chen
We experimentally demonstrate the transmission of a 200 Gbit/s discrete multitone (DMT) at the soft forward error correction limit in an intensity-modulation direct-detection system with a single C-band packaged distributed feedback laser and traveling-wave electro absorption modulator (DFB-TWEAM), digital-to-analog converter and photodiode. The bit-power loaded DMT signal is transmitted over 1.6 km standard single-mode fiber with a net rate of 166.7 Gbit/s, achieving an effective electrical spectrum efficiency of 4...
January 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324516/implants-with-and-without-laser-microtextured-collar-a-10-year-clinical-and-radiographic-comparative-evaluation
#5
Renzo Guarnieri, Rolando Ceccarelli, John L Ricci, Tiziano Testori
INTRODUCTION: This article reports, after at least 10 years of follow-up, the comparative data of marginal bone loss (MBL) and periimplant soft tissue parameters, around implant with and without laser-microtextured (L) collar surface, previously reported at 3 years of follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty implants with L collar surface (test) were placed adjacent to 20 control implants with machined (M) collar surface in 15 partially edentulous patients, who were followed up for at least 10 years as part of a prospective longitudinal study...
January 10, 2018: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317662/shrinkable-silver-diffraction-grating-fabricated-inside-a-hydrogel-using-522-nm-femtosecond-laser
#6
Manan Machida, Yasutaka Nakajima, Maria Leilani Torres-Mapa, Dag Heinemann, Alexander Heisterkamp, Mitsuhiro Terakawa
The integration of metal microstructures and soft materials is promising for the realization of novel optical and biomedical devices owing to the flexibility and biocompatibility of the latter. Nevertheless, the fabrication of three-dimensional metal structures within a soft material is still challenging. In this study, we demonstrate the fabrication of a silver diffraction grating inside a biocompatible poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) hydrogel by using a 522-nm femtosecond laser via multi-photon photoreduction of silver ions...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315917/covalent-bonding-of-thermoplastics-to-rubbers-for-printable-reel-to-reel-processing-in-soft-robotics-and-microfluidics
#7
Jay M Taylor, Karla Perez-Toralla, Ruby Aispuro, Stephen A Morin
The lamination of mechanically stiff structures to elastic materials is prevalent in biological systems and popular in many emerging synthetic systems, such as soft robotics, microfluidics, stretchable electronics, and pop-up assemblies. The disparate mechanical and chemical properties of these materials have made it challenging to develop universal synthetic procedures capable of reliably adhering to these classes of materials together. Herein, a simple and scalable procedure is described that is capable of covalently laminating a variety of commodity ("off-the-shelf") thermoplastic sheets to silicone rubber films...
January 8, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315080/ultrafast-magnetodynamics-with-free-electron-lasers
#8
Marco Malvestuto, Roberta Ciprian, Antonio Caretta, Barbara Casarin, Fulvio Parmigiani
The study of ultrafast magnetodynamics has entered a new era thanks to the groundbreaking technological advances in free-electron laser (FEL) light sources. The advent of these light sources has made possible unprecedented experimental schemes for time-resolved x-ray magneto-optic spectroscopies, which are now paving the road for exploring the ultimate limits of out-of-equilibrium magnetic phenomena. In particular, these studies will provide insights into elementary mechanisms governing spin and orbital dynamics, therefore contributing to the development of ultrafast devices for relevant magnetic technologies...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303758/response-of-soft-tissue-to-different-abutment-materials-with-different-surface-topographies-a-review-of-the-literature
#9
Feras Al Rezk, Georgia Trimpou, Hans-Christoph Lauer, Paul Weigl, Nadine Krockow
Soft tissue integration in the transmucosal zone of dental abutments supports the peri-implant tissues, improves esthetics, ensures soft tissue seal against microorganisms, and preserves crestal bone level. The aim of this literature review was to define the most favorable surface topography and macrodesign of the transmucosal zone of abutments to achieve optimal soft tissue seal. An electronic search of the PubMed/MEDLINE database was performed, seeking relevant English-language articles published between January 1, 2003, and October 11, 2014...
