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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238329/relative-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-brucella-abortus-reveals-metabolic-adaptation-to-multiple-environmental-stresses
#1
Xiaodong Zai, Qiaoling Yang, Ying Yin, Ruihua Li, Mengying Qian, Taoran Zhao, Yaohui Li, Jun Zhang, Ling Fu, Junjie Xu, Wei Chen
Brucella spp. are facultative intracellular pathogens that cause chronic brucellosis in humans and animals. The virulence of Brucella primarily depends on its successful survival and replication in host cells. During invasion of the host tissue, Brucella is simultaneously subjected to a variety of harsh conditions, including nutrient limitation, low pH, antimicrobial defenses, and extreme levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the host immune response. This suggests that Brucella may be able to regulate its metabolic adaptation in response to the distinct stresses encountered during its intracellular infection of the host...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236364/intraflagellar-transporter-protein-140-ift140-a-component-of-ift-a-complex-is-essential-for-male-fertility-and-spermiogenesis-in-mice
#2
Yong Zhang, Hong Liu, Wei Li, Zhengang Zhang, Shiyang Zhang, Maria E Teves, Courtney Stevens, James A Foster, Gregory E Campbell, Jolene J Windle, Rex A Hess, Gregory J Pazour, Zhibing Zhang
Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is a conserved mechanism essential for the assembly and maintenance of most eukaryotic cilia and flagella. However, little is known about its role in sperm flagella formation and male fertility. IFT140 is a component of IFT-A complex. In mouse, it is highly expressed in the testis. Ift140 gene was inactivated specifically in mouse spermatocytes/spermatids. The mutant mice did not show any gross abnormalities, but all were infertile associated with significantly reduced sperm number and motility...
December 13, 2017: Cytoskeleton
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236144/technological-properties-assessment-and-two-component-systems-distribution-of-streptococcus-thermophilus-strains-isolated-from-fermented-milk
#3
Tong Hu, Yishuang Zhang, Yanhua Cui, Chunyu Zhao, Xu Jiang, Xirong Zhu, Yu Wang, Xiaojun Qu
Streptococcus thermophilus is one of the economically most representatives of lactic acid bacteria, which is widely used as a starter to produce fermented milk products. In this study, 22 S. thermophilus strains were isolated from 26 fermented milk samples. Most isolates showed the ability to ferment a broad range of carbohydrates. Interestingly, eight strains are galactose positive, which is a desirable property in various industrial dairy fermentations. Four different nucleotide sequences were found in the galR-galK intergenic regions...
December 13, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235472/a-ph-gated-conformational-switch-regulates-the-phosphatase-activity-of-bifunctional-hiska-family-histidine-kinases
#4
Yixiang Liu, Joshua Rose, Shaojia Huang, Yangbo Hu, Qiong Wu, Dan Wang, Conggang Li, Maili Liu, Pei Zhou, Ling Jiang
Histidine kinases are key regulators in the bacterial two-component systems that mediate the cellular response to environmental changes. The vast majority of the sensor histidine kinases belong to the bifunctional HisKA family, displaying both kinase and phosphatase activities toward their substrates. The molecular mechanisms regulating the opposing activities of these enzymes are not well understood. Through a combined NMR and crystallographic study on the histidine kinase HK853 and its response regulator RR468 from Thermotoga maritima, here we report a pH-mediated conformational switch of HK853 that shuts off its phosphatase activity under acidic conditions...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229875/re-engineering-the-two-component-systems-as-light-regulated-in-escherichia-coli
#5
Siya Ma, Siwei Luo, L I Wu, Zhi Liang, Jia-Rui Wu
Bacteria live in environments with dynamic changes. To sense and respond to different external stimuli, bacteria make use of various sensor-response circuits, called two-component systems (TCSs). A TCS comprises a histidine protein kinase (HK) sensing environmental stimuli and a response regulator protein (RR) regulating downstream genes. The two components are coupled via a phosphorylation control mechanism. In a recent study, we adopted an optogenetics approach to re-engineer the sensor HKs in Escherichia coli as a light-sensing fusion protein...
