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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926818/disruption-of-miaa-provides-insights-into-the-regulation-of-phenazine-biosynthesis-under-suboptimal-growth-conditions-in-pseudomonas-chlororaphis-30-84
#1
Jun Myoung Yu, Donping Wang, Leland S Pierson, Elizabeth A Pierson
Many products of secondary metabolism are activated by quorum sensing (QS), yet even at cell densities sufficient for QS, their production may be repressed under suboptimal growth conditions via mechanisms that still require elucidation. For many beneficial plant-associated bacteria, secondary metabolites such as phenazines are important for their competitive survival and plant-protective activities. Previous work established that phenazine biosynthesis in Pseudomonas chlororaphis 30-84 is regulated by the PhzR/PhzI QS system, which in turn is regulated by transcriptional regulator Pip, two-component system RpeA/RpeB, and stationary-phase/stress sigma factor RpoS...
December 7, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920933/crystal-structure-of-1-3-bis-3-tert-butyl-2-hy-droxy-5-methyl-benz-yl-1-3-diazinan-5-ol-monohydrate
#2
Augusto Rivera, Ingrid Miranda-Carvajal, Jaime Ríos-Motta, Michael Bolte
In the title hydrate, C28H42N2O3·H2O, the central 1,3-diazinan-5-ol ring adopts a chair conformation with the two benzyl substituents equatorial and the lone pairs of the N atoms axial. The dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 19.68 (38)°. There are two intra-molecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, each generating an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal, classical O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds connect the 1,3-diazinane and water mol-ecules into columns extending along the b axis. The crystal structure was refined as a two-component twin with a fractional contribution to the minor domain of 0...
September 1, 2016: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919888/identification-of-a-novel-lincomycin-resistance-mutation-associated-with-activation-of-antibiotic-production-in-streptomyces-coelicolor-a3-2
#3
Guojun Wang, Masumi Izawa, Xiaoge Yang, Dongbo Xu, Yukinori Tanaka, Kozo Ochi
Comparative genome sequencing analysis of a lincomycin-resistant strain of Streptomyces coelicolor A3 (2) and the wild type strain identified a novel mutation conferring a high level of lincomycin resistance. Surprisingly, the new mutation was an in-frame DNA deletion in the genes SCO4597-SCO4598, resulting in formation of the hybrid gene linR SCO4597 and SCO4598 encode two histidine kinases, which, together with SCO4596, encoding a response regulator, constitute a unique two-component system. Sequence analysis indicated that these three genes and their arrangement patterns are ubiquitous among all Streptomyces genomes sequenced to date, suggesting these genes play important regulatory roles...
December 5, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919806/are-placebo-and-drug-specific-effects-additive-questioning-basic-assumptions-of-double-blinded-randomized-clinical-trials-and-presenting-novel-study-designs
#4
REVIEW
Tobias Kube, Winfried Rief
Double-blinded randomized clinical trials (RCTs) assume that pharmacological interventions have drug-specific and unspecific components. Traditional RCTs postulate an additivity of these two components. In this review, we provide evidence from both clinical trials and experimental studies that questions this 'additive model'. Given that the evaluation of drug treatments in RCTs is based on the assumption of additivity, its violation has far-reaching consequences. Therefore, we discuss an interactive model that, in contrast to the additive model, considers interactions between placebo and drug-specific effects...
December 2, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919772/pain-anxiety-and-its-association-with-pain-congruence-trajectories-during-the-cold-pressor-task
#5
S M Clark, A Cano, L Goubert, J W S Vlaeyen, L H Wurm, A M Corley
: Incongruence of pain severity ratings among people experiencing pain and their observers has been linked to psychological distress. Previous studies have measured pain rating congruence through static self-report, involving a single rating of pain; however, this method does not capture changes in ratings over time. The present study examined the extent to which partners were congruent on multiple ratings of a participants' pain severity during the cold pressor task. Furthermore, two components of pain anxiety-pain catastrophizing and perceived threat-were examined as predictors of pain congruence...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917180/role-of-the-gacs-sensor-kinase-in-the-regulation-of-volatile-production-by-plant-growth-promoting-pseudomonas-fluorescens-sbw25
#6
Xu Cheng, Viviane Cordovez, Desalegn W Etalo, Menno van der Voort, Jos M Raaijmakers
In plant-associated Pseudomonas species, the production of several secondary metabolites and exoenzymes is regulated by the GacS/GacA two-component regulatory system (the Gac-system). Here, we investigated if a mutation in the GacS sensor kinase affects the production of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in P. fluorescens SBW25 (Pf.SBW25) and how this impacts on VOCs-mediated growth promotion and induced systemic resistance of Arabidopsis and tobacco. A total of 205 VOCs were detected by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry for Pf...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915248/comparative-proteomic-analysis-unravels-a-role-for-esrb-in-the-regulation-of-reactive-oxygen-species-stress-responses-in-edwardsiella-piscicida
#7
Kaiyu Yin, Qiyao Wang, Jingfan Xiao, Yuanxing Zhang
As a leading pathogen, Edwardsiella piscicida can cause hemorrhagic septicemia in fish and gastro-intestinal infections in humans. The two-component regulatory system EsrA-EsrB plays essential roles in pathogenesis through the type III and type VI secretion systems, and hemolysin production in E. piscicida It is unclear whether other virulence- or stress response-associated genes are regulated by EsrA-EsrB. In this study, the proteomes of wild type E. piscicida EIB202 and esrB mutant strains were compared to reveal EsrB regulon components after growth in LB...