January 2018: General Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302968/writing-wrinkles-on-polydimethylsiloxane-pdms-by-surface-oxidation-with-a-co2-laser-engraver
#10
Lin Qi, Cody Ruck, Griffin Spychalski, Brian King, Benxin Wu, Yi Zhao
Surface wrinkles formed by the buckling of a strained stiff layer attached to a soft elastomer foundation has been widely used in a variety of applications. Micropatterning of wrinkled topographies is, however, limited by process/system complexities. In this paper, we report an approach to write surface wrinkles with desired pattern geometries on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomers using a commercial infrared laser engraver with the spot size of 127 μm. Wrinkled micropatterns with the wavelength from < 50 μm to > 300 μm were obtained in minutes without using special facilities or atmospheres...
January 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302026/acetylacetone-photodynamics-at-a-seeded-free-electron-laser
#11
R J Squibb, M Sapunar, A Ponzi, R Richter, A Kivimäki, O Plekan, P Finetti, N Sisourat, V Zhaunerchyk, T Marchenko, L Journel, R Guillemin, R Cucini, M Coreno, C Grazioli, M Di Fraia, C Callegari, K C Prince, P Decleva, M Simon, J H D Eland, N Došlić, R Feifel, M N Piancastelli
The first steps in photochemical processes, such as photosynthesis or animal vision, involve changes in electronic and geometric structure on extremely short time scales. Time-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy is a natural way to measure such changes, but has been hindered hitherto by limitations of available pulsed light sources in the vacuum-ultraviolet and soft X-ray spectral region, which have insufficient resolution in time and energy simultaneously. The unique combination of intensity, energy resolution, and femtosecond pulse duration of the FERMI-seeded free-electron laser can now provide exceptionally detailed information on photoexcitation-deexcitation and fragmentation in pump-probe experiments on the 50-femtosecond time scale...
January 4, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289316/resolution-improvement-of-3d-stereo-lithography-through-the-direct-laser-trajectory-programming-application-to-microfluidic-deterministic-lateral-displacement-device
#12
Petra Juskova, Alexis Ollitrault, Marco Serra, Jean-Louis Viovy, Laurent Malaquin
The vast majority of current microfluidic devices are produced using soft lithography, a technique with strong limitations regarding the fabrication of three-dimensional architectures. Additive manufacturing holds great promises to overcome these limitations, but conventional machines still lack the resolution required by most microfluidic applications. 3D printing machines based on two-photon lasers, in contrast, have the needed resolution but are too limited in speed and size of the global device. Here we demonstrate how the resolution of conventional stereolithographic machines can be improved by a direct programming of the laser path and can contribute to bridge the gap between the two above technologies, allowing the direct printing of features between 10 and 100 μm, corresponding to a large fraction of microfluidic applications...
February 13, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274158/prospective-study-of-the-532-nm-laser-ktp-versus-diode-laser-980-nm-in-the-resection-of-hyperplastic-lesions-of-the-oral-cavity
#13
P Bargiela-Perez, J Gonzalez-Merchan, R Diaz-Sanchez, M-A Serrera-Figallo, G Volland, M Joergens, J-L Gutierrez-Perez, D Torres-Lagares
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate the resection of hyperplastic lesions on the buccal mucosa comparing the 532nm laser (KTP), versus diode 980nm laser, considering pain, scarring, inflammation and drug consumption that occurred postoperatively with each lasers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective study of consecutive series of 20 patients in two groups that presents hyperplastic lesions on the buccal mucosa. The choice of the KTP laser or diode 980nm laser for the surgery was made randomly...
December 23, 2017: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273316/quantitative-assessment-and-interpretation-of-vaginal-conditions
#14
Vladimir Egorov, Miles Murphy, Vincent Lucente, Heather van Raalte, Sonya Ephrain, Nina Bhatia, Noune Sarvazyan
INTRODUCTION: Few means exist to provide quantitative and reproducible assessment of vaginal conditions from biomechanical and functional standpoints. AIM: To develop a new approach for quantitative biomechanical characterization of the vagina. METHODS: Vaginal tactile imaging (VTI) allows biomechanical assessment of soft tissue and function along the entire length of the anterior, posterior, and lateral vaginal walls. This can be done at rest, with applied vaginal deformation, and with pelvic muscle contraction...
