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D Zelle, E Dalhoff, A W Gummer
BACKGROUND: Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) are sound waves generated as byproducts of the cochlear amplifier. These are measurable in the auditory canal and represent an objective method for diagnosing functional disorders of the inner ear. Conventional DPOAE and TEOAE methods permit detection of hearing impairment, but with less than desirable accuracy. OBJECTIVE: By accounting for DPOAE generation mechanisms, the aim is to improve the accuracy of inner-ear diagnosis...
October 19, 2016: HNO
Yunpeng Wang, Lei Chen, Weiwen Zhang
BACKGROUND: 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important platform chemical with a wide range of applications. In our previous study, the biosynthetic pathway of 3-HP was constructed and optimized in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, which led to 3-HP production directly from CO2 at a level of 837.18 mg L(-1) (348.8 mg/g dry cell weight). As the production and accumulation of 3-HP in cells affect cellular metabolism, a better understanding of cellular responses to 3-HP synthesized internally in Synechocystis will be important for further increasing 3-HP productivity in cyanobacterial chassis...
2016: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Christopher M Holbrook, Roger A Bergstedt, Jessica Barber, Gale A Bravener, Michael L Jones, Charles C Krueger
Physical removal (e.g., harvest via traps or nets) of mature individuals may be a cost-effective or socially acceptable alternative to chemical control strategies for invasive species, but requires knowledge of the spatial distribution of a population over time. We used acoustic telemetry to determine the current and possible future role of traps to control and assess invasive sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus, in the St. Marys River, the connecting channel between Lake Superior and Lake Huron. Exploitation rates (i...
September 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Andrew Willetts, David Kelly
The progressive titres of key monooxygenases and their requisite native donors of reducing power were used to assess the relative contribution of various camphor plasmid (CAM plasmid)- and chromosome-coded activities to biodegradation of (rac)-camphor at successive stages throughout growth of Pseudomonas putida NCIMB 10007 on the bicylic monoterpenoid. A number of different flavin reductases (FRs) have the potential to supply reduced flavin mononucleotide to both 2,5- and 3,6-diketocamphane monooxygenase, the key isoenzymic two-component monooxygenases that delineate respectively the (+)- and (-)-camphor branches of the convergent degradation pathway...
October 13, 2016: Microorganisms
Wanyue Wang, Natalia Dounskaia
How gravity influences neural control of arm movements remains under debate. We tested three alternative interpretations suggested by previous research: (1) that muscular control includes two components, tonic which compensates for gravity and phasic which produces the movement; (2) that there is a tendency to exploit gravity to reduce muscle effort; and (3) that there is a tendency to use a trailing pattern of joint control during which either the shoulder or elbow is rotated actively and the other joint rotates predominantly passively, and to exploit gravity for control of the passively rotated joint...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience
Joannie Lortet-Tieulent, Isabelle Soerjomataram, Chun Chieh Lin, Jan Willem W Coebergh, Ahmedin Jemal
INTRODUCTION: In the U.S., people of different races/ethnicities have differences in cancer incidence, mortality, survival, stage at diagnosis, and receipt of treatment, resulting in variances in cancer burden. The burden of cancer in 2011 was assessed by race/ethnicity for 24 cancers using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). METHODS: In 2014-2015, DALYs and their two components were estimated (years of life lost [YLLs] and years lived with disability) by race/ethnicity using population-based cancer registry data collected in 2013, vital statistics, and literature reviews...
November 2016: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Heng Cai, Hongxing Li, Jingmin Li, Xiaoyan Li, Yana Li, Yan Shi, Dong Wang
Although abnormal activation of the sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway has been demonstrated in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients and in most HCC cell lines, the mechanism by which the Shh pathway promotes the development of HCC remains uncertain. Using a liver cancer model induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) which mimics the process from liver injury, abnormal hepatocyte proliferation, and hepatocirrhosis to hepatocyte canceration, we investigated the abnormal activation of the Shh pathway by examining the expression of Shh, patched-1 (Ptch), smoothened (SMO), and glioma-associated oncogene-1 (Gli1) genes...
