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eye anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542788/saturated-salt-solution-a-further-step-to-a-formaldehyde-free-embalming-method-for-veterinary-gross-anatomy
#1
M Lombardero, M M Yllera, A Costa-E-Silva, M J Oliveira, P G Ferreira
In the field of veterinary anatomy, most of the specimens used in practical sessions are perfused with fixatives. Thus, they can be used for a longer time, reducing the number of animals for educational purposes. Formalin is the most commonly used fixative, consisting of a 37% formaldehyde solution. However, formaldehyde is a powerful irritant of the eyes and airways and is considered carcinogenic, causing nasopharyngeal cancer in exposed workers and professionals. In the present study, we explored an alternative method to avoid the use of formaldehyde in specimens used for gross anatomy practical sessions...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541579/tailored-extended-bifrontal-craniotomy-for-anterior-skull-base-tumors-anatomic-description-of-a-modified-surgical-technique-and-case-series
#2
Michael M Safaee, Michael W McDermott, Arnau Benet, Philip V Theodosopoulos
BACKGROUND: Open transcranial approaches to the anterior skull base remain an integral component of current skull base practice. Evolution of these and other techniques has resulted in revisions of standard, tried-and-true methods in attempts to improve patient outcomes and cosmesis, while still providing the best combination of surgical exposure and ergonomics. OBJECTIVE: To describe a modified approach for midline tumors of the anterior skull base. METHODS: We describe the anatomy and techniques of a modified extended bifrontal craniotomy for anterior skull base tumors...
May 24, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541157/isolated-medial-longitudinal-fasciculus-syndrome-review-of-imaging-anatomy-pathophysiology-and-differential-diagnosis
#3
Puneet S Kochar, Yogesh Kumar, Pranav Sharma, Vikash Kumar, Nishant Gupta, Pradeep Goyal
Isolated medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) syndrome due to infarction limited only to the midbrain is a rare occurrence. The MLF are a group of fiber tracts located in the paramedian area of the midbrain and pons. They control horizontal eye movements by interconnecting oculomotor and abducens nuclei in the brain stem. Such small infarcts can easily be overlooked by young neuroradiologists and trainees. In this review, we discuss the clinical and imaging characteristics, comprehensive review of the anatomy, pathophysiology, and differential diagnosis...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540165/nanotechnology-based-strategies-for-treatment-of-ocular-disease
#4
REVIEW
Yuhua Weng, Juan Liu, Shubin Jin, Weisheng Guo, Xingjie Liang, Zhongbo Hu
Ocular diseases include various anterior and posterior segment diseases. Due to the unique anatomy and physiology of the eye, efficient ocular drug delivery is a great challenge to researchers and pharmacologists. Although there are conventional noninvasive and invasive treatments, such as eye drops, injections and implants, the current treatments either suffer from low bioavailability or severe adverse ocular effects. Alternatively, the emerging nanoscience and nanotechnology are playing an important role in the development of novel strategies for ocular disease therapy...
May 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527653/ultrasound-biomicroscopy-measurement-of-schlemm-s-canal-in-pediatric-patients-with-and-without-glaucoma
#5
Anika Tandon, Caroline Watson, Ramesh Ayyala
PURPOSE: To compare the diameter of Schlemm's canal in children with and without congenital glaucoma as measured in vivo by means of ultrasound biomicroscopy. METHODS: In this prospective single-center study of pediatric subjects (<18 years of age) the diameter of Schlemm's canal in nonglaucomatous and glaucomatous eyes was compared. An 80 MHz iUltrasound probe (iScience Interventional Inc, Menlo Park, CA) placed near the limbus was used to identify and measure the canal's diameter with special attention to the anterior segment anatomy (especially in subjects with congenital glaucoma)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520882/ocular-determinants-of-refractive-error-and-its-age-and-sex-related-variations-in-the-chinese-american-eye-study
#6
Grace M Richter, Mingwu Wang, Xuejuan Jiang, Shuang Wu, Dandan Wang, Mina Torres, Farzana Choudhury, Rohit Varma
Importance: Uncorrected refractive error (RE) is a leading cause of visual impairment, and variations in ocular anatomy determine RE. The unique ocular determinants of RE in Chinese American individuals have not been studied previously. Objective: To report ocular determinants of RE in a Chinese American population 50 years and older in Monterey Park, California. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Chinese American Eye Study, a population-based, cross-sectional study, was conducted from February 1, 2010, through October 31, 2013, in Monterey Park, with this particular data analysis performed from January 1 through December 31, 2016...