December 19, 2017: Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232998/regio-isomeric-effects-in-tandem-mass-spectra-of-sulfonium-cations-generated-from-thiacyclane-based-sulfonium-salts-under-soft-ionization-conditions
#15
Vladimir G Zaikin, Anton V Kozlov, Roman S Borisov, Igor Yu Shchapin
The influence of regio-isomerism of even-electron sulfonium ions on tandem electrospray and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectra recorded by using collision-induced dissociation was investigated. The initial organic sulfides belonged to isomeric thiabicyclane series (substituted 7- and 8-thiabicyclo[4.3.0]nonanes, 2- and 3-thiabicyclo[4.4.0]decanes) and phenylthiolanes. To investigate by the abovementioned mass spectrometry methods, the sulfides were preliminary S-alkylated by methyl, ethyl iodides, their deuterated analogs and trialkoxonium tetrafluoroborates to form corresponding sulfonium salts...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Mass Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225769/fabrication-of-low-cost-micropatterned-polydimethyl-siloxane-scaffolds-to-organise-cells-in-a-variety-of-two-dimensioanl-biomimetic-arrangements-for-lab-on-chip-culture-platforms
#16
Lidia Escutia-Guadarrama, Genaro Vázquez-Victorio, David Martínez-Pastor, Brenda Nieto-Rivera, Marcela Sosa-Garrocho, Marina Macías-Silva, Mathieu Hautefeuille
We present the rapid-prototyping of type I collagen micropatterns on poly-dimethylsiloxane substrates for the biomimetic confinement of cells using the combination of a surface oxidation treatment and 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane silanisation followed by glutaraldehyde crosslinking. The aim of surface treatment is to stabilise microcontact printing transfer of this natural extracellular matrix protein that usually wears out easily from poly-dimethylsiloxane, which is not suitable for biomimetic cell culture platforms and lab-on-chip applications...
January 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217063/capillary-malformations-portwine-stains-of-the-head-and-neck-natural-history-investigations-laser-and-surgical-management
#17
REVIEW
Jeong Woo Lee, Ho Yun Chung
Capillary malformations (CMs), also known as port-wine stains, are the most common type of congenital vascular malformations. Facial CM often occurs with a quasidermatomal distribution according to the sensory trigeminal nerve distribution. With time, these lesions darken progressively, and soft tissue hypertrophy, bony hypertrophy, and/or nodule formation can develop. Multiple treatments for CM have been reported. However, the mainstay and gold standard therapy for facial or aesthetically sensitive CM is still the pulsed dye laser treatment...
February 2018: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216145/tailoring-axial-intensity-of-laser-beams-with-a-heart-shaped-hole
#18
Yulong Wang, Lijuan Xie, Jiasheng Ye, Wenfeng Sun, Xinke Wang, Shengfei Feng, Peng Han, Qiang Kan, Yan Zhang
We demonstrated a simple heart-shaped hole to tailor the axial intensity of a collimated laser beam. This hole is transformed from a soft-boundary one, which avoids the difficulty in fabricating the soft-boundary mask designed by the apodization method, as well as the interference problem caused by the pixel structure of the spatial light modulator. When a collimated light passes through this hole, its axial intensity oscillates less than 11% within a certain distance, while the fluctuation after the circular aperture is up to 200%...
December 1, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212216/naringin-improves-random-skin-flap-survival-in-rats
#19
Liang Cheng, Tingxiang Chen, Qiming Tu, Hang Li, Zhenghua Feng, Zhijie Li, Dingsheng Lin
Background: Random-pattern flap transfer is commonly used to treat soft-tissue defects. However, flap necrosis remains a serious problem. Naringin accelerates angiogenesis by activating the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). In the present study, we investigated whether naringin improves the survival of random skin flaps. Results: Compared with controls, the naringin-treated groups exhibited significantly larger mean areas of flap survival, significantly increased SOD activity and VEGF expression, and significantly reduced MDA level...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203904/spatial-blurring-in-laser-speckle-imaging-in-inhomogeneous-turbid-media
#20
Luka Vitomir, Joris Sprakel, Jasper van der Gucht
Laser speckle imaging (LSI) has developed into a versatile tool to image dynamical processes in turbid media, such as subcutaneous blood perfusion and heterogeneous dynamics in soft materials. Spatially resolved information about local dynamics is obtained by measuring time-dependent correlation functions of multiply scattered light. Due to the diffusive nature of photons in highly scattering media, the measured signal is a convolution of the local dynamics in the material and the spatial distribution of photons...
December 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
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