December 2017: Journal of Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229727/high-salt-conditions-alter-transcription-of-helicobacter-pylori-genes-encoding-outer-membrane-proteins
#6
John T Loh, Amber C Beckett, Matthew B Scholz, Timothy L Cover
Helicobacter pylori infection and high dietary salt intake are risk factors for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. One possible mechanism by which a high salt diet could influence gastric cancer risk is by modulating H. pylori gene expression. In this study, we utilized RNA-seq methodology to compare the transcriptional profiles of H. pylori grown in media containing different concentrations of sodium chloride. We identified 118 differentially expressed genes (65 upregulated and 53 downregulated in response to high salt conditions), including multiple members of 14 operons...
December 11, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229411/disentangling-the-effects-of-parental-food-restriction-on-child-s-risk-of-overweight
#7
Valérie Godefroy, Camille Champel, Laura Trinchera, Natalie Rigal
The links between parental restriction of food intake, child's eating behaviour and child's adiposity are still unclear. Our aim was to validate a model suggesting an underlying mechanism for the impact of parental restriction on child's adiposity through a broad dimension of child's eating temperament entitled the appetite reactivity (including both appetite arousal and appetite persistence). Using an online questionnaire administered at home to children aged between 8 and 11 years (N = 414) with one or both of their parents, we measured: based on child's reports, the perceived maternal restriction of child's food intake, the appetite reactivity and both the desired and the eaten mean food portion sizes; based on parental reports, the mean food portion size given to the child and the child's BMI...
December 8, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228973/cohort-profile-the-saskatchewan-rural-health-study-adult-component
#8
Punam Pahwa, Masud Rana, William Pickett, Chandima P Karunanayake, Khalid Amin, Donna Rennie, Josh Lawson, Shelley Kirychuk, Bonnie Janzen, Niels Koehncke, James Dosman
OBJECTIVES: Less is known about the respiratory health of general farming and non-framing populations. A longitudinal Saskatchewan Rural Health Study (SRHS) was conducted to explore the association between individual and contextual factors with respiratory health outcomes in these populations. Hence, the objectives are to: (i) describe the updated methodology of longitudinal SRHS-an extension of baseline survey methodology published earlier; (ii) compare baseline characteristics and the prevalences of respiratory health outcomes between drops-outs and completers; and (iii) summarize key findings based on baseline survey data...
December 11, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228177/poly-3-hydroxybutyrate-hyperproduction-by-a-global-nitrogen-regulator-ntrb-mutant-strain-of-paracoccus-denitrificans-pd1222
#9
Alfonso Olaya-Abril, Víctor M Luque-Almagro, Isabel Manso, Andrew J Gates, Conrado Moreno-Vivián, David J Richardson, María Dolores Roldán
Paracoccus denitrificans PD1222 accumulates short-length polyhydroxyalkanoates, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), under nitrogen deficient conditions. Polyhydroxybutyrate metabolism requires the 3-ketoacyl-CoA thiolase PhaA, the acetoacetyl-CoA dehydrogenase/reductase PhaB, and the synthase PhaC for polymerization. Additionally, P. denitrificans PD1222 grows aerobically with nitrate as sole nitrogen source. Nitrate assimilation is controlled negatively by ammonium through the two-component NtrBC system. NtrB is a sensor kinase that autophosphorylates a histidine residue under low nitrogen concentrations and, in turn transfers a phosphoryl group to an aspartate residue of the response regulator NtrC protein, which acts as a transcriptional activator of the P...
