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soft laser

Spencer T Brinker, Steven P Kearney, Thomas J Royston, Dieter Klatt
The mechanical properties of tissue are sensitive to pathological changes, which is the basis for using dynamic elastography as a diagnostic tool. The purpose of this study is a concurrent cross-modality comparison of two dynamic elastography methods, Magnetic Resonance Elastography (MRE) and Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometry (SLDV) using a single vibration source method. Cylindrical soft tissue mimicking specimens of Plastisol and Ecoflex are stimulated with 60, 100, 150, and 250 Hz sinusoidal vibration during imaging...
May 8, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Luca Giannessi, Enrico Allaria, Kevin C Prince, Carlo Callegari, Giuseppe Sansone, Kiyoshi Ueda, Toru Morishita, Chien Nan Liu, Alexei N Grum-Grzhimailo, Elena V Gryzlova, Nicolas Douguet, Klaus Bartschat
The seeded Free-Electron Laser (FEL) FERMI is the first source of short-wavelength light possessing the full coherence of optical lasers, together with the extreme power available from FELs. FERMI provides longitudinally coherent radiation in the Extreme Ultraviolet and soft x-ray spectral regions, and therefore opens up wide new fields of investigation in physics. We first propose experiments exploiting this property to provide coherent control of the photoionization of neon and helium, carry out numerical calculations to find optimum experimental parameters, and then describe how these experiments may be realized...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nadine Kommerein, Katharina Doll, Nico S Stumpp, Meike Stiesch
Peri-implant infections are the most common cause of implant failure in modern dental implantology. These are caused by the formation of biofilms on the implant surface and consist of oral commensal and pathogenic bacteria, which harm adjacent soft and hard tissues and may ultimately lead to implant loss. In order to improve the clinical situation, there has to be a better understanding of biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. Therefore, we successfully developed a system to cultivate an oral multispecies biofilm model in a flow chamber system, optimized for the evaluation of biofilm formation on solid materials by direct microscopic investigation...
2018: PloS One
Khaled Sinjab, Carlos Garaicoa-Pazmino, Hom-Lay Wang
INTRODUCTION: Nonsurgical and surgical management of periimplant mucositis and periimplantitis have shown promising results in arresting periimplant marginal bone loss (MBL) and preventing implant loss. However, management of periimplant diseases still remains unpredictable for full reconstruction of lost tissues and completely arrests disease progression. The present study proposes a decision tree that compiles both clinical and radiographic presentation of failing implants to aid in the decision making for their management...
May 11, 2018: Implant Dentistry
Guido Bolognesi, Mark S Friddin, Ali Salehi-Reyhani, Nathan E Barlow, Nicholas J Brooks, Oscar Ces, Yuval Elani
Constructing higher-order vesicle assemblies has discipline-spanning potential from responsive soft-matter materials to artificial cell networks in synthetic biology. This potential is ultimately derived from the ability to compartmentalise and order chemical species in space. To unlock such applications, spatial organisation of vesicles in relation to one another must be controlled, and techniques to deliver cargo to compartments developed. Herein, we use optical tweezers to assemble, reconfigure and dismantle networks of cell-sized vesicles that, in different experimental scenarios, we engineer to exhibit several interesting properties...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Wen Yi Huo, Zhichao Li, Yao-Hua Chen, Xufei Xie, Guoli Ren, Hui Cao, Shu Li, Ke Lan, Jie Liu, Yongsheng Li, Sanwei Li, Liang Guo, Yonggang Liu, Dong Yang, Xiaohua Jiang, Lifei Hou, Huabing Du, Xiaoshi Peng, Tao Xu, Chaoguang Li, Xiayu Zhan, Zhebin Wang, Keli Deng, Qiangqiang Wang, Bo Deng, Feng Wang, Jiamin Yang, Shenye Liu, Shaoen Jiang, Guanghui Yuan, Haijun Zhang, Baibin Jiang, Wei Zhang, Qianqian Gu, Zhibing He, Kai Du, Xuewei Deng, Wei Zhou, Liquan Wang, Xiaoxia Huang, Yuancheng Wang, Dongxia Hu, Kuixing Zheng, Qihua Zhu, Yongkun Ding
The first octahedral spherical hohlraum energetics experiment is accomplished at the SGIII laser facility. For the first time, the 32 laser beams are injected into the octahedral spherical hohlraum through six laser entrance holes. Two techniques are used to diagnose the radiation field of the octahedral spherical hohlraum in order to obtain comprehensive experimental data. The radiation flux streaming out of laser entrance holes is measured by six flat-response x-ray detectors (FXRDs) and four M-band x-ray detectors, which are placed at different locations of the SGIII target chamber...