December 2, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910884/the-hha-tomb-toxin-antitoxin-system-shows-conditional-toxicity-and-promotes-persister-cell-formation-by-inhibiting-apoptosis-like-death-in-s-typhimurium
#8
Sangeeta Jaiswal, Prajita Paul, Chandrashekhar Padhi, Shilpa Ray, Daniel Ryan, Shantoshini Dash, Mrutyunjay Suar
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules are two component "addictive" genetic elements found on either plasmid or bacterial chromosome, sometimes on both. TA systems perform a wide range of functions like biofilm formation, persistence, programmed cell death, phage abortive infection etc. Salmonella has been reported to contain several such TA systems. However, the hemolysin expression modulating protein (Hha) and its adjacent uncharacterized hypothetical protein TomB (previously known as YbaJ), have not been listed as a TA module in Salmonella...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907189/structural-insights-into-streptococcal-competence-regulation-by-the-cell-to-cell-communication-system-comrs
#9
Antoine Talagas, Laetitia Fontaine, Laura Ledesma-Garca, Johann Mignolet, Inès Li de la Sierra-Gallay, Noureddine Lazar, Magali Aumont-Nicaise, Michael J Federle, Gerd Prehna, Pascal Hols, Sylvie Nessler
In Gram-positive bacteria, cell-to-cell communication mainly relies on extracellular signaling peptides, which elicit a response either indirectly, by triggering a two-component phosphorelay, or directly, by binding to cytoplasmic effectors. The latter comprise the RNPP family (Rgg and original regulators Rap, NprR, PrgX and PlcR), whose members regulate important bacterial processes such as sporulation, conjugation, and virulence. RNPP proteins are increasingly considered as interesting targets for the development of new antibacterial agents...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906269/electromagnetic-theory-of-optical-coherence-invited
#10
Ari T Friberg, Tero Setälä
The coherence theory of random, vector-valued optical fields has been of great research interest in recent years. In this work we formulate the foundations of electromagnetic coherence theory both in the space-time and space-frequency domains, with particular emphasis on various types of optical interferometry. Analyzing statistically stationary, two-component (paraxial) electric fields in the classical and quantum-optical contexts we show fundamental connections between the conventional (polarization) Stokes parameters and the associated two-point (coherence) Stokes parameters...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903899/human-mitochondrial-transcription-factors-tfam-and-tfb2m-work-synergistically-in-promoter-melting-during-transcription-initiation
#11
Aparna Ramachandran, Urmimala Basu, Shemaila Sultana, Divya Nandakumar, Smita S Patel
Human mitochondrial DNA is transcribed by POLRMT with the help of two initiation factors, TFAM and TFB2M. The current model postulates that the role of TFAM is to recruit POLRMT and TFB2M to melt the promoter. However, we show that TFAM has 'post-recruitment' roles in promoter melting and RNA synthesis, which were revealed by studying the pre-initiation steps of promoter binding, bending and melting, and abortive RNA synthesis. Our 2-aminopurine mapping studies show that the LSP (Light Strand Promoter) is melted from -4 to +1 in the open complex with all three proteins and from -4 to +3 with addition of ATP...
November 29, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903631/genomics-of-compensatory-adaptation-in-experimental-populations-of-aspergillus-nidulans
#12
Jeremy R Dettman, Nicolas Rodrigue, Sijmen E Schoustra, Rees Kassen
Knowledge of the number and nature of genetic changes responsible for adaptation is essential for understanding and predicting evolutionary trajectories. Here, we study the genomic basis of compensatory adaptation to the fitness cost of fungicide resistance in experimentally evolved strains of the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans The original selection experiment tracked the fitness recovery of lines founded by an ancestral strain that was resistant to fludioxonil, but paid a fitness cost in the absence of the fungicide...
