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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088843/evaluating-surrogate-marker-information-using-censored-data
#1
Layla Parast, Tianxi Cai, Lu Tian
Given the long follow-up periods that are often required for treatment or intervention studies, the potential to use surrogate markers to decrease the required follow-up time is a very attractive goal. However, previous studies have shown that using inadequate markers or making inappropriate assumptions about the relationship between the primary outcome and surrogate marker can lead to inaccurate conclusions regarding the treatment effect. Currently available methods for identifying and validating surrogate markers tend to rely on restrictive model assumptions and/or focus on uncensored outcomes...
January 15, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088755/hispanic-mothers-beliefs-regarding-hpv-vaccine-series-completion-in-their-adolescent-daughters
#2
A M Roncancio, K K Ward, C C Carmack, B T Muñoz, F L Cribbs
Rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series completion among adolescent Hispanic females in Texas in 2014 (∼39%) lag behind the Healthy People 2020 goal (80%). This qualitative study identifies Hispanic mothers' salient behavioral, normative and control beliefs regarding having their adolescent daughters complete the vaccine series. Thirty-two mothers of girls (aged 11-17) that had received at least one dose of the HPV vaccine, completed in-depth interviews. Six girls had received one dose of the HPV vaccine, 10 girls had received two doses, and 16 girls had received all three doses...
January 14, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088715/micropollutant-induced-tolerance-of-in-situ-periphyton-establishing-causality-in-wastewater-impacted-streams
#3
Ahmed Tlili, Juliane Hollender, Cornelia Kienle, Renata Behra
The overarching aim of this field study was to examine causal links between in-situ exposure to complex mixtures of micropollutants from wastewater treatment plants and effects on freshwater microbial communities in the receiving streams. To reach this goal, we assessed the toxicity of serial dilutions of micropollutant mixtures, extracted from deployed passive samplers at the discharge sites of four Swiss wastewater treatment plants, to in situ periphyton from upstream and downstream of the effluents. On the one hand, comparison of the sensitivities of upstream and downstream periphyton to the micropollutant mixtures indicated that algal and bacterial communities composing the periphyton displayed higher tolerance towards these micropollutants downstream than upstream...
January 7, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088702/the-social-nature-of-overimitation-insights-from-autism-and-williams-syndrome
#4
Giacomo Vivanti, Darren R Hocking, Peter Fanning, Cheryl Dissanayake
When imitating novel actions, typically developing preschoolers often copy components of the demonstration that are unrelated to the modeled action's goal, a phenomenon known as 'overimitation'. According to the social motivation account, overimitation fulfills social affiliation motives (i.e., the imitator's drive to experience social connectedness with the demonstrator and the social context). Conversely, according to the social-cognitive account, overimitation reflects overattribution of causal relevance (i...
January 12, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088701/testing-the-causal-theory-of-reference
#5
Filippo Domaneschi, Massimiliano Vignolo, Simona Di Paola
Theories of reference are a crucial research topic in analytic philosophy. Since the publication of Kripke's Naming and Necessity, most philosophers have endorsed the causal/historical theory of reference. The goal of this paper is twofold: (i) to discuss a method for testing experimentally the causal theory of reference for proper names by investigating linguistic usage and (ii) to present the results from two experiments conducted with that method. Data collected in our experiments confirm the causal theory of reference for people proper names and for geographical proper names...
January 12, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088645/towards-solving-the-hard-problem-of-consciousness-the-varieties-of-brain-resonances-and-the-conscious-experiences-that-they-support
#6
Stephen Grossberg
The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining how we experience qualia or phenomenal experiences, such as seeing, hearing, and feeling, and knowing what they are. To solve this problem, a theory of consciousness needs to link brain to mind by modeling how emergent properties of several brain mechanisms interacting together embody detailed properties of individual conscious psychological experiences. This article summarizes evidence that Adaptive Resonance Theory, or ART, accomplishes this goal...
December 6, 2016: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088637/multi-scale-control-influences-sense-of-agency-investigating-intentional-binding-using-event-control-approach
#7
Devpriya Kumar, Narayanan Srinivasan
Control exercised by humans through interactions with the environment is critical for sense of agency. Here, we investigate how control at multiple levels influence implicit sense of agency measured using intentional binding. Participants are asked to hit a moving target using a joystick with noisy control followed by an intentional binding task initiated by the target hitting action. Perceptual-motor level control was manipulated through noise in the joystick controller (experiment 1) and goal-level control in terms of feedback about successful hit (experiments 2a and 2b)...
