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CAD prevention

Irene Fondón, Auxiliadora Sarmiento, Ana Isabel García, María Silvestre, Catarina Eloy, António Polónia, Paulo Aguiar
Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death among women. Its early diagnosis is extremely important to prevent avoidable deaths. However, malignancy assessment of tissue biopsies is complex and dependent on observer subjectivity. Moreover, hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained histological images exhibit a highly variable appearance, even within the same malignancy level. In this paper, we propose a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) tool for automated malignancy assessment of breast tissue samples based on the processing of histological images...
March 8, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Patrick Lombardo, Wayne Jones, Liangliang Wang, Xin Shen, Elliot M Goldner
BACKGROUND: A self-reported life satisfaction question is routinely used as an indicator of societal well-being. Several studies support that mental illness is an important determinant for life satisfaction and improvement of mental healthcare access therefore could have beneficial effects on a population's life satisfaction. However, only a few studies report the relationship between subjective mental health and life satisfaction. Subjective mental health is a broader concept than the presence or absence of psychopathology...
March 12, 2018: BMC Public Health
Tatsiana Suvorava, Miriam M Cortese-Krott
Moderate exercise training is a key aspect of primary and secondary prevention strategies. Shear-induced upregulation of eNOS activity and function in the vascular endothelium is considered as one of the main molecular mechanisms of exercise-induced protection against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. It has been reported that levels of plasma nitrite, which are largely dependent on eNOS activity, were increased in healthy subjects after acute exercise, while this increase was abolished in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients...
March 6, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
V A Levin, X Jiang, R Kagan
Menopause predisposes women to osteoporosis due to declining estrogen levels. This results in a decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) and an increase in fractures. Osteoporotic fractures lead to substantial morbidity and mortality, and are considered one of the largest public health priorities by the World Health Organization (WHO). It is therefore essential for menopausal women to receive appropriate guidance for the prevention and management of osteoporosis. The Women's Health Initiative (WHI) randomized controlled trial first proved hormonal therapy (HT) reduces the incidence of all osteoporosis-related fractures in postmenopausal women...
March 8, 2018: Osteoporosis International
Masahiko Sumi, Keijiro Sato, Nozomu Uematsu, Hiroko Kawaguchi, Tsutomu Shishido, Hiroko Kaiume, Wataru Takeda, Takehiko Kirihara, Toshimitsu Ueki, Yuki Hiroshima, Mayumi Ueno, Naoaki Ichikawa, Nobuyuki Urasawa, Hikaru Kobayashi
Vascular adverse events (VAEs) in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients treated with nilotinib (NIL) has become a; however, studies on strategies to prevent VAEs remain limited. Therefore, the present study investigated VAEs in 19 CML patients treated with NIL at our hospital. The median age of the patients was 65 years and median follow-up period was 55 months after the initiation of NIL. VAEs occurred in 8 patients (peripheral artery disease (PAD), n=6; cerebral infarction (CI), n=3; coronary artery disease (CAD), n=4)...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Katsumi Miyauchi, Takeshi Kimura, Hiroaki Shimokawa, Hiroyuki Daida, Satoshi Iimuro, Hiroshi Iwata, Yukio Ozaki, Ichiro Sakuma, Yoshihisa Nakagawa, Kiyoshi Hibi, Takafumi Hiro, Yoshihiro Fukumoto, Seiji Hokimoto, Yasuo Ohashi, Hiroshi Ohtsu, Yasushi Saito, Masunori Matsuzaki, Ryozo Nagai
Large-scale clinical trials in patients in Western countries with coronary artery disease (CAD) have found that aggressive lipid-lowering therapy using high-dose statins reduces cardiovascular (CV) events further than low-dose statins. However, such evidence has not yet been fully established in Asian populations, including in Japan. The Randomized Evaluation of Aggressive or Moderate Lipid-Lowering Therapy with Pitavastatin in Coronary Artery Disease (REAL-CAD) study addresses whether intensification of statin therapy improves clinical outcomes in Japanese patients with CAD...