November 30, 2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902777/the-two-component-system-arlrs-and-alterations-in-metabolism-enable-staphylococcus-aureus-to-resist-calprotectin-induced-manganese-starvation
#13
Jana N Radin, Jessica L Kelliher, Paola K Párraga Solórzano, Thomas E Kehl-Fie
During infection the host imposes manganese and zinc starvation on invading pathogens. Despite this, Staphylococcus aureus and other successful pathogens remain capable of causing devastating disease. However, how these invaders adapt to host-imposed metal starvation and overcome nutritional immunity remains unknown. We report that ArlRS, a global staphylococcal virulence regulator, enhances the ability of S. aureus to grow in the presence of the manganese-and zinc-binding innate immune effector calprotectin...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902439/evidence-that-pneumococcal-walk-is-regulated-by-stkp-through-protein-protein-interaction
#14
Gro Anita Stamsås, Daniel Straume, Zhian Salehian, Leiv Sigve Håvarstein
WalRK is the only two-component regulatory system essential for viability in Streptococcus pneumoniae. Despite its importance, the biological role of this system is not well understood. However, previous studies have shown that it has a crucial role in controlling pneumococcal cell division. Considerable efforts have been made to understand how the WalRK system is regulated, but no signal(s) sensed by the WalK histidine kinase has been identified so far. Here, we provide evidence that the serine/threonine protein kinase StkP modulates the activity of WalK through direct protein-protein interaction, suggesting that this interaction is one of the signals sensed by WalK...
November 29, 2016: Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899733/scientific-eminence-where-are-the-women
#15
Alice H Eagly, David I Miller
Women are sparsely represented among psychologists honored for scientific eminence. However, most currently eminent psychologists started their careers when far fewer women pursued training in psychological science. Now that women earn the majority of psychology Ph.D.'s, will they predominate in the next generation's cadre of eminent psychologists? Comparing currently active female and male psychology professors on publication metrics such as the h index provides clues for answering this question. Men outperform women on the h index and its two components: scientific productivity and citations of contributions...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897196/product-release-is-rate-limiting-for-catalytic-processing-by-the-dengue-virus-protease
#16
A E Shannon, M M Pedroso, K J Chappell, D Watterson, S Liebscher, W M Kok, D P Fairlie, G Schenk, P R Young
Dengue Virus (DENV) is the most prevalent global arbovirus, yet despite an increasing burden to health care there are currently no therapeutics available to treat infection. A potential target for antiviral drugs is the two-component viral protease NS2B-NS3pro, which is essential for viral replication. Interactions between the two components have been investigated here by probing the effect on the rate of enzyme catalysis of key mutations in a mobile loop within NS2B that is located at the interface of the two components...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895209/holistic-nursing-simulation-a-concept-analysis
#17
Bonni S Cohen, Rebecca Boni
Simulation as a technology and holistic nursing care as a philosophy are two components within nursing programs that have merged during the process of knowledge and skill acquisition in the care of the patients as whole beings. Simulation provides opportunities to apply knowledge and skill through the use of simulators, standardized patients, and virtual settings. Concerns with simulation have been raised regarding the integration of the nursing process and recognizing the totality of the human being. Though simulation is useful as a technology, the nursing profession places importance on patient care, drawing on knowledge, theories, and expertise to administer patient care...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Holistic Nursing: Official Journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891335/a-comparative-evaluation-of-different-diagnostic-modalities-in-the-diagnosis-of-typhoid-fever-using-a-composite-reference-standard-a-tertiary-hospital-based-study-in-central-india
#18
Veena Maheshwari, Navinchandra Motiram Kaore, Vijay Kumar Ramnani, Sheil Sarda
INTRODUCTION: Enteric fever, caused by Salmonella spp. is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and endemic in many developing countries including India and other South-East Asian countries. Blood culture is regarded as the gold standard for diagnosis. Currently, the standard serological method is tube agglutination with moderate sensitivity and specificity. Dot blot assay detecting IgM and IgG antibodies to a specific 50kD Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) antigen of Salmonella spp...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888490/large-cell-neuroendocrine-carcinoma-of-the-common-bile-duct-a-case-report-and-a-review-of-literature
#19
Makoto Murakami, Kanji Katayama, Shigeru Kato, Daisuke Fujimoto, Mitsuhiro Morikawa, Kenji Koneri, Yasuo Hirono, Takanori Goi
BACKGROUND: Large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC) of the bile duct is extremely rare and is a high-grade type of neuroendocrine tumor with an aggressive clinical course. Here, we report a case of LCNEC of the extrahepatic bile duct. CASE PRESENTATION: An 80-year-old man presented with severe jaundice. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and enhanced computed tomography revealed complete obstruction of the common bile duct (CBD) by a dense tumor measuring 1...
December 2016: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887763/composite-lymphoma-with-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma-and-classical-hodgkin-lymphoma-components-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Gaurav Goyal, Austin Huy Nguyen, Kayla Kendric, Gabriel C Caponetti
Composite lymphoma (CL) is an infrequently diagnosed entity in which two or more distinct types of lymphomas occur synchronously in the same organ or anatomical site. Most commonly, CLs are composed of two non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas. We present a case of a composite lymphoma with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, not otherwise specified (DLBCL-NOS) and classical Hodgkin lymphoma (CHL) components involving the terminal ileum, colon and pericolic lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical evaluation for determination of cell of origin of the DLBCL-NOS component indicated a germinal center B-cell subtype...
December 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
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