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Michael Layani, Xiaofeng Wang, Shlomo Magdassi
The field of 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing (AM), is developing rapidly in both academic and industrial research environments. New materials and printing technologies, which enable rapid and multimaterial printing, have given rise to new applications and utilizations. However, the main bottleneck for achieving many more applications is the lack of materials with new physical properties. Here, some of the recent reports on novel materials in this field, such as ceramics, glass, shape-memory polymers, and electronics, are reviewed...
May 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
Allan S Johnson, Dane R Austin, David A Wood, Christian Brahms, Andrew Gregory, Konstantin B Holzner, Sebastian Jarosch, Esben W Larsen, Susan Parker, Christian S Strüber, Peng Ye, John W G Tisch, Jon P Marangos
Laser-driven high-harmonic generation provides the only demonstrated route to generating stable, tabletop attosecond x-ray pulses but has low flux compared to other x-ray technologies. We show that high-harmonic generation can produce higher photon energies and flux by using higher laser intensities than are typical, strongly ionizing the medium and creating plasma that reshapes the driving laser field. We obtain high harmonics capable of supporting attosecond pulses up to photon energies of 600 eV and a photon flux inside the water window (284 to 540 eV) 10 times higher than previous attosecond sources...
May 2018: Science Advances
Zhaoqiang Zhang, Mohamed Ibrahim, Yang Fu, Xujia Wu, Fei Ren, Lei Chen
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is a new developing technology for printing individualized materials swiftly and precisely in the field of biological medicine (especially tissue-engineered materials). Prior to printing, it is necessary to scan the structure of the natural biological tissue, then construct the 3D printing digital model through optimizing the scanned data. By searching the literatures, magazines at home and abroad, this article reviewed the current status, main processes and matters needing attention of confocal laser scanning microscope (LSCM) in the application of soft tissue fine structure 3D scanning, empathizing the significance of LSCM in this field...
2018: International Journal of Burns and Trauma
Ryou Kubota, Shuang Liu, Hajime Shigemitsu, Keisuke Nakamura, Wataru Tanaka, Masato Ikeda, Itaru Hamachi
Multicomponent self-assembly is a fascinating strategy for the construction of smart soft materials. Among them, supramolecular hydrogels comprising self-sorting nanofibers have recently attracted significant attention owing to their rationally incorporated stimulus responsiveness. However, there have been limited investigations of the crucial factors that control the self-sorting phenomena. Here, we describe an imaging-based approach to evaluate the factors that control the formation of self-sorting nanofibers from peptide- and lipid-type hydrogelators...
May 9, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Hanne M van der Kooij, Simone Dussi, Gea T van de Kerkhof, Raoul A M Frijns, Jasper van der Gucht, Joris Sprakel
Stresses well below the critical fracture stress can lead to highly unpredictable delayed fracture after a long period of seemingly quiescent stability. Delayed fracture is a major threat to the lifetime of materials, and its unpredictability makes it difficult to prevent. This is exacerbated by the lack of consensus on the microscopic mechanisms at its origin because unambiguous experimental proof of these mechanisms remains absent. We present an experimental approach to measure, with high spatial and temporal resolution, the local deformations that precipitate crack nucleation...
May 2018: Science Advances
Elisabetta Merigo, Aldo Oppici, Anna Parlatore, Luigi Cella, Fabio Clini, Matteo Fontana, Carlo Fornaini
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been proposed for different applications in the medical field and in maxillofacial surgery thanks to its many growth factors, such as epidermal growth factor (EGF), fibroblast growth factor (FGF), and keratinocyte growth factor (KGF). Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a disease that affects the oral mucosa in a chronic way. This disease frequently worsens the quality of life of patients, particularly when clinical manifestations are of the erythematous or erosive/ulcerative type. The properties of PRP that are supported by scientific literature in both oral medicine and other medical fields have suggested the introduction of PRP in clinical practice for the medical treatment of different soft tissues diseases, such as when OLP patients do not respond to conventional therapies, or when conventional treatments have some contraindications or side effects...
February 6, 2018: Biomedicines
Xuelin Wang, Wenhao Yao, Rui Guo, Xiaohu Yang, Jianbo Tang, Jie Zhang, Weiping Gao, Victoria Timchenko, Jing Liu
As a class of emerging multifunctional soft materials, gallium-based liquid metal (LM) amalgams, metal/nonmetal particles dispersed in an LM environment, suggest a combination of intriguing properties. In this article, Mg particles in gallium-indium alloy for making new conceptual biomedical materials, which can adapt to any irregular skin surface, are introduced, and superior photothermal effect with a 61.5% photothermal conversion (PTC) increase with respect to that of the LM is realized. The formation of a new intermetallic phase Mg2 Ga5 and adjustable surface roughness, which guarantees a rapid temperature increase when illuminated by laser, are found to be responsible for the photothermal effect enhancement...
