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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049728/surgically-induced-focal-retinal-detachment-does-not-cause-detectable-sd-oct-retinal-changes-in-normal-human-retina
#1
Kaitlin Kogachi, Jeremy D Wolfe, Amir H Kashani
Purpose: Induction of focal retinal detachment (RD) for subretinal delivery of stem cells and gene therapy is increasingly common. In order to determine if this procedure has an adverse impact on the retina, we use spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) to evaluate the pre- and postoperative retinal anatomy of the incidentally detached normal retina surrounding large submacular hemorrhages (SMH) during surgical displacement procedures. Methods: Retrospective, observational study of human subjects with monocular SMH evaluated before and after surgical displacement using clinical exam, fundus photography, and SD-OCT...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049501/optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-for-assessment-of-the-3-dimensional-structures-of-polypoidal-choroidal-vasculopathy
#2
Yu-Tien Chi, Chang-Hao Yang, Cheng-Kuo Cheng
Importance: Investigating the quantitative 3-dimensional (3-D) anatomy of polypoidal complex is important for a better understanding of the pathogenesis of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). Objective: To quantitatively evaluate the 3-D characteristics of polypoidal structures, branching vascular networks (BVNs), and origin of PCV using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and multiple image systems. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective, observational study was conducted in 47 consecutive Taiwanese patients (47 eyes) from May 21, 2015, to April 30, 2017...
October 19, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021317/sensory-anatomy-of-the-most-aquatic-of-carnivorans-the-antarctic-ross-seal-and-convergences-with-other-mammals
#3
Cleopatra Mara Loza, Ashley E Latimer, Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra, Alfredo A Carlini
Transitions to and from aquatic life involve transformations in sensory systems. The Ross seal, Ommatophoca rossii, offers the chance to investigate the cranio-sensory anatomy in the most aquatic of all seals. The use of non-invasive computed tomography on specimens of this rare animal reveals, relative to other species of phocids, a reduction in the diameters of the semicircular canals and the parafloccular volume. These features are independent of size effects. These transformations parallel those recorded in cetaceans, but these do not extend to other morphological features such as the reduction in eye muscles and the length of the neck, emphasizing the independence of some traits in convergent evolution to aquatic life...
October 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018755/vertical-diplopia-after-cataract-surgery-overacting-and-or-underacting-extraocular-muscle
#4
Bing-Herng Shen
The purpose of this study was to demonstrate two cases of vertical diplopia after cataract surgery and to discuss the mechanism and types of strabismus caused by the local anesthesia with retrobulbar injection. Two cases of vertical diplopia after cataract surgeries were reported. They were operated by the same surgeon and both happened to the left eye and both presented with marked left hypotropia. The clinical findings consisted of overacting left inferior rectus (LIR) in case 1 and mixed overacting and restrictive LIR in case 2...
January 2017: Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986008/characterisation-of-the-porcine-eyeball-as-an-in-vitro-model-for-dry-eye
#5
Francesco Menduni, Leon N Davies, D Madrid-Costa, Antonio Fratini, James S Wolffsohn
PURPOSE: To characterise the anatomical parameters of the porcine eye for potentially using it as a laboratory model of dry eye. METHODS: Anterior chamber depth and angle, corneal curvature, shortest and longest diameter, endothelial cell density, and pachymetry were measured in sixty freshly enucleated porcine eyeballs. RESULTS: Corneal steepest meridian was 7.85±0.32mm, corneal flattest meridian was 8.28±0.32mm, shortest corneal diameter was 12...
October 3, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972121/gaze-stabilizing-central-vestibular-neurons-project-asymmetrically-to-extraocular-motoneuron-pools
#6
David Schoppik, Isaac H Bianco, David A Prober, Adam D Douglass, Drew N Robson, Jennifer M B Li, Joel S F Greenwood, Edward Soucy, Florian Engert, Alexander F Schier
Within reflex circuits, specific anatomical projections allow central neurons to relay sensations to effectors that generate movements. A major challenge is to relate anatomical features of central neural populations -- such as asymmetric connectivity -- to the computations the populations perform. To address this problem, we mapped the anatomy, modeled the function, and discovered a new behavioral role for a genetically-defined population of central vestibular neurons in rhombomeres 5-7 of larval zebrafish...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971802/eyes-on-the-needle-identification-and-confirmation-of-the-epidural-space
#7
REVIEW
Wei-Nung Teng, Mei-Yung Tsou, Wen-Kuei Chang, Chien-Kun Ting
Epidural catheters are used to provide effective intraoperative and postoperative analgesia. Standard epidural catheterization techniques rely on palpation of surface anatomy and the experience of the anesthesiologist. Failure to correctly place an epidural catheter can lead to inadequate analgesia and serious complications, such as dural puncture headache. Exciting new devices and techniques are being developed for identification of the epidural space and confirmation of catheter entry. This article reviews and describes the recent research findings...