March 5, 2018: International Heart Journal
Kaartiga Sivanesan, Subhi J Al'Aref, James K Min, Jessica M Peña, Fay Lin, Erica C Jones
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Ischemic heart disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for women and men around the world. However, traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not fully capture cardiac risk in women. This review summarizes sex-based differences in the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, and risk assessment of ischemic heart disease. We also examine the use of anatomic and functional imaging modalities in the diagnosis of ischemic heart disease in women. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies with women subjects have bolstered the predictive value of the coronary artery calcium (CAC) score in predicting atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk and major adverse cardiac events in a graded fashion...
March 2, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Dah-Ching Ding, I-Ju Tsai, Jen-Hung Wang, Shinn-Zong Lin, Fung-Chang Sung
Women with polycystic ovary syndrome are characterized by obesity, menstruation irregularity, hirsutism and infertility, and prevalent with cardiometabolic comorbidities, but population-based studies on the risk of developing coronary artery disease are limited. From claims data of the Taiwan National Health Insurance, we identified 8048 women with polycystic ovary syndrome aged 15-49 years newly diagnosed in 1998-2013, and 32192 women without the syndrome and CAD as controls, frequency matched by age and diagnosis date...
February 2, 2018: Oncotarget
Jacqueline Filteau, Helen Coo, Kimberly Dow
BACKGROUND: Neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a collection of symptoms that occurs primarily due to antenatal opioid exposure. National data on incidence, hospital resource utilization, and demographic features of NAS have not been previously described for Canada. METHODS: Secondary analysis was performed with data from hospitals in all Canadian provinces and territories, excluding Quebec. Infants with NAS were identified by searching for ICD-10-CA code P96...
February 13, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Elif Hande Ozcan Cetin, Ozcan Ozeke, Erdogan Ilkay, Dursun Aras, Serkan Topaloglu, Zehra Golbasi, Sinan Aydogdu, Can Ozer
Medications and treatments are said to have a palliative effect if they relieve symptoms without having a curative effect on the underlying disease such as atherosclerosis or cancer. Some authors speculated that atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (CAD) could be considered a "cancer of the coronary arterial wall". Although the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has proven to be effective in decreasing mortality rates among patients with acute coronary syndromes, the previous meta-analyses of PCI versus optimal medical therapy for stable CAD have not been able to demonstrate a reduction in major adverse cardiac outcomes...
January 2018: Indian Heart Journal
Nitika Setia, Renu Saxena, J P S Sawhney, Ishwar C Verma
OBJECTIVE: Familial Hypercholesterolemia (FH) is an inherited disorder of lipid metabolism characterized by very high low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol since birth, resulting in premature atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). Cascade screening of children and family members of proven FH individuals can identify more subjects who have high LDL cholesterol or the family mutation and appropriate intervention can reduce their risk of atherosclerosis and prevent its complications...
February 15, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Theodore C Marentis, Matthew S Davenport, Jonathan R Dillman, Ramon Sanchez, Aine M Kelly, Paul Cronin, Mariana R DeFreitas, Lubomir Hadjiiski, Heang-Ping Chan
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a process incorporating computer-aided detection (CAD) for the detection and prevention of retained surgical instruments using a novel nondeformable radiopaque μTag. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A high-specificity CAD system was developed iteratively from a training set (n = 540 radiographs) and a validation set (n = 560 radiographs). A novel test set composed of 700 thoracoabdominal radiographs (410 with a randomly placed μTag and 290 without a μTag) was obtained from 10 cadavers embedded with confounding iatrogenic objects...
February 15, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Udit Bhaskar Bhatnagar, Josh Rezkalla, Tomasz Stys, Adam Stys
Drug eluting stents (DES) have been increasingly being used for treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD) and have been shown to be very effective in prevention of primary in-stent restenosis (ISR). However DES have been increasingly associated with acute to subacute risk of stent fractures (SF). There is also a paucity of data about different management strategies for SF, especially in the long term. We present a case of recurrent ISR in an area of previous acute SF at the touchdown of saphenous venous graft (SVG) to first diagonal artery (D1)...