May 2, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Hyun-Taek Lee, Min-Soo Kim, Gil-Yong Lee, Chung-Soo Kim, Sung-Hoon Ahn
Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are widely utilized as an actuation source in microscale devices, since they have a simple actuation mechanism and high-power density. However, they have limitations in terms of strain range and actuation speed. High-speed microscale SMA actuators are developed having diamond-shaped frame structures with a diameter of 25 µm. These structures allow for a large elongation range compared with bulk SMA materials, with the aid of spring-like behavior under tensile deformation. These actuators are validated in terms of their applicability as an artificial muscle in microscale by investigating their behavior under mechanical deformation and changes in thermal conditions...
May 2, 2018: Small
Przemysław Wachulak, Martin Duda, Andrzej Bartnik, Antoni Sarzyński, Łukasz Węgrzyński, Michał Nowak, Alexandr Jancarek, Henryk Fiedorowicz
We present a compact laboratory system for near edge soft X-ray fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy that was developed using a laser-plasma light source. The source is based on a double stream gas puff target. The plasma is formed by the interaction of a laser beam with the double stream gas puff target approach. The laser plasma source was optimized for efficient soft X-ray emission from a krypton/helium target in the range of 1.5 to 5 nm wavelength. This emission is used to acquire simultaneously the emission and absorption spectra of soft X-ray light from the source and from the investigated sample using a grazing incidence spectrometer...
April 2, 2018: Optics Express
Toshiki Tamura, Goki Arai, Yoshiki Kondo, Hiroyuki Hara, Tadashi Hatano, Takeo Ejima, Weihua Jiang, Chihiro Suzuki, Gerry O'Sullivan, Takeshi Higashiguchi
We demonstrated the upper limitation to the number of shots, i.e., target lifetime, together with the number of photons emitted in the water-window soft x-ray spectral region from a number of targets used as sources in this spectral region, for multi-shot irradiation at the same position on the target surface. The spectra involved result from unresolved transition arrays originating from n=3-n=4 transitions in medium-Z element plasmas and from n=4-n=4 transitions originating in high-Z plasmas. The output flux was maintained for the highest number of shots in the case of the high melting point element molybdenum, and the total output in the water window was 7...
May 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Revnak Metin, Ufuk Tatli, Burcu Evlice
The aim of this prospective study was to examine possible benefits of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on soft and hard tissue healing after endodontic surgery. Seventy-six endo-surgery cases on maxillary incisors were included. The patients were assigned randomly into control and laser groups. In the laser group, gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) diode laser irradiation (810 nm, 129 mW, 3.87 J/cm2 ) was performed immediately after surgery and daily for postoperative 7 days from buccal and palatal surfaces (5 min for each side)...
April 30, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Mohamed Taha Chikhaoui, Amine Benouhiba, Patrick Rougeot, Kanty Rabenorosoa, Morvan Ouisse, Nicolas Andreff
Dexterity of robots is highly required when it comes to integration for medical applications. Major efforts have been conducted to increase the dexterity at the distal parts of medical robots. This paper reports on developments toward integrating biocompatible conducting polymers (CP) into inherently dexterous concentric tube robot paradigm. In the form of tri-layer thin structures, CP micro-actuators produce high strains while requiring less than 1 V for actuation. Fabrication, characterization, and first integrations of such micro-actuators are presented...
April 30, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Dennis S Petersen, Nils Kreuter, Lars Heepe, Sebastian Büsse, Arndt H J Wellbrock, Klaudia Witte, Stanislav N Gorb
The louse fly Crataerina pallida is an obligate blood-sucking ecto-parasite of the common swift Apus apus Due to reduction of the wings, C. pallida is unable to fly, thus an effective and reliable attachment to their host's plumage is of outmost importance. Its attachment system shows several modifications in comparison to other calyptrate flies. The most prominent ones are the large tridentate claws and the dichotomously shaped setae located on the pulvilli. Based on data from morphological analysis, confocal laser scanning microscopy, cryo-scanning electron microscopy and traction force experiments, performed on native (feathers) as well as artificial substrates (glass, epoxy-resin and silicone rubber), we showed that the entire attachment system is highly adapted to the fly's lifestyle as an ectoparasite...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Toshinori Morisaku, Hiroharu Yui
A laser-induced surface deformation (LISD) microscope is developed and applied to measurement of the dynamic relaxation responses of the plasma membrane in a living cell. A laser beam is tightly focused on an optional area of cell surface and the focused light induces microscopic deformation on the surface via radiation pressure. The LISD microscope not only allows non-contact and destruction-free measurement but provides power spectra of the surface responses depending on the frequency of the intensity of the laser beam...
April 27, 2018: Analyst
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