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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428970/changes-in-anterior-segment-parameters-following-pars-plana-vitrectomy-measured-by-ultrasound-biomicroscopy-ubm
#1
Zahra Ghomi, Fariba Ghassemi
Despite being a posterior segment ocular surgery, pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) may also affect anterior segment parameters. We aimed to investigate anterior segment alterations following PPV using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) to visualize the structural anatomy of the eye. In this study, we enrolled phakic patients undergoing PPV (as the sole procedure). The anterior chamber depth, crystalline lens anterior-posterior (AP) diameter, anterior chamber angle, ciliary body dimensions, and integrity of the ciliary zonules and posterior capsule were assessed using UBM before and at least 3 months after PPV...
2017: Medical Hypothesis, Discovery and Innovation in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428052/opening-eyes-to-nanomedicine-where-we-are-challenges-and-expectations-on-nanotherapy-for-diabetic-retinopathy
#2
REVIEW
Elisa J Campos, António Campos, João Martins, António Francisco Ambrósio
People affected with ocular diseases will significantly increase over the next decades, and, consequently, a substantial increase in health costs is expected. Diabetic retinopathy is the most common chronic complication of diabetes. The treatment of eye diseases affecting the posterior segment, such as diabetic retinopathy, is quite challenging due to the anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the eye. Therefore, the development of new therapeutics for posterior eye diseases has been a major focus of pharmaceutical research in the area of vision sciences...
April 17, 2017: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420926/femto-lasik-the-recent-innovation-in-laser-assisted-refractive-surgery
#3
Zubair Shahid Bashir, Muhammad Hassaan Ali, Ayesha Anwar, Muhammad Hammad Ayub, Nadeem Hafeez Butt
Femtosecond laser has been introduced in refractive surgery to create a thin-hinged corneal flap without using any blade. The current review was planned to analyse and compare femtosecond-assisted laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK), the latest refractive procedure, with conventional techniques in refractive surgery. The analysis showed that femtosecond-assisted LASIK yielded more predictable corneal flaps, lesser ocular aberrations, better uncorrected visual acuity, lesser variations in intraocular pressure (IOP) and fewer chances of developing dry eyes...
April 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401229/microengineered-biomimetic-ocular-models-for-ophthalmological-drug-development
#4
REVIEW
Zachary Estlack, Devasier Bennet, Ted Reid, Jungkyu Kim
Current ophthalmological drug discovery and testing methods have limitations and concerns regarding reliability, ethicality, and applicability. These drawbacks can be mitigated by developing biomimetic eye models through mathematical and experimental methods which are often referred to as "eye-on-a-chip" or "eye chip". These eye chip technologies emulate ocular physiology, anatomy, and microenvironmental conditions. Such models enable understanding of the fundamental biology, pharmacology, and toxicology mechanisms by investigating the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of various candidate drugs under ocular anatomical and physiological conditions without animal models...
April 12, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380105/accidental-lacrimal-gland-removal-during-resection-of-the-levator-palpebrae-superioris-muscle
#5
Patricia Akaishi, Alicia Galindo-Ferreiro, Sahar M Elkhamary, Zakeya Al-Sadah, Alberto Galvez-Ruiz, A Augusto Cruz
Accidental removal of the lacrimal gland is a rare complication of ptosis surgery. We report two children who underwent large unilateral levator palpebrae superioris resections (LPSr). After surgery, both patients developed dry eye. Post-operatively, the parents of both patients noticed no tears in the affected eye when their child cried. Computed tomography proved the absence of the lacrimal gland in the operated eye in both patients. Oculoplastic surgeons should pay close attention to the anatomy of the levator muscle and its proximity to surrounding tissues in order to avoid lesions on important orbital structures, including the lacrimal gland, and to avoid the development of long-term dry eye...
January 2017: Arquivos Brasileiros de Oftalmologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375974/creation-and-validation-of-a-photonumeric-scale-to-assess-volume-deficiency-in-the-infraorbital-region
#6
François Niforos, Steven Liew, Raj Acquilla, Patricia Ogilvie, Marva Safa, Massimo Signorini, Derek Jones, Jan Hawthorn, Caroline Collins, Graeme Kerson, Myooran Sithamparanathan
BACKGROUND: The eyes are particularly important aesthetic features of the face and revitalization of the infraorbital region has become a focus of aesthetic treatments. Published infraorbital scales to date have limitations in that they have been descriptive, subjective, or have used computer-generated images. Thus, there is an unmet need for a validated scale based on actual images. OBJECTIVE: To develop a practical photonumeric scale that respects the complex anatomy and age-related changes occurring in the orbital area...
April 3, 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375912/disorders-of-taste-and-smell
#7
Ronald DeVere
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article aims to educate clinical neurologists on the importance of taste and smell disorders in clinical neurology. These disorders commonly occur in head trauma, multiple sclerosis, seizure disorders, and neurodegenerative diseases such as idiopathic Parkinson disease and dementia, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer disease, just to name a few. This article covers the basic anatomy of smell and taste, notes the important points of taking a proper history, and discusses smell and taste testing, which are inexpensive, minimally time-consuming procedures...