December 6, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227866/partnerships-for-active-children-in-elementary-schools-paces-first-year-process-evaluation
#10
Cate A Egan, Collin Webster, R Glenn Weaver, Ali Brian, David Stodden, Laura Russ, Danielle Nesbitt, Spyridoula Vazou
Movement integration (MI) is a strategy within comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP). School-university partnerships are recommended to leverage teachers' capacity to use MI. A mixed method process evaluation was conducted of the first year of implementing Partnerships for Active Children in Elementary Schools (PACES). Classroom teachers (N=12) from four schools participated. Data were collected in Fall 2014 (baseline) and Spring 2015 (∼ four months of intervention) using the System for Observing Student Movement in Academic Routines and Transitions and semi-structured interviews...
December 6, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221986/streptococcus-pneumoniae-two-component-regulatory-systems-the-interplay-of-the-pneumococcus-with-its-environment
#11
REVIEW
Alejandro Gómez-Mejia, Gustavo Gámez, Sven Hammerschmidt
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a human pathobiont possessing a diverse array of multifunctional proteins essential for bacterial fitness and virulence. Gene expression is tightly controlled by regulatory components and among the pneumococcal sensorial tools, two‑component regulatory systems (TCS) are the most widespread and conserved. This review aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of original studies on pneumococcal TCS on a functional level. Despite a rather chaotic nomenclature, the current available information on pneumococcal regulation by these systems can be conveniently addressed, according to the regulation of pathophysiological cell processes and the responses to detectable environmental signals...
November 26, 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220548/haem-oxygenase-a-functionally-diverse-enzyme-of-photosynthetic-organisms-and-its-role-in-phytochrome-chromophore-biosynthesis-cellular-signalling-and-defence-mechanisms
#12
REVIEW
Lovely Mahawar, G S Shekhawat
Haem oxygenase (HO) is a universal enzyme that catalyzes stereospecific clevage of haem to BV IX α and liberates Fe+2 ion and CO as byproduct. Beside haem degradation, it has important functions in plants that include cellular defence, stomatal regulation, iron mobilization, phytochrome chromophore synthesis and lateral root formation. Phytochromes are an extended family of photoreceptors with a molecular mass of 250 kDa and occur as a dimer made up of two equivalent subunits of 125 kDa each. Each subunit is made of two components; the chromophore, a light capturing pigment molecule and the apoprotein...
December 8, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220169/sb-nanoparticles-anchored-on-nitrogen-doped-amorphous-carbon-coated-ultrathin-cosx-nanosheets-for-excellent-performance-in-lithium-ion-batteries
#13
Rencheng Jin, Hua Jiang, Qingyao Wang, Guihua Li, Shanmin Gao
Compare to single component material, the hybrids materials with various components display superior electrochemical performance. In this work, two dimensional CoSx@NC@Sb nanosheets assembled by ultrathin CoSx nanosheets (~4 nm), thin layer of N-doped amorphous carbon combined with colloid like Sb nanoparticles are designed and synthesized via solvothermal route accompanied by carbonization and Sb deposition procedure. If applied in lithium-ion batteries, the hybrids exhibit the specific capacity of 960 mAh g-1 at the 100th cycle at 0...
December 8, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219504/detecting-topological-transitions-in-two-dimensions-by-hamiltonian-evolution
#14
Wei-Wei Zhang, Barry C Sanders, Simon Apers, Sandeep K Goyal, David L Feder
We show that the evolution of two-component particles governed by a two-dimensional spin-orbit lattice Hamiltonian can reveal transitions between topological phases. A kink in the mean width of the particle distribution signals the closing of the band gap, a prerequisite for a quantum phase transition between topological phases. Furthermore, for realistic and experimentally motivated Hamiltonians, the density profile in topologically nontrivial phases displays characteristic rings in the vicinity of the origin that are absent in trivial phases...
