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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107679/meta-analysis-of-the-relationship-between-impulsivity-and-substance-related-cognitive-biases
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Leung, Petra K Staiger, Melissa Hayden, Jarrad A G Lum, Kate Hall, Victoria Manning, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that substance-related cognitive biases (attentional, memory, and approach bias) contribute to the maintenance and development of substance misuse. Impulsivity has been suggested to influence how cognitive biases contribute to substance misuse, possibly by biasing incentive salience attribution processes. However, the strength and moderators of the relationship between impulsivity and substance-related cognitive biases has yet to be empirically examined...
January 5, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106797/the-complex-relationship-between-virulence-and-antibiotic-resistance
#2
REVIEW
Meredith Schroeder, Benjamin D Brooks, Amanda E Brooks
Antibiotic resistance, prompted by the overuse of antimicrobial agents, may arise from a variety of mechanisms, particularly horizontal gene transfer of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes, which is often facilitated by biofilm formation. The importance of phenotypic changes seen in a biofilm, which lead to genotypic alterations, cannot be overstated. Irrespective of if the biofilm is single microbe or polymicrobial, bacteria, protected within a biofilm from the external environment, communicate through signal transduction pathways (e...
January 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106321/conserved-two-component-hik34-rre1-module-directly-activates-heat-stress-inducible-transcription-of-major-chaperone-and-other-genes-in-synechococcus-elongatus-pcc-7942
#3
Ikki Kobayashi, Satoru Watanabe, Yu Kanesaki, Tomohiro Shimada, Hirofumi Yoshikawa, Kan Tanaka
Bacteria and other organisms, including cyanobacteria, employ two-component signal transducing modules comprising histidine kinases and response regulators to acclimate to changing environments. While the number and composition of these modules differ among cyanobacteria, two response regulators that contain DNA binding domains, RpaB and Rre1, are conserved in all sequenced cyanobacterial genomes and are essential for viability. Although RpaB negatively or positively regulates high light and other stress-responsive gene expression, little is known about the function of Rre1...
January 20, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101921/effects-of-shifts-in-food-reinforcement-context-on-rats-consumption-of-concurrently-available-water-or-sucrose-solution
#4
Chad M Galuska, Leslie E Sawyer
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of signaled transitions from relatively rich to lean conditions of food reinforcement on drinking concurrently available water or sucrose-sweetened water in rats. Past research demonstrated that these negative incentive shifts produce behavioral disruption in the form of extended pausing on fixed-ratio schedules. Four male Long-Evans rats operated on a two-component multiple fixed-ratio fixed-ratio schedule. In one manipulation, the ratio was held constant and the components arranged either a large six-pellet reinforcer (rich) or small one-pellet reinforcer (lean)...
January 2017: Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101446/hypertonicity-clinical-entities-manifestations-and-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Helbert Rondon-Berrios, Christos Argyropoulos, Todd S Ing, Dominic S Raj, Deepak Malhotra, Emmanuel I Agaba, Mark Rohrscheib, Zeid J Khitan, Glen H Murata, Joseph I Shapiro, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
Hypertonicity causes severe clinical manifestations and is associated with mortality and severe short-term and long-term neurological sequelae. The main clinical syndromes of hypertonicity are hypernatremia and hyperglycemia. Hypernatremia results from relative excess of body sodium over body water. Loss of water in excess of intake, gain of sodium salts in excess of losses or a combination of the two are the main mechanisms of hypernatremia. Hypernatremia can be hypervolemic, euvolemic or hypovolemic. The management of hypernatremia addresses both a quantitative replacement of water and, if present, sodium deficit, and correction of the underlying pathophysiologic process that led to hypernatremia...
January 6, 2017: World Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100818/lowland-biotic-attrition-revisited-body-size-and-variation-among-climate-change-winners-and-losers
#6
Jedediah F Brodie, Matthew Strimas-Mackey, Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan, Alys Granados, Henry Bernard, Anthony J Giordano, Olga E Helmy
The responses of lowland tropical communities to climate change will critically influence global biodiversity but remain poorly understood. If species in these systems are unable to tolerate warming, the communities-currently the most diverse on Earth-may become depauperate ('biotic attrition'). In response to temperature changes, animals can adjust their distribution in space or their activity in time, but these two components of the niche are seldom considered together. We assessed the spatio-temporal niches of rainforest mammal species in Borneo across gradients in elevation and temperature...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099813/photoactive-donor-acceptor-composite-nanoparticles-dispersed-in-water
#7
Laurie Parrenin, Gildas Laurans, Eleni Pavlopoulou, Guillaume Fleury, Gilles Pecastaings, Cyril Brochon, Laurence Vignau, Georges Hadziioannou, Eric Cloutet
A major issue that inhibits large-scale fabrication of organic solar modules is the use of chlorinated solvents considered as toxic and hazardous. In this work, composite particles of poly[N-9'-heptadecanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4,7-di-2-thienyl-2',1',3'-benzothiadiazole] (PCDTBT) and [6,6]-Phenyl C71 butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM) were obtained in water from a versatile and a ready-to-market methodology based on miniemulsion post-polymerization. Depending on experimental conditions, size-controlled particles comprising both the electron-donor and the electron-acceptor were obtained and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic force microscopic (AFM), small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies...
