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CAD prevention

Hack-Lyoung Kim, Myung-A Kim, Wan-Joo Shim, Mina Kim, Seong Mi Park, Mi Seung Shin, Kyung-Soon Hong, Yong Hyun Kim, Hyun Ju Yoon, Gil Ja Shin, Kyoung Im Cho
OBJECTIVE: Data from systemic evaluation of the influence of each component of blood pressure (BP) on various target organ damages (TODs) has been limited. This study was performed to elucidate which BP component was associated with TODs in patients with high risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). DESIGN AND METHOD: Study data were obtained from a nation-wide registry, composed of 652 patiens (471 women with 58.4 ± 10.5 year old) with suspected CAD who underwent invasive coronary angiography (CAG)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Cheng Sun, Heng Zhang, Zhe Zheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The efficacy and safety of β-blockers in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemic heart disease, cardiac arrhythmias, and heart failure, have been well established for decades. In this article, we review the current opinions on the application of β-blockers for secondary prevention in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: As the average age of patients treated surgically for coronary artery disease (CAD) is increasing, it is not uncommon to have candidates for CABG presenting with concomitant atrial fibrillation, heart failure or hypertension, most of which were caused by excessive activation of the adrenergic nervous system...
November 2016: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Kayle Shapero, James Deluca, Miranda Contursi, Meagan Wasfy, Rory B Weiner, Gregory D Lewis, Adolph Hutter, Aaron L Baggish
BACKGROUND: Masters athletes (MAs), people over the age of 35 that participate in competitive sports, are a rapidly growing population that may be uniquely at risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease. The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive clinical CV profile of MA. METHODS: An electronic Internet-based survey (survey response rate = 66 %) was used to characterize a community cohort of MAs residing in Eastern Massachusetts, USA. Clinical and lifestyle factors associated with prevalent CV disease were determined using logistic regression...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Erik Skobel, Christian Knackstedt, Alvaro Martinez-Romero, Dario Salvi, Cecilia Vera-Munoz, Andreas Napp, Jean Luprano, Ramon Bover, Sigrid Glöggler, Birna Bjarnason-Wehrens, Nikolaus Marx, Alan Rigby, John Cleland
Low adherence to cardiac rehabilitation (CR) might be improved by remote monitoring systems that can be used to motivate and supervise patients and tailor CR safely and effectively to their needs. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a smartphone-guided training system (GEX) and whether it could improve exercise capacity compared to CR delivered by conventional methods for patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A prospective, randomized, international, multi-center study comparing CR delivered by conventional means (CG) or by remote monitoring (IG) using a new training steering/feedback tool (GEx System)...
October 11, 2016: Heart and Vessels
Byoung Geol Choi, Seung-Woon Rha, Taeshik Park, Se Yeon Choi, Jae Kyeong Byun, Min Suk Shim, Shaopeng Xu, Hu Li, Sang-Ho Park, Ji Young Park, Woong Gil Choi, Yun-Hyeong Cho, Sunki Lee, Jin Oh Na, Cheol Ung Choi, Hong Euy Lim, Jin Won Kim, Eung Ju Kim, Chang Gyu Park, Hong Seog Seo, Dong Joo Oh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Cigarette smoking is a risk significant factor in coronary artery disease (CAD) and vasospastic angina (VSA). However, it is largely unknown whether smoking adds to any long-term clinical risk in VSA patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 2797 patients without significant CAD underwent acetylcholine (Ach) provocation test between November 2004 and October 2010. Patients were divided into three groups, based on the presence of coronary artery spasm (CAS) and smoking habits (non-CAS group: n=1188, non-smoking CAS group: n=1214, smoking CAS group: n=395)...
September 2016: Korean Circulation Journal
Sungha Park, Ping Yan, César Cerezo, Barrett W Jeffers
This post hoc analysis of CAMELOT and PREVENT analyzed the impact of blood pressure variability (BPV, assessed as within-subject standard deviation of SBP from 12 weeks onward) on the incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE, defined according to original studies). Patients (n = 1677 CAMELOT; n = 776 PREVENT) were stratified by BPV quartile. Regardless of study, BPV was significantly lower for amlodipine versus other treatments. In CAMELOT, a significant association between BPV quartile and MACE was observed with amlodipine treatment...
