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hepatitis e virus and chicken

Lin Wang, Ling Wang
Animal models are one of the most important tools in the study of human hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection. They are particularly important in light of the major limitations of the cell culture system for HEV. Besides nonhuman primates, which are extremely valuable because of their susceptibility to HEV genotypes 1-4, animals like swine, rabbit, and chicken are also potential models for studies of pathogenesis, cross-species infection, and the molecular biology of HEV. Identification of the most useful animal model for human HEV infection studies is crucial to further investigations into this ubiquitous yet poorly understood virus...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Youchun Wang, Chenyan Zhao, Ying Qi, Yansheng Geng
Since the sequence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) was determined from a patient with enterically transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis in 1989, similar sequences have been isolated from many different animals, including pigs, wild boars, deer, rabbits, bats, rats, chicken, and trout. All of these sequences have the same genomic organization, which contains open reading frames (ORFs) 1, 2, and 3, although their genomic sequences are variable. Some have proposed that they be classified as new family, Hepeviridae, which would be further divided into different genera and species according to their sequence variability...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Andrew G Kelly, Natalie E Netzler, Peter A White
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is an enteric, single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus and a significant etiological agent of hepatitis, causing sporadic infections and outbreaks globally. Tracing the evolutionary ancestry of HEV has proved difficult since its identification in 1992, it has been reclassified several times, and confusion remains surrounding its origins and ancestry. RESULTS: To reveal close protein relatives of the Hepeviridae family, similarity searching of the GenBank database was carried out using a complete Orthohepevirus A, HEV genotype I (GI) ORF1 protein sequence and individual proteins...
October 12, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Huixin Li, Juan Wang, Liye Qiu, Zongxi Han, Shengwang Liu
Since July in 2015, an emerging infectious disease of Hepatitis-Hydropericardium syndrome (HHS) was prevalent in chicken flocks in China. To confirm the causative agent and investigate the epidemiology of the disease, a total of 38 chicken flocks including 187 samples from Jilin, Liaoning, Heilongjiang, Henan, Anhui, Hubei, Jiangxi, Xinjiang, Shandong and Hunan provinces in China were collected and determined by PCR detection, sequencing, phylogenetic analysis and virus isolation. 81 samples (positive rate of samples, 81/187, 43...
September 9, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Shuqing Yang, Liyuan Wang, Shuhong Sun
In the present study, avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) and serotype-1 strains of Marek's disease virus (MDV-1) were detected from a flock of 27-wk-old brown layer hens in China, accompanied by an average daily mortality of 0.44%. Postmortem examination of 25 sick hens and five apparently healthy hens selected randomly from the flock showed significant pathologic changes consistent with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome (HSS), including hepatomegaly, peritoneal fluid, and hepatic subcapsular hemorrhages. Microscopic examination of these livers showed multifocal necrotizing hepatitis and mild lymphocytic infiltration...
September 2016: Avian Diseases
Danielle M Yugo, Ruediger Hauck, H L Shivaprasad, Xiang-Jin Meng
Viral hepatitis in poultry is a complex disease syndrome caused by several viruses belonging to different families including avian hepatitis E virus (HEV), duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV), duck hepatitis A virus (DHAV-1, -2, -3), duck hepatitis virus Types 2 and 3, fowl adenoviruses (FAdV), and turkey hepatitis virus (THV). While these hepatitis viruses share the same target organ, the liver, they each possess unique clinical and biological features. In this article, we aim to review the common and unique features of major poultry hepatitis viruses in an effort to identify the knowledge gaps and aid the prevention and control of poultry viral hepatitis...
September 2016: Avian Diseases
Mohammad S Khuroo, Mehnaaz S Khuroo, Naira S Khuroo
Hepatitis E was identified as an epidemic of non-A, non-B hepatitis from Kashmir, India in 1978. Hepatitis E virus (HEV), the etiological agent is the sole member of family Hepeviridae. The virus has marked heterogeneity and infects many animals like bats, camel, chicken, deer, boar, mongoose, pigs, rats, rabbit and cutthroat trout. Hepatitis E is a disease with a major global impact and has two distinct epidemiological patterns. Hepatitis E is an imperative health issue in developing nations, transmitted through sullied water and happens most every now in young adults...