October 15, 2016: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
Andrea Albonico, Manuela Malaspina, Emanuela Bricolo, Marialuisa Martelli, Roberta Daini
Selective attention, i.e. the ability to concentrate one's limited processing resources on one aspect of the environment, is a multifaceted concept that includes different processes like spatial attention and its subcomponents of orienting and focusing. Several studies, indeed, have shown that visual tasks performance is positively influenced not only by attracting attention to the target location (orientation component), but also by the adjustment of the size of the attentional window according to task demands (focal component)...
October 12, 2016: Acta Psychologica
Xiaoyan Shen, Shuying Wang, Kang Dai, Yifan Shen
Rotationally state selective excitation of H2(v=1, J=1 or 3) was achieved by stimulated Raman pumping. The full state-resolved distribution of scattered LiH(v=0-3, J=0~13)molecules from collisions with excited H2(E=4300 and 4800cm(-1)) is reported. Nascent rotational and translational energy profiles for scattered LiH(v=0~3) molecules with J=0~13 were measured using high-resolution transient laser induced fluorescence(LIF). The product translational energy for individual J-states increases by 120% for a 13% increase in donor energy...
September 29, 2016: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Evgeniy Khain, Leonard M Sander
The granular Leidenfrost effect [B. Meerson, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 024301 (2003)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.91.024301; P. Eshuis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258001 (2005)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.95.258001] is the levitation of a mass of granular matter when a wall below the grains is vibrated, giving rise to a hot granular gas below the cluster. We find by simulation that for a range of parameters the system is bistable: the levitated cluster can occasionally break and give rise to two clusters and a hot granular gas above and below...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Jean Wolff, Shigeyuki Komura, David Andelman
We propose a model that accounts for the budding transition of asymmetric two-component lipid domains, where the two monolayers (leaflets) have different average compositions controlled by independent chemical potentials. Assuming a coupling between the local curvature and local lipid composition in each of the leaflets, we discuss the morphology and thermodynamic behavior of asymmetric lipid domains. The membrane free-energy contains three contributions: the bending energy, the line tension, and a Landau free-energy for a lateral phase separation...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Hiromichi Hagihara, Saori Shimo, Kanae Matsushima, Toshihiro Kato
Ideation is an essential central concept in sensory integration theory. The Test of Ideational Praxis (TIP) (May-Benson, ) is the first instrument developed to specifically assess children's ideational abilities but qualitative differences of its performance are not well examined. The purpose of the present study was to explore the components of ideational abilities that influenced the TIP score or its developmental change. The TIP was administered to 119 Japanese preschoolers, aged 3-6 years. The demonstrated actions were categorized based on the scoring criteria, and scores were calculated by summing the number of actions...
October 13, 2016: Occupational Therapy International
John K Riley, Robert D Tilton
This work investigates surface forces that result from adsorbed layers of silica nanoparticles with grafted pH-responsive, cationic poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate) brushes (SiO2-g-PDMAEMA), and how adhesive bridging forces can be suppressed and friction forces reduced by "backfilling" these heterogeneous adsorbed layers with nonionic poly(ethylene oxide) star copolymers (Star PEO45MA). Adsorption of SiO2-g-PDMAEMA and Star PEO45MA to silica is measured as a function of pH by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) in order to evaluate the electrostatically-driven adsorption of SiO2-g-PDMAEMA and hydrogen-bonding driven adsorption of Star PEO45MA...