January 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099473/the-staphylococcus-aureus-srrab-regulatory-system-modulates-hydrogen-peroxide-resistance-factors-which-imparts-protection-to-aconitase-during-aerobic-growth
#8
Ameya A Mashruwala, Jeffrey M Boyd
The SrrAB two-component regulatory system (TCRS) positively influences the transcription of genes involved in aerobic respiration in response to changes in respiratory flux. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) can arise as a byproduct of spontaneous interactions between dioxygen and components of respiratory pathways. H2O2 damages cellular factors including protein associated iron-sulfur cluster prosthetic groups. We found that a Staphylococcus aureus strain lacking the SrrAB two-component regulatory system (TCRS) is sensitive to H2O2 intoxication...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098823/integrative-mirna-gene-expression-analysis-enables-refinement-of-associated-biology-and-prediction-of-response-to-cetuximab-in-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-cancer
#9
Loris De Cecco, Marco Giannoccaro, Edoardo Marchesi, Paolo Bossi, Federica Favales, Laura D Locati, Lisa Licitra, Silvana Pilotti, Silvana Canevari
This paper documents the process by which we, through gene and miRNA expression profiling of the same samples of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) and an integrative miRNA-mRNA expression analysis, were able to identify candidate biomarkers of progression-free survival (PFS) in patients treated with cetuximab-based approaches. Through sparse partial least square-discriminant analysis (sPLS-DA) and supervised analysis, 36 miRNAs were identified in two components that clearly separated long- and short-PFS patients...
January 14, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098756/detection-of-the-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-with-a-novel-bioluminescence-resonance-energy-transfer-pair-using-a-two-component-system
#10
Tobias Wimmer, Eva Schroeter, Birgit Lorenz, Knut Stieger
In this paper we describe a two-component BRET (bioluminescence resonance energy transfer)-based method to detect vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) molecules in unknown samples as the basis for subsequent in vivo use. A luminescent VEGF binding molecule, which binds in the receptor binding motif of VEGF, is used as the energy donor, transferred to a fluorophore-coupled VEGF binding molecule (acceptor), which binds to the neuropilin binding motif of VEGF, thus enabling energy transfer from the donor to the acceptor molecule...
January 13, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097817/revisiting-regulation-of-potassium-homeostasis-in-escherichia-coli-the-connection-to-phosphate-limitation
#11
Hannah Schramke, Vera Laermann, Halina E Tegetmeyer, Andreas Brachmann, Kirsten Jung, Karlheinz Altendorf
Two-component signal transduction constitutes the predominant strategy used by bacteria to adapt to fluctuating environments. The KdpD/KdpE system is one of the most widespread, and is crucial for K(+) homeostasis. In Escherichia coli, the histidine kinase KdpD senses K(+) availability, whereas the response regulator KdpE activates synthesis of the high-affinity K(+) uptake system KdpFABC. Here we show that, in the absence of KdpD, kdpFABC expression can be activated via phosphorylation of KdpE by the histidine kinase PhoR...
January 17, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097282/casimir-effect-between-pinned-particles-in-two-dimensional-jammed-systems
#12
Juan-José Liétor-Santos, Justin C Burton
The Casimir effect arises when long-ranged fluctuations are geometrically confined between two surfaces, leading to a macroscopic force. Traditionally, these forces have been observed in quantum systems and near critical points in classical systems. Here we show the existence of Casimir-like forces between two pinned particles immersed in two-dimensional systems near the jamming transition. We observe two components to the total force: a short-ranged, depletion force and a long-ranged, repulsive Casimir-like force...
January 18, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097277/combining-the-spin-separated-exact-two-component-relativistic-hamiltonian-with-the-equation-of-motion-coupled-cluster-method-for-the-treatment-of-spin-orbit-splittings-of-light-and-heavy-elements
#13
Zhanli Cao, Zhendong Li, Fan Wang, Wenjian Liu
The spin-separated exact two-component (X2C) relativistic Hamiltonian [sf-X2C+so-DKHn, J. Chem. Phys., 2012, 137, 154114] is combined with the equation-of-motion coupled-cluster method with singles and doubles (EOM-CCSD) for the treatment of spin-orbit splittings of open-shell molecular systems. Scalar relativistic effects are treated to infinite order from the outset via the spin-free part of the X2C Hamiltonian (sf-X2C), whereas the spin-orbit couplings (SOC) are handled at the CC level via the first-order Douglas-Kroll-Hess (DKH) type of spin-orbit operator (so-DKH1)...
January 18, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096901/exploring-musculoskeletal-injuries-in-the-podiatry-profession-an-international-cross-sectional-study
#14
Cylie M Williams, Stefania Penkala, Peter Smith, Terry Haines, Kelly-Ann Bowles
BACKGROUND: Workplace injury is an international costly burden. Health care workers are an essential component to managing musculoskeletal disorders, however in doing this, they may increase their own susceptibility. While there is substantial evidence about work-related musculoskeletal disorders across the health workforce, understanding risk factors in specific occupational groups, such as podiatry, is limited. The primary aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of work related low back pain in podiatrists...