October 2016: Journal of the American Society of Hypertension: JASH
Pelbreton C Balfour, Jorge A Gonzalez, Christopher M Kramer
Coronary artery disease (CAD) remains a significant global public health burden despite advancements in prevention and therapeutic strategies. Common non-invasive imaging modalities, anatomic and functional, are available for the assessment of patients with stable chest pain. Exercise electrocardiography is a long-standing method for evaluation for CAD and remains the initial test for the majority of patients who can exercise adequately with a baseline interpretable electrocardiogram. The addition of cardiac imaging to exercise testing provides incremental benefit for accurate diagnosis for CAD and is particularly useful in patients who are unable to exercise adequately and/or have uninterpretable electrocardiograms...
September 12, 2016: Trends in Cardiovascular Medicine
Joseph Brent Muhlestein, Fidela Ll Moreno
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is well known that there is a very high risk of cardiovascular complications among diabetic patients. In spite of all efforts at aggressive control of diabetes and its complications, the incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality remains high, including in patients with no prior symptoms, underscoring a possible advantage for appropriate screening of asymptomatic patients for the presence of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). In this article, we sought primarily to review the results of studies designed to evaluate a possible role of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) in the screening of asymptomatic diabetic patients for possible obstructive CAD...
November 2016: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Geza S Bodor
Heart diseases, especially coronary artery diseases (CAD), are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Effective therapy is available to ensure patient survival and to prevent long term sequelae after an acute ischemic event caused by CAD, but appropriate therapy requires rapid and accurate diagnosis. Research into the pathology of CAD have demonstrated the usefulness of measuring concentrations of chemicals released from the injured cardiac muscle can aid the diagnosis of diseases caused by myocardial ischemia...
April 2016: EJIFCC
Hannelore Sprenger-Mähr, Emanuel Zitt, Karl Lhotta
INTRODUCTION: The number of patients suffering from acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D) is increasing. Whereas causes and outcome of AKI-D in the intensive care unit (ICU) are described extensively, few data exist about AKI-D patients treated outside the ICU. Aim of this study was to identify the causes of AKI-D, determine in-depth the comorbid conditions and outcome of this particular patient group and identify possibilities for its prevention. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all AKI-D patients treated outside the ICU in a single nephrology referral center between January 2010 and June 2015...
2016: PloS One
Debbie L Becker, Ayman Chit, Carlos A DiazGranados, Michael Maschio, Eddy Yau, Michael Drummond
Seasonal influenza infects approximately 10-20% of Canadians each year, causing an estimated 12,200 hospitalizations and 3,500 deaths annually, mostly occurring in adults ≥65 years old (seniors). A 32,000-participant, randomized controlled clinical trial (FIM12; NCT01427309) showed that high-dose inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV-HD) is superior to standard-dose vaccine (SD) in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza illness in seniors. In this study, we performed a cost-utility analysis (CUA) of IIV-HD versus SD in FIM12 participants from a Canadian perspective...
September 26, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Derek R MacFadden, Darrell H Tan, Sharmistha Mishra
INTRODUCTION: Once-daily tenofovir/emtricitabine-based pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can reduce HIV acquisition in men who have sex with men (MSM), by 44% in the iPrEx trial, and reaching up to 99% with high adherence. We examined the potential population-level impact and cost-effectiveness of different PrEP implementation strategies. METHODS: We developed a dynamic, stochastic compartmental model of HIV transmission among the estimated 57,400 MSM in Toronto, Canada...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Susmita Sil, Tusharkanti Ghosh, Pritha Gupta, Rupsa Ghosh, Syed N Kabir, Avishek Roy
The neurodegeneration in colchicine induced AD rats (cAD) is mediated by cox-2 linked neuroinflammation. The importance of ROS in the inflammatory process in cAD has not been identified, which may be deciphered by blocking oxidative stress in this model by a well-known anti-oxidant vitamin C. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the role of vitamin C on colchicine induced oxidative stress linked neuroinflammation mediated neurodegeneration and memory impairments along with peripheral immune responses in cAD...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Charlotte H So, Mark H Eckman
The combined use of aspirin and oral anticoagulant therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and stable coronary artery disease (CAD) has been questioned due to an increased risk of major bleeding with little to no benefit in preventing ischemic events. (1) To better understand patterns and indications for combined antiplatelet and anticoagulant therapy and identify patients who might reasonably be treated with oral anticoagulant (OAC) therapy alone. (2) To perform an updated literature review regarding the use of combined antiplatelet and OAC therapy in patients with AF and stable CAD...