October 13, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Zhifeng Bai, Diego Edison Cristancho, Aaron A Rachford, Amy L Reder, Alexander Williamson, Adam L Grzesiak
We report a two-component label system comprising a chlorite-containing polymer film and an acid-containing polymer film that can release antimicrobial ClO2 gas upon adhering the two films together to enable a reaction of the chlorite and acid under moisture exposure. The chlorite-containing film comprises a commercial acrylate-based pressure sensitive adhesive polymer impregnated with sodium chlorite. The acid-containing film comprises a commercial polyvinyl alcohol polymer loaded with tartaric acid. Both of the films were prepared on low ClO2-absorbing substrate films from stable aqueous systems of the polymers with high reagent loading...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jessica Pepe, Emmanuel Biver, Nicolas Bonnet, François R Herrmann, René Rizzoli, Thierry Chevalley, Serge Livio Ferrari
CONTEXT: The maternal heritability of bone microarchitecture according to the sex of the offspring is not known. OBJECTIVE: To explore gender difference and influence of mother menopausal status on the heritability of bone microarchitecture between mothers and their offspring. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In 102 mother-daughter and 161 mother-son pairs, volumetric BMD and bone microarchitecture were measured at distal radius and tibia by high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT)...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mustapha Bouhrara, Richard G Spencer
A number of central nervous system (CNS) diseases exhibit changes in myelin content and magnetic resonance longitudinal, T1, and transverse, T2, relaxation times, which therefore represent important biomarkers of CNS pathology. Among the methods applied for measurement of myelin water fraction (MWF) and relaxation times, the multicomponent driven equilibrium single pulse observation of T1 and T2 (mcDESPOT) approach is of particular interest. mcDESPOT permits whole brain mapping of multicomponent T1 and T2, with data acquisition accomplished within a clinically realistic acquisition time...
October 8, 2016: NeuroImage
Emilie Ressouche, Sandrine Pensec, Benjamin Isare, Jacques Jestin, Laurent Bouteiller
It is of interest to develop two-component systems for added flexibility in the design of supramolecular polymers, nanofibers or organogels. Bis-ureas are known to self-assemble by hydrogen bonding into long supramolecular objects. We show here that mixing aromatic bis-ureas with slightly different structures can yield surprisingly large synergistic effects. A strong increase in viscosity is observed when a bis-urea with the sterically demanding 2,4,6-trimethylbenzene spacer is combined with a bis-urea bearing no methyl group in position 2 of the aromatic spacer (i...
October 11, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
B A Thiel, C M Bark, J G Nakibali, F van der Kuyp, J L Johnson
SETTING: Chest radiographs (CXRs) are widely used for diagnosing pulmonary TB and assessing response to therapy. The Timika X-ray score has been proposed as a tool for measuring disease severity and predicting treatment outcome. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate inter- and intra-reader agreement of Timika scores and assess the ability of the score to predict microbiologic outcome at 2 months. DESIGN: Analytical validation study. Disease severity was measured by two readers using pretreatment radiographs and follow-up films taken at 2, 6 and 12 months after the start of treatment among 110 human immunodeficiency virus negative adults with pulmonary TB...
October 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
Xu Zhao, Jiehe Sui, Fei Li, Haitao Fang, Hongen Wang, Jiangyu Li, Wei Cai, Guozhong Cao
A carbon-free nanocomposite consisting of MoO2 nanoparticles embedded between MoSe2 nanosheets, named MoO2@MoSe2, has been synthesized and demonstrated excellent electrochemical properties for lithium ion batteries. In such a composite, MoSe2 nanosheets provide a flexible substrate for MoO2 nanoparticles; while MoO2 nanoparticles act as spacers to retain the desired active surface to electrolyte and also introduce metallic conduction. In addition, the heterojunctions at the interface between MoSe2 and MoO2 introduce a self-built electric field to promote the lithiation/delithiation process...
October 10, 2016: Nanoscale
Attila Gácsi, Bence Kutus, Zita Csendes, Tünde Faragó, Gábor Peintler, István Pálinkó, Pál Sipos
The complex formation reaction between the l-tartrate (Tar(2-)) and calcium ions taking place in neutral and in hyperalkaline (pH > 13) aqueous solutions has been investigated. It was demonstrated that upon NaOH addition the solubility of the CaTar(s) precipitate significantly increases. Conductometric and freezing point depression measurements further confirmed that in this process water soluble species are formed as a result of a reaction between the CaTar(s) and the hydroxide ion (or, conversely, between Ca(OH)2(s) and the Tar(2-) ion)...
October 7, 2016: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
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