June 2017: Asian J Anesthesiol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958929/effectiveness-of-the-3d-monitor-system-for-medical-education-during-neurosurgical-operation
#8
Masahiko Wanibuchi, Katsuya Komatsu, Yukinori Akiyama, Takeshi Mikami, Nobuhiro Mikuni
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) graphics are used in the medical field, especially during surgery. Although 3D monitoring is useful for medical education, its effectiveness needs to be objectively evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of 3D monitoring in the surgical education of medical students. METHODS: A questionnaire on high-definition 3D monitoring was given to fifth-year medical students in a six-year program. Sixty-four students wore polarized glasses and observed a microsurgical operation through a 3D monitor...
September 25, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956497/juan-valverde-de-amusco-1525-1588-an-eminent-anatomist-of-the-renaissance-or-a-plagiarist-of-vesalius-his-work-and-its-impact-in-renaissance-anatomy
#9
Konstantinos Markatos, Konstantina Arkoudi, Georgios Androutsos
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to review and summarize the life and work of Juan Valverde de Amusco (1525-1588), his impact on the anatomy of the sixteenth century and focus on his controversy with Andreas Vesalius. METHODS: A thorough search of the literature was undertaken in PubMed and Google Scholar as well as in history books through the internet and in History and Medical University libraries. RESULTS: Valverde took almost directly from Andreas Vesalius 38 pictures...
September 28, 2017: Acta Chirurgica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951824/intraocular-in%C3%A2-vivo-imaging-of-pancreatic-islet-cell-physiology-pathology
#10
REVIEW
Ingo B Leibiger, Per-Olof Berggren
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions and requires new strategies for treatment. Unfortunately, the efficacy of treatment regimens on maintaining/re-gaining functional beta cell mass can, at the present, only be determined indirectly. Direct monitoring of beta cell mass is complicated by the anatomy of the endocrine pancreas, which consists of thousands to a million of discrete micro-organs, i.e. islets of Langerhans, which are scattered throughout the pancreas...
September 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939335/post-embryonic-changes-in-the-hindgut-of-honeybee-apis-mellifera-workers-morphology-cuticle-deposition-apoptosis-and-cell-proliferation
#11
Wagner Gonzaga Gonçalves, Kenner Morais Fernandes, Weyder Cristiano Santana, Gustavo Ferreira Martins, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão
In insects, the hindgut is a homeostatic region of the digestive tract, divided into pylorus, ileum, and rectum, that reabsorbs water, ions, and small molecules produced during hemolymph filtration. The hindgut anatomy in bee larvae is different from that of adult workers. This study reports the morphological changes and cellular events that occur in the hindgut during the metamorphosis of the honeybee Apis mellifera. We describe the occurrence of autophagosomes and the ultrastructure of the epithelial cells and cuticle, suggesting that cuticular degradation begins in prepupae, with the cuticle being reabsorbed and recycled by autophagosomes in white- and pink-eyed pupae, followed by the deposition of new cuticle in light-brown-eyed pupae...
September 20, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928608/intraocular-pressure-in-children-after-congenital-heart-surgery-a-single-center-study
#12
Sunali Goyal, Paul H Phillips, Lamonda A Corder, Michael J Robertson, Xiomara Garcia, Michael L Schmitz, Punkaj Gupta
BACKGROUND: The impact of varied cardiac physiologies on intraocular pressure (IOP) among children undergoing heart operations is unknown. AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the IOP among children with varying cardiovascular physiologies and varying hemodynamics after their heart operation. SETTING AND DESIGN: This was a prospective, observational study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients ≤18 years undergoing congenital heart surgery were included in this study...
September 2017: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926210/clinical-relevance-of-retinal-structure-in-children-with-laser-treated-retinopathy-of-prematurity-versus-controls-using-optical-coherence-tomography
#13
Florina Stoica, Adela Chirita-Emandi, Nicoleta Andreescu, Alina Stanciu, Cristian G Zimbru, Maria Puiu
PURPOSE: We aimed to assess the macular anatomy using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), in children born preterm who had laser-treated retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and to investigate the relationship between structural changes in macula and visual function. METHODS: Thirty-seven 3-8 years old children were included in the study in two groups: 20 children born preterm [(<34 weeks of gestation, birthweight (BW) <2000 g)] who had laser-treated ROP in the Neonatology Department, Municipal Clinical Emergency Hospital of Timisoara, Romania; and 17 controls (children born at term, without eye disease, matched for age and gender)...
September 19, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926197/epiretinal-membrane-surgery-an-analysis-of-2-step-sequential-or-combined-phacovitrectomy-surgery-on-refraction-and-macular-anatomy-in-a-prospective-trial
#14
Hassan Hamoudi, Ulrik Correll Christensen, Morten La Cour
PURPOSE: To assess the impact of combined phacoemulsification-vitrectomy and sequential surgery for idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM) on refractive error (RE) and macular morphology. METHODS: In this prospective clinical trial, we allocated phakic eyes with ERM to (1) cataract surgery and subsequent pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) (CAT group), (2) PPV and subsequent cataract surgery (VIT group) or (3) phaco-vitrectomy (COMBI group). Examinations were at baseline, one month after each surgery, and at 3 months and 12 months of follow-up...