January 12, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088601/mid-term-outcomes-in-patients-with-congenitally-corrected-transposition-of-the-great-arteries-a-single-center-experience
#8
Luis E De León, Carlos M Mery, Raymond A Verm, Daniel Trujillo-Díaz, Ankita Patro, Francisco A Guzmán-Pruneda, Iki Adachi, Jeffrey S Heinle, Lauren C Kane, E Dean McKenzie, Charles D Fraser
INTRO: The optimal management of patients with congenitally-corrected transposition of the great arteries (ccTGA) is unclear. The goal of this study was to compare the outcomes in patients with ccTGA undergoing different management strategies. METHODS: Patients with ccTGA believed suitable for biventricular circulation treated in 1995-2016 were included. The cohort was divided into four groups: systemic right ventricle (RV) (patients without surgical intervention or with a classic repair), anatomic repair, Fontan palliation, and patients only receiving a pulmonary artery band (PAB) or a shunt...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088600/development-and-validation-of-a-methodology-to-reduce-mortality-using-the-veterans-administration-surgical-quality-improvement-program-risk-calculator
#9
Deborah S Keller, Donald Kroll, Harry T Papaconstantinou, C Neal Ellis
BACKGROUND: To identify patients with a high risk of 30 day mortality after elective surgery that may benefit from referral for tertiary care, an institution-specific process using the Veterans Administration Surgical Quality Improvement Program (VASQIP) Risk Calculator was developed. The goal was to develop and validate the methodology. Our hypothesis was the process could optimize referrals and reduce mortality. STUDY DESIGN: A VASQIP risk score was calculated for all patients undergoing elective non-cardiac surgery at a single Veteran's Administration (VA) facility...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American College of Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088527/navigation-in-the-electronic-health-record-a-review-of-the-safety-and-usability-literature
#10
REVIEW
Lisette C Roman, Jessica S Ancker, Stephen B Johnson, Yalini Senathirajah
OBJECTIVE: Inefficient navigation in electronic health records has been shown to increase users' cognitive load, which may increase potential for errors, reduce efficiency, and increase fatigue. However, navigation has received insufficient recognition and attention in the electronic health record (EHR) literature as an independent construct and contributor to overall usability. Our aims in this literature review were to (1) assess the prevalence of navigation-related topics within the EHR usability and safety research literature, (2) categorize types of navigation actions within the EHR, (3) capture relationships between these navigation actions and usability principles, and (4) collect terms and concepts related to EHR navigation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088471/effects-of-group-i-metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-antagonists-on-sensitivity-to-reinforcer-magnitude-and-delayed-reinforcement-in-a-delay-discounting-task-in-rats-contribution-of-delay-presentation-order
#11
Justin R Yates, Katherine K Rogers, Benjamin T Gunkel, Nicholas A Prior, Mallory N Hughes, Sara M Sharpe, Hunter L Campbell, Anthony B Johnson, Margaret G Keller, Kerry A Breitenstein, Hansen N Shults
Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1) blockade has been shown to decrease impulsive choice, as measured in delay discounting. However, several variables are known to influence an animal's discounting, including sensitivity to delayed reinforcement and sensitivity to reinforcer magnitude. The goal of this experiment was to determine the effects of mGluR1, as well as mGluR5, antagonism on these parameters. Forty Sprague Dawley rats were trained in delay discounting, in which consistently choosing a small, immediate reward reflects impulsive choice...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088454/alpha-l-iduronidase-and-arylsulfatase-b-in-dried-blood-spots-on-filter-paper-biochemical-parameters-and-time-stability
#12
Ana Carolina Breier, Jaqueline Cé, Jamila Mezzalira, Vanessa V Daitx, Vitoria C Moraes, Mariana P S Goldim, Janice C Coelho
BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to assess the biochemical parameters of the enzymes α-l-iduronidase (IDUA) and arylsulfatase B (ASB), which are deficient in mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) I and VI, respectively, in dried blood spot (DBS) samples impregnated on filter paper. METHODS AND RESULTS: The optimal pH, Km, and Vmax of IDUA and ASB in DBS are hereby presented. After these analyses, the reference values for the activities of these enzymes in DBS with cutoff of 3...
January 11, 2017: Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088378/antimicrobial-coated-implants-in-trauma-and-orthopaedics-a-clinical-review-and-risk-benefit-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Volker Alt
Implant-associated infections remain a major issue in orthopaedics and antimicrobial functionalization of the implant surface by antibiotics or other anti-infective agents have gained interest. The goal of this article is to identify antimicrobial coatings, for which clinical data are available and to review their clinical need, safety profile, and their efficacy to reduce infection rates. PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine was searched for clinical studies on antimicrobial coated implants for internal fracture fixation devices and endoprostheses for bone surgery, for which study design, level of evidence, biocompatibility, development of resistance, and effectiveness to reduce infection rates were analyzed...
December 21, 2016: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088350/the-emotive-nature-of-conflict-monitoring-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#14
Blair Saunders, Hause Lin, Marina Milyavskaya, Michael Inzlicht
The detection of conflict between incompatible impulses, thoughts, and actions is a ubiquitous source of motivation across theories of goal-directed action. In this overview, we explore the hypothesis that conflict is emotive, integrating perspectives from affective science and cognitive neuroscience. Initially, we review evidence suggesting that the mental and biological processes that monitor for information processing conflict-particularly those generated by the anterior midcingulate cortex-track the affective significance of conflict and use this signal to motivate increased control...