November 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219395/unified-description-of-dynamics-of-a-repulsive-two-component-fermi-gas
#15
Piotr T Grochowski, Tomasz Karpiuk, Mirosław Brewczyk, Kazimierz Rzążewski
We study a binary spin mixture of a zero-temperature repulsively interacting ^{6}Li atoms using both the atomic-orbital and density-functional approaches. The gas is initially prepared in a configuration of two magnetic domains and we determine the frequency of the spin-dipole oscillations which are emerging after the repulsive barrier, initially separating the domains, is removed. We find, in agreement with recent experiment [G. Valtolina et al., Nat. Phys. 13, 704 (2017)NPAHAX1745-247310.1038/nphys4108], the occurrence of a ferromagnetic instability in an atomic gas while the interaction strength between different spin states is increased, after which the system becomes ferromagnetic...
November 24, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218908/analyzing-metabolomics-data-for-association-with-genotypes-using-two-component-gaussian-mixture-distributions
#16
Jason Westra, Nicholas Hartman, Bethany Lake, Gregory Shearer, Nathan Tintle
Standard approaches to evaluate the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on quantitative phenotypes use linear models. However, these normal-based approaches may not optimally model phenotypes which are better represented by Gaussian mixture distributions (e.g., some metabolomics data). We develop a likelihood ratio test on the mixing proportions of two-component Gaussian mixture distributions and consider more restrictive models to increase power in light of a priori biological knowledge. Data were simulated to validate the improved power of the likelihood ratio test and the restricted likelihood ratio test over a linear model and a log transformed linear model...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218823/perspectives-of-cannabis-use-in-the-life-experience-of-men-with-schizophrenia
#17
Chris Wagstaff, Hermine Graham, Derek Farrell, Michael Larkin, Lloyd Tatham
Substance use amongst people with schizophrenia is well-established: up to 50% report using illicit substances. The occurrence of both conditions can also induce people to disengage from mental health services. The research question sought to understand, from the perspective of both service users and clinicians, cannabis use within the experience of people with schizophrenia. The transcripts of the seven participants and the two focus groups were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Service Users and Clinicians were recruited from Assertive outreach community-based teams...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218554/designing-and-performing-biological-solution-small-angle-neutron-scattering-contrast-variation-experiments-on-multi-component-assemblies
#18
Susan Krueger
Solution small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) combined with contrast variation provides information about the size and shape of individual components of a multi-component biological assembly, as well as the spatial arrangements between the components. The large difference in the neutron scattering properties between hydrogen and deuterium is key to the method. Isotopic substitution of deuterium for some or all of the hydrogen in either the molecule or the solvent can greatly alter the scattering properties of the biological assembly, often with little or no change to its biochemical properties...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218039/the-anaerobically-induced-srna-paii-affects-denitrification-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pa14
#19
Muralidhar Tata, Fabian Amman, Vinay Pawar, Michael T Wolfinger, Siegfried Weiss, Susanne Häussler, Udo Bläsi
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that can thrive by anaerobic respiration in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients using nitrate as terminal electron acceptor. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the small RNA PaiI in the P. aeruginosa strain 14 (PA14). PaiI is anaerobically induced in the presence of nitrate and depends on the two-component system NarXL. Our studies revealed that PaiI is required for efficient denitrification affecting the conversion of nitrite to nitric oxide...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217760/tumor-associated-fatigue-in-cancer-patients-develops-independently-of-interleukin-1-signaling
#20
Aaron J Grossberg, Elisabeth G Vichaya, Diana L Christian, Jessica M Molkentine, Daniel W Vermeer, Phillip S Gross, Paola D Vermeer, John H Lee, Robert Dantzer
Fatigue is the most common symptom of cancer at diagnosis, yet causes and effective treatments remain elusive. As tumors can be highly inflammatory, it is generally accepted that inflammation mediates cancer-related fatigue. However, evidence to support this assertion is mostly correlational. In this study, we directly tested the hypothesis that fatigue results from propagation of tumor-induced inflammation to the brain and activation of the central pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 (IL-1). The heterotopic syngeneic murine head and neck cancer model (mEER) caused systemic inflammation and increased expression of Il1b in the brain while inducing fatigue-like behaviors characterized by decreased voluntary wheel running and exploratory activity...
December 7, 2017: Cancer Research
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