August 21, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Azad Singh, Aschalew Z Bekele, Devi P Patnayak, Naresh Jindal, Robert E Porter, Sunil K Mor, Sagar M Goyal
From 2008 to 2012, 4 separate cases of quail bronchitis virus infection were seen in bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) raised in Minnesota. The quail chicks ranged in age from 5 d to 8 wk and suffered from respiratory distress and elevated mortality. On necropsy, gross lesions consisted of mucus in trachea, congested lungs, caseous air sacculitis, accumulation of chalky white urates on internal organs, necrotic foci in liver, and enlarged spleen. Histologic examination revealed fibrinoheterophilic rhinitis, heterophilic bronchitis, heterophilic tracheitis, and interstitial pneumonia in addition to deciliation, desquamation, and necrosis of bronchial respiratory epithelium...
July 14, 2016: Poultry Science
Miguel Matos, Beatrice Grafl, Dieter Liebhart, Michael Hess
In the present study, inclusion body hepatitis (IBH) was experimentally induced by oral inoculation of two groups of specific pathogen-free (SPF) broilers and two groups of SPF layers at day-old with either a fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV)-D or a FAdV-E strain. A substantial variation in the degree of susceptibility was observed with mortalities of 100 and 96% in the FAdV-E and D infected SPF broiler groups, respectively, whereas in the groups of infected SPF layers mortalities of only 20 and 8% were noticed. Significant changes in clinical chemistry analytes of all infected birds together with histopathological lesions indicated impairment of liver and pancreas integrity and functions...
2016: Veterinary Research
Hyun-Woo Moon, Byung-Woo Lee, Haan Woo Sung, Byung-Il Yoon, Hyuk Moo Kwon
A new avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) GI-B was identified in broiler breeders with hematomas, liver rupture, and splenomegaly, along with excessive abdominal fat, in Korea. Previously, genotype 1 had been identified in avian HEV strains in Korea. Complete sequence analyses revealed that the new avian HEV clustered in genotype 2, which has been identified in the USA and Spain; the GI-B isolate was closely related to the USA prototype avian HEV isolated from a chicken with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome. Although some HEV genotypes show a geographical distribution pattern, the discovery of genotype 2 in addition to genotype 1 in Korea suggests that the geographical grouping might be reconsidered...
October 2016: Virus Genes
Xinquan Zhang, Ivana Bilic, Ana Marek, Martin Glösmann, Michael Hess
The infection of chickens with avian Hepatitis E virus (avian HEV) can be asymptomatic or induces clinical signs characterized by increased mortality and decreased egg production in adult birds. Due to the lack of an efficient cell culture system for avian HEV, the interaction between virus and host cells is still barely understood. In this study, four truncated avian HEV capsid proteins (ORF2-1 - ORF2-4) with an identical 338aa deletion at the N-terminus and gradual deletions from 0, 42, 99 and 136aa at the C-terminus, respectively, were expressed and used to map the possible binding site within avian HEV capsid protein...
2016: PloS One
S Carnaccini, H L Shivaprasad, G Cutler, M Bland, X J Meng, S P Kenney, A A Bickford, G Cooper, B Charlton, C G Sentíes-Cué
Between April 2013 and April 2015, seven flocks belonging to three different major commercial egg producers inCalifornia experienced a mild increase in mortality 2 to 3 wk after administration of Salmonella Enteritidis bacterins. Strains of chickens involved were H&N (flock A1, A2, B2, C1, C2, and C3) and Lohmann white (flock B1). Vaccination was administered individually through injection either in the breast muscles or subcutis in the legs between 11 and 18 wk of age in all flocks. Clinical signs ranged from inapparent to lameness, reluctance to walk, greenish diarrhea, and retching-like symptoms...
March 2016: Avian Diseases
Richard S Tedder, Kate I Tettmar, Su R Brailsford, Bengu Said, Ines Ushiro-Lumb, Alan Kitchen, Dilys Morgan, Sam Lattimore, Joanne Tossell, Samreen Ijaz, Patricia E Hewitt
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) Genotype 3 (G3) in England comprises two principal phylogenetic groups (Group 1 and Group 2) and can be transmitted by transfusion. Unselected screening identified 79 viremic donors; 76 participated in a follow-up study. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Viral RNA dynamics, phylogenetics, and seroconversion were characterized in the donors. Detailed demographic, travel, clinical, and lifestyle questionnaires were undertaken. RESULTS: The majority of viremic individuals (57/79) were seronegative at time of donation but all seroconverted...