May 18, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514515/detailed-anatomy-of-the-abducens-nerve-in-the-lateral-rectus-muscle
#7
Yong Seok Nam, In-Beom Kim, Sun Young Shin
INTRODUCTION: The aims of this study were to elucidate the detailed anatomy of the abducens nerve in the lateral rectus muscle (LRM) and the intramuscular innervation pattern using Sihler staining. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cohort study, 32 eyes of 16 cadavers were assessed. Dissection was performed from the LRM origin to its insertion. The following distances were measured: from LRM insertion to the bifurcation point of the abducens nerve, from LRM insertion to the entry site of the superior branch or inferior branch, from the upper border of the LRM to the entry site of the superior branch, from the lower border of LRM to the entry site of inferior branch, and the widths of the main trunk and superior and inferior branches...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509328/anatomy-based-dmek-wetlab-in-homburg-saar-novel-aspects-of-donor-preparation-and-host-maneuvers-to-teach-descemet-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty
#8
B Seitz, L Daas, M Bischoff-Jung, N Szentmáry, S Suffo, M El-Husseiny, A Viestenz, G Milioti
INTRODUCTION: Use of Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty (DMEK) has been limited because of problems with donor preparation, i.e. tearing of the Descemet membrane and difficulties in unfolding the Endothelium-Descemet-Membrane-Layer (EDML) in the anterior chamber (AC). The purpose of this work was to describe a novel approach to teaching anatomy-based donor and recipient preparation in a DMEK-Wetlab. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We teach successful mono-manual donor preparation of human corneas in organ culture not suitable for transplantation, including peripheral markers for orientation...
May 16, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504201/cilia-the-sensory-antennae-in-the-eye
#9
REVIEW
Helen May-Simera, Kerstin Nagel-Wolfrum, Uwe Wolfrum
Cilia are hair-like projections found on almost all cells in the human body. Originally believed to function merely in motility, the function of solitary non-motile (primary) cilia was long overlooked. Recent research has demonstrated that primary cilia function as signalling hubs that sense environmental cues and are pivotal for organ development and function, tissue hoemoestasis, and maintenance of human health. Cilia share a common anatomy and their diverse functional features are achieved by evolutionarily conserved functional modules, organized into sub-compartments...
May 11, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495033/clinical-applications-of-3-dimensional-printing-in-radiation-therapy
#10
Yizhou Zhao, Kathryn Moran, Mammo Yewondwossen, James Allan, Scott Clarke, Murali Rajaraman, Derek Wilke, Paul Joseph, James L Robar
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is suitable for the fabrication of complex radiotherapy bolus. Although investigated from dosimetric and feasibility standpoints, there are few reports to date of its use for actual patient treatment. This study illustrates the versatile applications of 3D printing in clinical radiation oncology through a selection of patient cases, namely, to create bolus for photon and modulated electron radiotherapy (MERT), as well as applicators for surface high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy...
May 8, 2017: Medical Dosimetry: Official Journal of the American Association of Medical Dosimetrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482014/genetic-modifiers-as-relevant-biological-variables-of-eye-disorders
#11
Kacie J Meyer, Michael G Anderson
From early in the study of mammalian genetics, it was clear that modifiers can have a striking influence on phenotypes. Today, several modifiers have now been studied in enough detail to allow a glimpse of how they function and influence our perspective of disease. With respect to diseases of the eye, some modifiers are an important source of phenotypic variation that can elucidate how genes function in networks to collectively shape ocular anatomy and physiology, thus influencing our understanding of basic biology...
May 8, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480545/prenatal-sonographic-abnormal-appearances-of-the-fetal-hyaloid-artery-from-normal-variants-to-pathology
#12
Moshe Bronshtein, Rinat Gabbay-Benziv, Ayala Gover, Yinon Gilboa, Ron Bardin
This is a case series on the abnormal sonographic appearance and outcome of the fetal hyaloid artery (HA) detected during between 1987 and 2015 at one medical center. Fifteen cases were detected during fetal anatomy scans, usually performed at 14 to 16 weeks' gestation. Three other cases were diagnosed following referral for a second opinion. In nine fetuses, the HA regressed normally throughout pregnancy. Of them, eight neonates had normal outcomes and one had cataract at the same eye. All nine other cases ended with adverse outcomes...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479514/comprehensive-use-of-cardiac-computed-tomography-to-guide-left-ventricular-lead-placement-in-cardiac-resynchronization-therapy
#13
Jonathan M Behar, Ronak Rajani, Amir Pourmorteza, Rebecca Preston, Orod Razeghi, Steve Niederer, Shaumik Adhya, Simon Claridge, Tom Jackson, Ben Sieniewicz, Justin Gould, Gerry Carr-White, Reza Razavi, Elliot McVeigh, Christopher Aldo Rinaldi
BACKGROUND: Optimal lead positioning is an important determinant of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) response. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of cardiac computed tomography (CT) selection of the optimal epicardial vein for LV lead placement by targeting regions of late mechanical activation (LMA) and avoiding myocardial scar. METHODS: 18 patients undergoing CRT upgrade with existing pacing systems, underwent pre-implant ECG-gated cardiac CT to assess wall thickness, hypoperfusion, LMA and regions of myocardial scar by the derivation of the Stretch Quantifier of Endocardial Engraved Zones (SQUEEZ) algorithm...