September 24, 2016: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
Karam Moon, Felipe C Albuquerque, Tyler Cole, Bradley A Gross, Cameron G McDougall
INTRODUCTION: Endovascular intervention for cervical carotid artery dissection (CAD) and vertebral artery dissection (VAD) may be indicated in specific circumstances. OBJECTIVE: To review our institutional experience with endovascular treatment of cervical dissections over the past 20 years to examine indications for treatment, interventional methods, and outcomes. METHODS: Retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database to identify patients with extracranial dissection who underwent endovascular intervention between January 1996 and January 2016...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Payam Nejat, John Kaiser Calautit, Muhd Zaimi Abd Majid, Ben Richard Hughes, Fatemeh Jomehzadeh
This article presents the datasets which were the results of the study explained in the research paper 'Anti-short-circuit device: a new solution for short-circuiting in windcatcher and improvement of natural ventilation performance' (P. Nejat, J.K. Calautit, M.Z. Abd. Majid, B.R. Hughes, F. Jomehzadeh, 2016) [1] which introduces a new technique to reduce or prevent short-circuiting in a two-sided windcatcher and also lowers the indoor CO2 concentration and improve the ventilation distribution. Here, we provide details of the numerical modeling set-up and data collection method to facilitate reproducibility...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Fan Kee Hoo, Yoke Loong Foo, Sazlyna Mohd Sazlly Lim, Siew Mooi Ching, Yang Liang Boo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is one of the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is relatively uncommon in young adults as compared to the older population. Our objective was to assess the prevalence, demographic distribution, and risk factors for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients less than 45 years of age admitted to a Malaysian tertiary care centre. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional, retrospective, and single centre study with random sampling of the patients admitted for ACS to hospital from January 2005 to December 2013...
July 2016: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
Hack-Lyoung Kim, Myung-A Kim, Wan-Joo Shim, Mina Kim, Seong Mi Park, Mi Seung Shin, Kyung-Soon Hong, Yong Hyun Kim, Hyun Ju Yoon, Gil Ja Shin, Kyoung Im Cho
OBJECTIVE: Data from systemic evaluation of the influence of each component of blood pressure (BP) on various target organ damages (TODs) has been limited. This study was performed to elucidate which BP component was associated with TODs in patients with high risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). DESIGN AND METHOD: Study data were obtained from a nation-wide registry, composed of 652 patiens (471 women with 58.4 ± 10.5 year old) with suspected CAD who underwent invasive coronary angiography (CAG)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Riccardo Cappato, Robert Welsh
The vast clinical research programme for the direct, oral factor Xa inhibitor rivaroxaban has generated a wealth of data since the first rivaroxaban approval in 2008 for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in patients undergoing elective hip or knee replacement surgery. While rivaroxaban is widely used across a spectrum of seven indications, there is continuous commitment to investigating its wider benefits in new indications and attempts to refine current evidence. Key data from recently completed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that rivaroxaban is a feasible anticoagulation option for patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) undergoing cardioversion or catheter ablation...
September 28, 2016: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Jennwood Chen, Timothy Pickett, Ashley Langell, Ashley Trane, Brian Charlesworth, Kris Loken, Sarah Lombardo, John T Langell
BACKGROUND: Biotechnology companies are process-driven organizations and often struggle with their ability to innovate. Universities, on the other hand, thrive on discovery and variation as a source of innovation. As such, properly structured academic-industry partnerships in medical technology development may enhance and accelerate innovation. Through joint industry-academic efforts, our objective was to develop a technology aimed at global cervical cancer prevention. METHODS: Our Center for Medical Innovation assembled a multidisciplinary team of students, surgical residents, and clinical faculty to enter in the University of Utah's annual Bench-to-Bedside competition...
September 2016: Journal of Surgical Research
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