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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933543/integrative-analysis-of-genetic-genomic-and-phenotypic-data-for-ethanol-behaviors-a-network-based-pipeline-for-identifying-mechanisms-and-potential-drug-targets
#1
James W Bogenpohl, Kristin M Mignogna, Maren L Smith, Michael F Miles
Complex behavioral traits, such as alcohol abuse, are caused by an interplay of genetic and environmental factors, producing deleterious functional adaptations in the central nervous system. The long-term behavioral consequences of such changes are of substantial cost to both the individual and society. Substantial progress has been made in the last two decades in understanding elements of brain mechanisms underlying responses to ethanol in animal models and risk factors for alcohol use disorder (AUD) in humans...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933521/genenetwork-a-toolbox-for-systems-genetics
#2
Megan K Mulligan, Khyobeni Mozhui, Pjotr Prins, Robert W Williams
The goal of systems genetics is to understand the impact of genetic variation across all levels of biological organization, from mRNAs, proteins, and metabolites, to higher-order physiological and behavioral traits. This approach requires the accumulation and integration of many types of data, and also requires the use of many types of statistical tools to extract relevant patterns of covariation and causal relations as a function of genetics, environment, stage, and treatment. In this protocol we explain how to use the GeneNetwork web service, a powerful and free online resource for systems genetics...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933340/enhancement-of-pharmacological-effects-of-uricosuric-agents-by-concomitant-treatment-with-pyrazinamide-in-rats
#3
Tetsuya Taniguchi, Naoki Ashizawa, Koji Matsumoto, Takashi Iwanaga
Our goal was to establish a model for the evaluation of the effects of uricosuric agents and to clarify the underlying mechanism(s). The effects of a uricosuric agent co-treated with pyrazinamide, an anti-tubercular agent, on urate handling were examined in rats. Furthermore, the effects of uricosuric agents on urate uptake were evaluated using the vesicles of rat renal brush-border membrane. Treatment with probenecid, at a dose of 100 mg/kg, significantly increased the urinary urate to creatinine ratio (UUA/UCRE) in pyrazinamide-treated rats although the same treatment did not produce any uricosuric effects in intact rats...
December 8, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933297/exhibitionist-eating-who-wins-eating-competitions
#4
Brian Wansink, Kevin M Kniffin
OBJECTIVE: How and why does competition and spectator involvement influence eating behaviors? The primary objective of this article is to explore the nature of competitive eating with the goal of identifying implications for other social situations. DESIGN: Study 1 investigated how many chicken wings were eaten by men and women in a 30-min eating competition when cheering spectators either were or were not present (compared to a control condition). The second study sought to explain Study 1's findings through a survey of 93 students who rated male or female competitive eaters (in randomized order) based on intelligence, attractiveness, health, strength, and how romantic they expected the eaters to be...
2016: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933281/pet-imaging-of-urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-receptor-upar-in-prostate-cancer-current-status-and-future-perspectives
#5
REVIEW
Dorthe Skovgaard, Morten Persson, Andreas Kjaer
Overexpression of urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptors (uPAR) represents an important biomarker for aggressiveness in most common malignant diseases, including prostate cancer (PC). Accordingly, uPAR expression either assessed directly in malignant PC tissue or assessed directly in plasma (intact/cleaved forms)-provides independent additional clinical information to that contributed by PSA, Gleason score, and other relevant pathological and clinical parameters. In this respect, non-invasive molecular imaging by positron emission tomography (PET) offers a very attractive technology platform, which can provide the required quantitative information on the uPAR expression profile, without the need for invasive procedures and the risk of missing the target due to tumor heterogeneity...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933270/compliance-control-based-on-pso-algorithm-to-improve-the-feeling-during-physical-human-robot-interaction
#6
Zhongliang Jiang, Yu Sun, Peng Gao, Ying Hu, Jianwei Zhang
Robots play more important roles in daily life and bring us a lot of convenience. But when people work with robots, there remain some significant differences in human-human interactions and human-robot interaction. It is our goal to make robots look even more human-like. We design a controller which can sense the force acting on any point of a robot and ensure the robot can move according to the force. First, a spring-mass-dashpot system was used to describe the physical model, and the second-order system is the kernel of the controller...