2017: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094975/endoribonuclease-based-two-component-repressor-systems-for-tight-gene-expression-control-in-plants
#15
Yan Liang, Sarah M Richardson, Jingwei Yan, Veronica T Benites, Clarabelle Cheng-Yue, Thu Tran, Jenny Mortimer, Aindrila Mukhopadhyay, Jay D Keasling, Dominique Loque
Tight control and multifactorial regulation of gene expression are important challenges in genetic engineering and are critical for the development of regulatory circuits. Meeting these challenges will facilitate transgene expression regulation and support fine-tuning of metabolic pathways to avoid the accumulation of undesired intermediates. By employing the endoribonuclease Csy4 and its recognition sequence from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and manipulating 5'UTR of mRNA, we developed a two-component expression-repression system to tightly control synthesis of transgene products...
January 17, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094955/using-diffusion-to-characterize-interfacial-heterogeneity
#16
Krystyna Kijewska, Gary J Blanchard
We report on the use of molecular diffusional motion over a range of length scales to characterize compositional heterogeneity in monolayer structures. This work focuses on the diffusional motion of perylene in two types of films supported on functionalized silica surfaces; single component (stearic acid) and two-component (hydrocarbon/fluorocarbon) films. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers were deposited directly on silica or were bound to surface-modified silica by means of metal ion complexation. The LB films were characterized by their π-A isotherms and by Brewster angle microscopy (BAM) during formation and deposition...
January 17, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093234/the-1910hk-rr-two-component-system-is-essential-for-the-virulence-of-streptococcus-suis-serotype-2
#17
Fangyan Yuan, Chen Tan, Zewen Liu, Keli Yang, Danna Zhou, Wei Liu, Zhengying Duan, Rui Guo, Huanchun Chen, Yongxiang Tian, Weicheng Bei
Streptococcus suis serotype 2 is a major zoonotic pathogen, and the two-component system plays an important role in bacterial pathogenesis. The present study targeted the 1910HK/RR two-component system of S. suis 2. A 1910HK/RR deletion mutant (Δ1910HK/RR) and the corresponding complementation strain (CΔ1910HK/RR) were constructed in S. suis 2 strain 05ZYH33. 1910HK/RR deletion had no effect on S. suis 2 growth, but significantly inhibited the adherence and invasion of S. suis 2 to HEp-2 cells. Analysis of the role of 1910HK/RR in murine and pig infection models demonstrated that 1910HK/RR played a distinct role in the virulence of S...
January 13, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091966/aortic-regurgitation-generates-a-kinematic-obstruction-which-hinders-left-ventricular-filling
#18
Ikechukwu Okafor, Vrishank Raghav, Jose F Condado, Prem A Midha, Gautam Kumar, Ajit P Yoganathan
An incompetent aortic valve (AV) results in aortic regurgitation (AR), where retrograde flow of blood into the left ventricle (LV) is observed. In this work, we parametrically characterized the detailed changes in intra-ventricular flow during diastole as a result of AR in a physiological in vitro left-heart simulator (LHS). The loss of energy within the LV as the level of AR increased was also assessed. The validated LHS consisted of an optically-clear, flexible wall LV and a modular AV holder. Two-component, planar, digital particle image velocimetry was used to visualize and quantify intra-ventricular flow...
January 13, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091535/visualization-of-the-role-of-host-heme-on-the-virulence-of-the-heme-auxotroph-streptococcus-agalactiae
#19
Laetitia Joubert, Jean-Baptiste Dagieu, Annabelle Fernandez, Aurélie Derré-Bobillot, Elise Borezée-Durant, Isabelle Fleurot, Alexandra Gruss, Delphine Lechardeur
Heme is essential for several cellular key functions but is also toxic. Whereas most bacterial pathogens utilize heme as a metabolic cofactor and iron source, the impact of host heme during bacterial infection remains elusive. The opportunist pathogen Streptococcus agalactiae does not synthesize heme but still uses it to activate a respiration metabolism. Concomitantly, heme toxicity is mainly controlled by the HrtBA efflux transporter. Here we investigate how S. agalactiae manages heme toxicity versus benefits in the living host...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089665/dissociation-of-morphine-analgesic-effects-in-the-sensory-and-affective-components-of-formalin-induced-spontaneous-pain-in-male-and-female-rats
#20
Lisa R Harton, Janell R Richardson, Alexander Armendariz, Arbi Nazarian
Sex differences in the analgesic effects of morphine have been previously reported in various models that represent the sensory component of pain. However, pain sensation is a complex process that consists of both sensory and affective components. It is presently unclear whether the analgesic effects of morphine between the sensory and affective components of pain are sexually dimorphic. Moreover, differences in morphine dose-response in the two components of pain have not been examined in male and female rats...
January 12, 2017: Brain Research
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