May 4, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479036/-descemet-s-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty-dmek-analysis-of-a-variation-in-descemet-s-endothelial-graft-preparation
#14
C Benoist D'azy, C Benoist D'azy, E Gabison, V Sapin, C Bosc, B Pereira, F Chiambaretta
INTRODUCTION: Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) can replace just the corneal endothelium and respect the natural corneal anatomy. Currently, the technique of endothelial graft preparation remains manual and non-standardized. PURPOSE: To report anatomic and functional results after DMEK, and compare two techniques of graft preparation. METHODS: Single-center retrospective study, including 64 eyes of 64 patients undergoing DMEK, from September 2014 to February 2016 at Clermont-Ferrand University Medical Center...
May 2017: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472178/influence-of-eye-biometrics-and-corneal-micro-structure-on-noncontact-tonometry
#15
Danilo A Jesus, Małgorzata Majewska, Patrycja Krzyżanowska-Berkowska, D Robert Iskander
PURPOSE: Tonometry is widely used as the main screening tool supporting glaucoma diagnosis. Still, its accuracy could be improved if full knowledge about the variation of the corneal biomechanical properties was available. In this study, Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) speckle statistics are used to infer the organisation of the corneal micro-structure and hence, to analyse its influence on intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements. METHODS: Fifty-six subjects were recruited for this prospective study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462456/relationship-between-laser-speckle-flowgraphy-and-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-measurements-of-ocular-microcirculation
#16
Naoki Kiyota, Hiroshi Kunikata, Yukihiro Shiga, Kazuko Omodaka, Toru Nakazawa
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) measurements of ocular microcirculation in normal and open-angle glaucoma (OAG) subjects. METHODS: This study included 18 eyes of 18 OAG patients and ten eyes of ten age-matched healthy controls. LSFG was used to measure mean blur rate (MBR) in the optic nerve head (ONH) vessel area (MV) and tissue area (MT)...
May 1, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459125/the-face-of-glut1-ds-patients-a-3d-craniofacial-morphometric-analysis
#17
Valentina Pucciarelli, Simona Bertoli, Marina Codari, Ramona De Amicis, Valentina De Giorgis, Alberto Battezzati, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Chiarella Sforza
Glut1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1-DS) is a neurological and metabolic disorder caused by impaired transport of glucose across the blood brain barrier (BBB). Mutations on the SCL2A1 gene encoding the glucose transporter protein in the BBB cause the syndrome, which encompasses epilepsy, movement disorders, and mental delay. Such variability of symptoms presents an obstacle to early diagnosis. The patients seem to share some craniofacial features, and identification and quantification of these could help in prompt diagnosis and clinical management...
April 29, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447302/comment-on-the-new-indian-injection-technique-recommendations-critical-appraisal-of-the-real-world-implementation-of-the-current-guidelines
#18
Felice Strollo, Sandro Gentile
With an eye on the sequence of two Indian papers concurrently published in Diabetes Therapy, this paper analyzes skin differences among races and points to a lack of organized structured education sessions as the main cause of the high prevalence of lipodystrophy (LD) and consequent poor metabolic control. Only half of all insulin-treated patients reach their therapeutic targets worldwide. The factors involved in this are manifold, including the choice of overlong and repeatedly reused needles, as well as a failure to systematically rotate injection sites, all of which lead to skin LD...
April 26, 2017: Diabetes Therapy: Research, Treatment and Education of Diabetes and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442696/surgical-management-of-pediatric-glaucoma
#19
Ingrid Chang, Joseph Caprioli, Yvonne Ou
Pediatric glaucoma surgery is challenging because of the differences in anatomy from the adult, differences in the behavior of the tissues of a child's glaucomatous eye, the variety in causes of the disease, and difficulties with postoperative management. Goniotomy and trabeculotomy are the preferred initial treatments for primary congenital glaucoma. Trabeculectomy with adjunctive mitomycin C is more likely to succeed in older, phakic patients, but carries the long-term risk of bleb-associated endophthalmitis...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442694/surgical-treatment-of-angle-closure-glaucoma
#20
Dawn Lim, Maria Cecilia Aquino, Paul Chew
Advances in anterior segment imaging modalities have contributed new insights towards a better understanding of the various mechanisms of angle-closure glaucoma (ACG). This development is key to good decision making when confronted with angle-closure patients needing appropriate therapy. Surgical management of ACG remains an integral part of glaucoma patient care. The distinctive anatomy of angle-closure eyes and the few objective lines of evidence to support the effectiveness of the different surgical treatment options present a challenge to glaucoma surgeons...
2017: Developments in Ophthalmology
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