2016: Robotics and Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933267/a-mixed-method-study-of-the-efficacy-of-physical-activity-consultation-as-an-adjunct-to-standard-smoking-cessation-treatment-among-male-smokers-in-malaysia
#7
Yuin Yi Lee, Selina Khoo, Tony Morris, Clare Hanlon, Lei-Hum Wee, Eng Wah Teo, Yuhanis Adnan
BACKGROUND: This study examined the effectiveness of using Physical Activity Consultation (PAC) as an addition to the standard smoking cessation treatment in Malaysia. We explored participants' experiences in terms of physical activity and smoking abstinence with the combined PAC and smoking cessation intervention. METHODS: Walk-in smokers from a local smoking cessation clinic volunteered for the 8-week intervention program, while undergoing standard smoking cessation treatment...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933256/explaining-bioenergy-representations-of-jatropha-in-kenya-before-and-after-disappointing-results
#8
Carol Hunsberger
Proponents of Jatropha curcas portrayed the crop as a 'sustainable biofuel' that was less threatening to food security and forests than other energy crops, creating a reputation that helped jatropha projects to multiply quickly throughout the global South. However, many jatropha initiatives failed to thrive and ultimately collapsed. This paper investigates how actors involved with jatropha in Kenya explained their visions of bioenergy at two points in time. In 2009, when many activities were beginning, I interviewed small-scale farmers, NGO staff, researchers, donors, government officials and members of the private sector about their expectations of jatropha as an energy crop...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933152/ensuring-availability-of-in-date-and-fit-for-purpose-emergency-guidelines-in-all-anaesthetic-areas-throughout-the-south-east-scotland-deanery
#9
Elise Hindle
Our aim was to institute a system whereby emergency anaesthetic guidelines are available in >90% of appropriate clinical areas throughout each of the acute hospital sites in three health board administrative regions, and whereby >90% of available guidelines are deemed to be in date and fit for purpose. Our objective was to achieve these targets within 6 months. Using quality improvement methodology, we inventoried available emergency anaesthetic guidelines in 132 locations throughout seven acute care hospitals...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933151/improving-asthma-care-in-a-pediatric-resident-clinic
#10
Julia Lee, Albina Gogo, Daniel Tancredi, Erik Fernandez Y Garcia, Ulfat Shaikh
There is variation in pediatric asthma management in the outpatient setting. Adherence to national asthma guidelines provides a systematic standardized approach to asthma management. There is a gap between usual and guideline-consistent asthma care in resident clinics. Practice improvement modules aimed at improving resident physician adherence to asthma care guidelines have not been consistently utilized and have not yet been studied. Our aim was to increase guideline consistent care in our pediatric resident clinic in a twelve-month period via increasing performance on the following measures to 75%: spirometry testing; influenza immunization recommendation; level of control assessed through the use of a standardized questionnaire; appropriate medications per national guideline; and use of written asthma action plans...
2016: BMJ Quality Improvement Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933135/impact-of-laparoscopic-surgery-training-laboratory-on-surgeon-s-performance
#11
REVIEW
Fabio C M Torricelli, Joao Arthur B A Barbosa, Giovanni S Marchini
Minimally invasive surgery has been replacing the open standard technique in several procedures. Similar or even better postoperative outcomes have been described in laparoscopic or robot-assisted procedures when compared to open surgery. Moreover, minimally invasive surgery has been providing less postoperative pain, shorter hospitalization, and thus a faster return to daily activities. However, the learning curve required to obtain laparoscopic expertise has been a barrier in laparoscopic spreading. Laparoscopic surgery training laboratory has been developed to aid surgeons to overcome the challenging learning curve...
November 27, 2016: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932909/cigesmed-for-divers-establishing-a-citizen-science-initiative-for-the-mapping-and-monitoring-of-coralligenous-assemblages-in-the-mediterranean-sea
#12
Vasilis Gerovasileiou, Thanos Dailianis, Emmanouela Panteri, Nikitas Michalakis, Giulia Gatti, Maria Sini, Charalampos Dimitriadis, Yiannis Issaris, Maria Salomidi, Irene Filiopoulou, Alper Doğan, Laure Thierry de Ville d'Avray, Romain David, Melih Ertan Ҫinar, Drosos Koutsoubas, Jean-Pierre Féral, Christos Arvanitidis
BACKGROUND: Over the last decade, inventorying and monitoring of marine biodiversity has significantly benefited from the active engagement of volunteers. Although several Citizen Science projects concern tropical reef ecosystems worldwide, none of the existing initiatives has yet specifically focused on their Mediterranean equivalents. Mediterranean coralline reefs, known as "coralligenous", are bioherms primarily built by calcifying rhodophytes on hard substrates under dim-light conditions; they are considered hotspots of biodiversity and are extremely popular among divers due to their complex structure, conspicuous biological wealth and high aesthetic value...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932907/optimized-r-functions-for-analysis-of-ecological-community-data-using-the-r-virtual-laboratory-rvlab
#13
Constantinos Varsos, Theodore Patkos, Anastasis Oulas, Christina Pavloudi, Alexandros Gougousis, Umer Zeeshan Ijaz, Irene Filiopoulou, Nikolaos Pattakos, Edward Vanden Berghe, Antonio Fernández-Guerra, Sarah Faulwetter, Eva Chatzinikolaou, Evangelos Pafilis, Chryssoula Bekiari, Martin Doerr, Christos Arvanitidis
BACKGROUND: Parallel data manipulation using R has previously been addressed by members of the R community, however most of these studies produce ad hoc solutions that are not readily available to the average R user. Our targeted users, ranging from the expert ecologist/microbiologists to computational biologists, often experience difficulties in finding optimal ways to exploit the full capacity of their computational resources. In addition, improving performance of commonly used R scripts becomes increasingly difficult especially with large datasets...