September 19, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913505/periorbital-facial-rejuvenation-applied-anatomy-and-pre-operative-assessment
#15
REVIEW
Mohsen Bahmani Kashkouli, Parya Abdolalizadeh, Navid Abolfathzadeh, Hamed Sianati, Maria Sharepour, Yasaman Hadi
PURPOSE: Since different subspecialties are currently performing a variety of upper facial rejuvenation procedures, and the level of knowledge on the ocular and periocular anatomy and physiology is different, this review aims to highlight the most important preoperative examinations and tests with special attention to the eye and periocular adnexal structures for general ophthalmologist and specialties other than oculo-facial surgeons in order to inform them about the fine and important points that should be considered before surgery to have both cosmetic and functional improvement...
September 2017: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885668/the-role-of-intraoperative-optical-coherence-tomography-in-pediatric-hyphema-a-case-report
#16
Michele Coppola, Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Alessandro Rabiolo, Giuseppe Querques, Francesco Bandello
PURPOSE: Intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) is a valuable tool during vitreoretinal surgery, helping the decision-making process. It is particularly useful in pediatric cases to evaluate the macular anatomy intraoperatively, avoiding further potentially dangerous surgery in children. The aim of this report is to describe the role of integrated iOCT in the management of traumatic hyphema in a pediatric patient. CASE REPORT: A 5-year-old girl was referred to our department with a history of recent domestic trauma in her right eye...
September 8, 2017: European Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878733/clinical-approach-to-supranuclear-brainstem-saccadic-gaze-palsies
#17
REVIEW
Alexandra Lloyd-Smith Sequeira, John-Ross Rizzo, Janet C Rucker
Failure of brainstem supranuclear centers for saccadic eye movements results in the clinical presence of a brainstem-mediated supranuclear saccadic gaze palsy (SGP), which is manifested as slowing of saccades with or without range of motion limitation of eye movements and as loss of quick phases of optokinetic nystagmus. Limitation in the range of motion of eye movements is typically worse with saccades than with smooth pursuit and is overcome with vestibular-ocular reflexive eye movements. The differential diagnosis of SGPs is broad, although acute-onset SGP is most often from brainstem infarction and chronic vertical SGP is most commonly caused by the neurodegenerative condition progressive supranuclear palsy...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858062/retinal-detachment-surgery-in-a-pediatric-population-visual-and-anatomic-outcomes
#18
Sarah P Read, Hassan A Aziz, Ajay Kuriyan, Nikisha Kothari, Janet L Davis, William E Smiddy, Harry W Flynn, Timothy G Murray, Audina Berrocal
PURPOSE: Pediatric retinal detachments (RDs) are unique in etiology, anatomy, and prognosis compared with the adult population. The mechanisms of pediatric RD include tractional (TRD), rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, traumatic, and other types, such as exudative or hemorrhagic. This study examined visual and anatomical outcomes of pediatric RD undergoing surgical repair at a single university referral center. METHODS: A retrospective consecutive case series of patients clinically diagnosed and undergoing surgery for RD between birth and 15 years of age from 2002 to 2013 at a single academic institution...
August 28, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834323/the-first-description-of-the-complete-natural-history-of-uveal-melanoma-by-two-scottish-surgeons-allan-burns-and-james-wardrop
#19
Tero T Kivelä
James Wardrop (1782-1869), a young Scottish surgeon and an early ophthalmologist in Edinburgh, is credited for describing in 1809 retinoblastoma as an entity in his treatise 'Observations on Fungus Haematodes or Soft Cancer'. His treatise also reveals that Allan Burns (1781-1813), another young Scottish surgeon and anatomist, had invited Wardrop to assist in enucleating an eye from a 41-year-old Glasgow woman who, in retrospect, had a uveal melanoma. Her eye had become blind 4 months after symptoms of exudative retinal detachment had appeared, and it had become painful after a further 2-4 months...
August 21, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817239/novel-dissection-of-the-central-nervous-system-to-bridge-gross-anatomy-and-neuroscience-for-an-integrated-medical-curriculum
#20
Rebecca J Hlavac, Rachel Klaus, Kourtney Betts, Shilo M Smith, Maureen E Stabio
Medical schools in the United States continue to undergo curricular change, reorganization, and reformation as more schools transition to an integrated curriculum. Anatomy educators must find novel approaches to teach in a way that will bridge multiple disciplines. The cadaveric extraction of the central nervous system (CNS) provides an opportunity to bridge gross anatomy, neuroanatomy, and clinical neurology. In this dissection, the brain, brainstem, spinal cord, cauda equina, optic nerve/tract, and eyes are removed in one piece so that the entire CNS and its gateway to the periphery through the spinal roots can be appreciated...
August 17, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
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