June 2016: Transfusion
Priscilla F Gerber, Darrell W Trampel, Eric M Willinghan, Padma Billam, Xiang-Jin Meng, Tanja Opriessnig
The objective of this study was to determine patterns of avian HEV infection in naturally infected chicken farms. A total of 310 serum samples and 62 pooled fecal samples were collected from 62 chicken flocks on seven commercial in-line egg farms in the Midwestern United States and tested for avian HEV circulation. Serum samples were tested for the presence of anti-avian HEV IgY antibodies by a fluorescent microbead immunoassay (FMIA) which was developed for this study. The FMIA was validated using archived samples of chickens with known exposure (n = 96) and compared to the results obtained with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the same capture antigen...
December 2015: Veterinary Journal
Rocio Crespo, Tanja Opriessnig, Francisco Uzal, Priscilla F Gerber
Between 2012 and 2014, 141 chickens from 10 organic layer flocks with a history of severe drop in egg production (up to 40%) and slight increased mortality (up to 1% per week) were submitted to the Avian Health and Food Safety Laboratory (Puyallup, WA). At necropsy, the most common finding was pinpoint white foci on the liver and regressed ova without any other remarkable lesions. Histologically, there was multifocal mild-to-severe acute necrotizing hepatitis present. No significant bacteria were recovered from liver samples, and tests for mycotoxins were negative...
September 2015: Avian Diseases
Keyvan Amini, Tara Zachar, Shelly Popowich, Tennille Knezacek, Bob Goodhope, Philip Willson, Susantha Gomis
The objective of this study was to identify the causative agents of hepatitis observed in broiler chickens at processing. Livers of chickens from 16 broiler farms in Saskatchewan with gross lesions of hepatitis were collected at processing. In addition to routine bacterial isolation and histopathological examination, serologic studies for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and Chicken anaemia virus (CAV), calculation of the ratio of the weight of the bursa of Fabricius (BF) to body weight (BBW), and histopathological examination of the BF were done...
October 2015: Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, Revue Canadienne de Recherche Vétérinaire
Mehnaaz S Khuroo, Mohammad S Khuroo
Hepatitis E is a systemic disease affecting the liver predominantly and caused by infection with the hepatitis E virus (HEV). HEV has marked genetic heterogeneity and is known to infect several animal species including pigs, boar, deer, mongoose, rabbit, camel, chicken, rats, ferret, bats and cutthroat trout. HEV is the sole member of the family Hepeviridae and has been divided into 2 genera: Orthohepevirus (mammalian and avian HEV) and Piscihepevirus (trout HEV). Human HEVs included within the genus Orthohepevirus are designated Orthohepevirus A (isolates from human, pig, wild boar, deer, mongoose, rabbit and camel)...
February 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Qin Zhao, Shahid Faraz Syed, En-Min Zhou
Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main causative agent of big liver and spleen disease and hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens, and is genetically and antigenically related to mammalian HEVs. HEV capsid protein contains immunodominant epitopes and induces a protective humoral immune response. A better understanding of the antigenic composition of this protein is critically important for the development of effective vaccine and sensitive and specific serological assays. To date, six linear antigenic domains (I-VI) have been characterized in avian HEV capsid protein and analyzed for their applications in the serological diagnosis and vaccine design...
October 22, 2015: Veterinary Microbiology
Qin Zhao, Sha Xie, Yani Sun, Yiyang Chen, Jiming Gao, Huiya Li, Xinjie Wang, Shahid Faraz Syed, Baoyuan Liu, Lizhen Wang, Gaiping Zhang, En-Min Zhou
BACKGROUND: Avian hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the main causative agent of big liver and spleen disease, as well as hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome in chickens. To date, conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and nested RT-PCR methods have been used for the diagnosis of avian HEV infection in chickens. However, these assays are time consuming, inconvenient, and cannot detect the virus quantitatively. In this study, a rapid and sensitive SYBR Green real-time RT-PCR assay was developed to detect avian HEV RNA quantitatively in serum, liver, spleen, and fecal samples from chickens...
2015: BMC Veterinary Research
Yifei Yang, Ruihan Shi, Ruiping She, Majid Hussain Soomro, Jingjing Mao, Fang Du, Yue Zhao, Can Liu
Previous studies have shown that hepatitis E virus (HEV) can be transmitted between rats, pigs, cattle, rabbits, chicken, cats, and deer. Because wild and domestic rodents have anti-HEV antibodies, they are considered potential reservoirs of HEV. In the current study, Mongolian gerbils were experimentally infected with swine hepatitis E virus and the effects of this infection were investigated. After inoculation with HEV, the liver-to-body weight ratio increased at 7 dpi. Mongolian gerbils demonstrated significant increase (p<0...
October 2, 2015: Virus Research
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