January 2018: South Dakota Medicine: the Journal of the South Dakota State Medical Association
Shun Huang, WenPing Peng, Ning Yang, Tao Yu, Hong Yuan Cui, Jing Yong Xu, Qi An, Hua Yang, Yan Nan Liu, Zhe Li, Ming Zhang Zuo
BACKGROUND: The development of sensitive myocardial-specific cardiac biomarkers allows for detection of very small amounts of myocardial injury or necrosis. Myocardial injury (MI) as a prelude of the serious perioperative complication myocardial infarction, should be paid more attention, especially in elderly susceptible patients. Myocardial injury after abdominal surgery in elderly patients has not been described yet. The objectives of this study were to identify the incidence, predictors, characteristics and the impact of MI on outcome in elderly patients underwent abdominal surgery...
February 12, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Ji-Hyeon Oh
With the development of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology, it has been possible to reconstruct the cranio-maxillofacial defect with more accurate preoperative planning, precise patient-specific implants (PSIs), and shorter operation times. The manufacturing processes include subtractive manufacturing and additive manufacturing and should be selected in consideration of the material type, available technology, post-processing, accuracy, lead time, properties, and surface quality...
December 2018: Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Cian P McCarthy, John W McEvoy, James L Januzzi
Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Patients with stable CAD can have an unpredictable clinical trajectory; thus, additional tools to prognosticate risk in this cohort are warranted. In recent years, a wide range of biomarkers has been recognized for their diagnostic capabilities in patients with stable CAD, identifying those with obstructive disease who may require more intensive preventive therapies or even consideration of percutaneous coronary intervention in some circumstances...
February 2018: American Heart Journal
Jan C M van Zelst, Tao Tan, Paola Clauser, Angels Domingo, Monique D Dorrius, Daniel Drieling, Michael Golatta, Francisca Gras, Mathijn de Jong, Ruud Pijnappel, Matthieu J C M Rutten, Nico Karssemeijer, Ritse M Mann
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of computer-aided-detection (CAD) software for automated breast ultrasound (ABUS) on reading time (RT) and performance in screening for breast cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Unilateral ABUS examinations of 120 women with dense breasts were randomly selected from a multi-institutional archive of cases including 30 malignant (20/30 mammography-occult), 30 benign, and 60 normal cases with histopathological verification or ≥ 2 years of negative follow-up...
February 7, 2018: European Radiology
Simukayi Mutasa, Peter D Chang, Carrie Ruzal-Shapiro, Rama Ayyala
Bone age assessment (BAA) is a commonly performed diagnostic study in pediatric radiology to assess skeletal maturity. The most commonly utilized method for assessment of BAA is the Greulich and Pyle method (Pediatr Radiol 46.9:1269-1274, 2016; Arch Dis Child 81.2:172-173, 1999) atlas. The evaluation of BAA can be a tedious and time-consuming process for the radiologist. As such, several computer-assisted detection/diagnosis (CAD) methods have been proposed for automation of BAA. Classical CAD tools have traditionally relied on hard-coded algorithmic features for BAA which suffer from a variety of drawbacks...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
Ton Tran, Bernard K Chen, Xinhua Wu, Chung Lun Pun
BACKGROUND: Repair of peri-prosthetic proximal tibia fractures is very challenging in patients with a total knee replacement or arthroplasty. The tibial component of the knee implant severely restricts the fixation points of the tibial implant to repair peri-prosthetic fractures. A novel implant has been designed with an extended flange over the anterior of tibial condyle to provide additional points of fixation, overcoming limitations of existing generic locking plates used for proximal tibia fractures...
February 2, 2018: Injury
Niklas Schofer, Sebastian Ludwig, Nicole Rübsamen, Renate Schnabel, Karl J Lackner, Hans J Ruprecht, Christoph Bickel, Ulf Landmesser, Stefan Blankenberg, Tanja Zeller
BACKGROUND: IL-1β-mediated inflammation contributes to development and progression of coronary artery disease (CAD). We aimed to assess the prognostic impact of the inflammatory marker Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1-Ra), reflecting high IL-1β activity, in patients with documented CAD. METHODS: IL-1Ra levels were determined in 1337 subjects of the AtheroGene study, a prospective cardiovascular registry comprising patients with CAD as detected by coronary angiography presenting with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or stable angina...
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
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