January 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088321/surgeon-pathologist-and-hospital-level-variation-in-suboptimal-lymph-node-examination-after-colectomy-compartmentalizing-quality-improvement-strategies
#15
Adan Z Becerra, Christopher T Aquina, Mariana Berho, Francis P Boscoe, Maria J Schymura, Katia Noyes, John R Monson, Fergal J Fleming
BACKGROUND: The goals of this study were to characterize the variation in suboptimal lymph node examination for patients with colon cancer across individual surgeons, pathologists, and hospitals and to examine if this variation affects 5-year, disease-specific survival. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted by merging the New York State Cancer Registry with the Statewide Planning & Research Cooperative System, Medicaid, and Medicare claims to identify resections for stages I-III colon cancer from 2004-2011...
January 11, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088311/prevalence-of-preoperative-penile-abnormalities-among-voluntary-male-medical-circumcision-patients-in-swaziland
#16
Anthony R Oddo, Elizabeth Ruedrich, Christopher Zust, Lindsey Marugg, Echo VanderWal, Harry VanderWal, Rebekah Sartori, Ronald Markert, Mary C McCarthy
BACKGROUND: Circumcision has been found to be an effective strategy for lowering the transmission of HIV in Africa. The Luke Commission, a mobile hospital outreach program, has used this information to decrease the rate of HIV in Swaziland by performing voluntary male medical circumcisions throughout the country. During many of these circumcisions, genital medical conditions and penile abnormalities are simultaneously discovered and corrected. PURPOSE: The goal of our study was to evaluate the prevalence of penile abnormalities discovered and treated during voluntary male medical circumcisions performed by The Luke Commission (TLC) throughout rural Swaziland...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088310/performance-limitations-of-networked-control-systems-with-quantization-and-packet-dropouts
#17
Xiao-Wei Jiang, Xian-He Zhang, Zhi-Hong Guan, Li Yu, Huai-Cheng Yan
This paper investigates the problem of optimal tracking performance of networked control systems (NCSs) with quantization and packet-dropouts. The system under consideration is linear time-invariant (LTI), multi-input multi-output (MIMO), where an H2 norm of error signal between the reference input and the system output is used as the tracking performance index. The impacts of packet-dropouts in the communication channel and the quantized input and output are studied. The goal is to obtain the minimal error in tracking a random signal, by searching through all possible stabilizing two-parameter controllers...
January 11, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088255/a-review-on-different-english-versions-of-an-ancient-classic-of-chinese-medicine-huang-di-nei-jing
#18
REVIEW
Xiao Ye, Min-Hua Dong
Huang Di Nei Jing (Nei Jing), one of the most important classical texts of traditional Chinese medicine, is the foundation upon which today's Chinese medicine principles are built. This seminal ancient classic has been translated into English many times by different scholars worldwide. The authors have found thirteen English versions, each of which has its own distinctive features. By reviewing different versions and research achievements of the English translation, the authors try to summarize the translation style, purpose, content and other features of each version, and point out each translation's weaknesses, strengths, or significance...
January 2017: Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088225/using-low-cost-drones-to-map-malaria-vector-habitats
#19
Andy Hardy, Makame Makame, Dónall Cross, Silas Majambere, Mwinyi Msellem
BACKGROUND: There is a growing awareness that if we are to achieve the ambitious goal of malaria elimination, we must compliment indoor-based vector control interventions (such as bednets and indoor spraying) with outdoor-based interventions such as larval source management (LSM). The effectiveness of LSM is limited by our capacity to identify and map mosquito aquatic habitats. This study provides a proof of concept for the use of a low-cost (< $1000) drone (DJI Phantom) for mapping water bodies in seven sites across Zanzibar including natural water bodies, irrigated and non-irrigated rice paddies, peri-urban and urban locations...
January 14, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088101/sequenced-defined-biomolecules-for-nanomaterial-synthesis-functionalization-and-assembly
#20
REVIEW
Joseph M Slocik, Rajesh R Naik
Biomolecules represent an invaluable resource to nanotechnology by providing a large diversity of highly functional biomolecular templates. As a result, these have been extensively used for controlling the synthesis, functionalization, and assembly of nanomaterials, while also creating materials with new properties and structures. In the following, we focus on the use of peptides to achieve these goals and describe their general utility, sequence programmability, and use as templates. Also, we highlight several recent advances in the identification and selection of high affinity nanomaterial-binding peptides, provide a few examples of peptide functionalized surfaces and peptide templated materials, and describe how simple modifications to well characterized nanomaterial-binding peptides can be used to manipulate interactions and physiochemical properties...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
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