2016: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932895/are-patients-and-doctors-accounts-of-the-first-specialist-consultation-for-chronic-back-pain-in-agreement
#14
Kathy B White, John Lee, Amanda C de C Williams
INTRODUCTION: The first consultation at a specialist pain clinic is potentially a pivotal event in a patient's pain history, affecting treatment adherence and engagement with longer term self-management. What doctors communicate to patients about their chronic pain and how patients interpret doctors' messages and explanations in pain consultations are under-investigated, particularly in specialist care. Yet, patients value personalized information about their pain problem. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixteen patients in their first specialist pain clinic consultation and the doctors they consulted were interviewed shortly after the consultation...
2016: Journal of Pain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932870/evaluation-of-quality-of-life-in-chronic-progressing-rheumatic-diseases-based-on-the-example-of-osteoarthritis-and-rheumatoid-arthritis
#15
Izabela Wysocka-Skurska, Matylda Sierakowska, Wojciech Kułak
BACKGROUND: Rheumatic diseases, irrespective of etiology and clinical course, influence different areas of a patient's life. Adapting to disability and limitations caused by an illness is very difficult for many patients. The main goal of a therapeutic procedure should be improvement of health-related quality of life (QoL). OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of the factors that influence the QoL that are conditioned by the state of health of patients with osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA)...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932858/one-stage-bone-strip-reconstruction-technique-with-balloon-sinus-dilatation-surgery-for-chronic-maxillary-atelectasis
#16
Tomoyuki Kashima, Robert A Goldberg, Jocelyne C Kohn, Daniel B Rootman
PURPOSE: Chronic maxillary atelectasis is characterized by unilateral spontaneous enophthalmos and hypoglobus due to increased orbital volume secondary to maxillary sinus inward deformation. Reformation of the sinus architecture and reconstruction of the orbit are key to a successful outcome. Here, we introduce a one-staged surgery that addresses both these goals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 11 patients treated with one-stage orbital and sinus surgery...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932800/timps-versatile-extracellular-regulators-in-cancer
#17
Hartland W Jackson, Virginie Defamie, Paul Waterhouse, Rama Khokha
A compelling long-term goal of cancer biology is to understand the crucial players during tumorigenesis in order to develop new interventions. Here, we review how the four non-redundant tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs) regulate the pericellular proteolysis of a vast range of matrix and cell surface proteins, generating simultaneous effects on tumour architecture and cell signalling. Experimental studies demonstrate the contribution of TIMPs to the majority of cancer hallmarks, and human cancers invariably show TIMP deregulation in the tumour or stroma...
December 9, 2016: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932632/not-by-success-alone-role-models-provide-pathways-to-communal-opportunities-in-stem
#18
Melissa A Fuesting, Amanda B Diekman
Because of stereotypes that science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields do not fulfill communal goals, communally oriented individuals may select out of STEM. One potential route to engaging and promoting communally oriented individuals in STEM fields is through interactions with advisors or role models in STEM. We first demonstrate the perceived difficulty of finding role models who enact communal behaviors in STEM relative to other fields (Preliminary Study). Communally oriented students reported higher likelihood of observing admired others in math or science (i...
December 8, 2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932351/telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-deficiency-prevents-neointima-formation-through-chromatin-silencing-of-e2f1-target-genes
#19
Elizabeth B Endorf, Hua Qing, Jun Aono, Naoto Terami, Geneviève Doyon, Eric Hyzny, Karrie L Jones, Hannes M Findeisen, Dennis Bruemmer
OBJECTIVE: Aberrant proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in response to injury induces pathological vascular remodeling during atherosclerosis and neointima formation. Telomerase is rate limiting for tissue renewal and cell replication; however, the physiological role of telomerase in vascular diseases remains to be determined. The goal of the present study was to determine whether telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) affects proliferative vascular remodeling and to define the molecular mechanism by which TERT supports SMC proliferation...
December 8, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932222/using-a-contextualized-sensemaking-model-for-interaction-design-a-case-study-of-tumor-contouring
#20
Anet Aselmaa, Marcel van Herk, Anne Laprie, Ursula Nestle, Irina Götz, Nicole Wiedenmann, Tanja Schimek-Jasch, Francois Picaud, Charlotte Syrykh, Leonel V Cagetti, Maria Jolnerovski, Yu Song, Richard H M Goossens
Sensemaking theories help designers understand the cognitive processes of a user when he/she performs a complicated task. This paper introduces a two-step approach of incorporating sensemaking support within the design of health information systems by: 1) modeling the sensemaking process of physicians while performing a task, and 2) identifying software interaction design requirements that support sensemaking based on this model. The two-step approach is presented based on a case study of the tumor contouring clinical task for radiotherapy planning...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
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