April 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371467/time-limits-in-testing-an-analysis-of-eye-movements-and-visual-attention-in-spatial-problem-solving
#8
Victoria A Roach, Graham M Fraser, James H Kryklywy, Derek G V Mitchell, Timothy D Wilson
Individuals with an aptitude for interpreting spatial information (high mental rotation ability: HMRA) typically master anatomy with more ease, and more quickly, than those with low mental rotation ability (LMRA). This article explores how visual attention differs with time limits on spatial reasoning tests. Participants were assorted to two groups based on their mental rotation ability scores and their eye movements were collected during these tests. Analysis of salience during testing revealed similarities between MRA groups in untimed conditions but significant differences between the groups in the timed one...
March 30, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349508/targeting-schlemm-s-canal-in-the-medical-therapy-of-glaucoma-current-and-future-considerations
#9
REVIEW
Vanessa Andrés-Guerrero, Julián García-Feijoo, Anastasios Georgios Konstas
Schlemm's canal (SC) is a unique, complex vascular structure responsible for maintaining fluid homeostasis within the anterior segment of the eye by draining the excess of aqueous humour. In glaucoma, a heterogeneous group of eye disorders afflicting approximately 60 million individuals worldwide, the normal outflow of aqueous humour into SC is progressively hindered, leading to a gradual increase in outflow resistance, which gradually results in elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). By and large available antiglaucoma therapies do not target the site of the pathology (SC), but rather aim to decrease IOP by other mechanisms, either reducing aqueous production or by diverting aqueous flow through the unconventional outflow system...
March 27, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344172/physicochemical-attributes-and-dissolution-testing-of-ophthalmic-ointments
#10
Quanying Bao, Rajan Jog, Jie Shen, Bryan Newman, Yan Wang, Stephanie Choi, Diane J Burgess
The investigation of semisolid ophthalmic ointments is challenging due to their complex physicochemical properties and the unique anatomy of the human eye. Using Lotemax(®) as a model ophthalmic ointment, three different manufacturing processes and two excipient sources (Fisher(®) (OWP) and Fougera(®) (NWP)) were used to prepare loteprednol etabonate ointments that were qualitatively and quantitatively the same across the manufactured formulations. Physicochemical properties including drug content and uniformity, particle size and distribution, as well as rheological parameters (onset point, crossover modulus, storage modulus and Power law consistency index) were investigated...
March 24, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344111/no-sight-no-smell-brain-anatomy-of-two-amphipod-crustaceans-with-different-lifestyles
#11
Till Ramm, Gerhard Scholtz
The brain anatomy of Niphargus puteanus and Orchestia cavimana, two amphipod species with different lifestyles, has been studied using a variety of recent techniques. The general aspects of the brain anatomy of both species correspond to those of other malacostracans. However, both species lack hemiellipsoid bodies. Furthermore, related to their lifestyle certain differences have been observed. The aquatic subterranean species Niphargus puteanus lacks eye structures, the optic nerve, and the two outer optic neuropils lamina and medulla...
March 23, 2017: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343872/orbital-decompression-for-thyroid-eye-disease
#12
Daniel B Rootman
The literature regarding orbital decompression for thyroid eye disease is vast, spanning multiple specialty areas including neurosurgery, head and neck, maxillofacial and ophthalmic plastic surgery. Although techniques have advanced considerably over the more than 100 years during which this procedure has been performed, the four major approaches remain: transorbital, transcranial, transantral and transnasal. The explosion in literature related to orbital decompression has mostly involved minor technical variations on broader surgical themes...
March 23, 2017: Survey of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323395/development-of-a-didactical-training-concept-for-peer-tutors-in-gross-anatomy
#13
Simone Alvarez, Christoph Nikendei, Jobst-Hendrik Schultz
Even though peer tutors are often used in gross anatomy courses, research in the field is rather a subject of the last two decades. This is especially true about the didactical challenges these types of peer tutors experience during their tutorials and about how they are prepared for the task. The aim of the presented study was to learn about the training needs of the tutors, and to subsequently design, implement, and evaluate a didactical training concept. A qualitative design was chosen to examine how tutors can best be prepared for tutorials of gross anatomy...
March 21, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316111/pattern-separation-in-the-hippocampus-through-the-eyes-of-computational-modeling
#14
REVIEW
Spyridon Chavlis, Panayiota Poirazi
Pattern separation is a mnemonic process that has been extensively studied over the years. It entails the ability -of primarily hippocampal circuits- to distinguish between highly similar inputs, via generating different neuronal activity (output) patterns. The dentate gyrus in particular has long been hypothesized to implement pattern separation by detecting and storing similar inputs as distinct representations. The ways in which these distinct representations can be generated have been explored in a number of theoretical and computational modelling studies...
March 18, 2017: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291204/-staged-complex-treatment-of-paralytic-lagophthalmos-case-report
#15
M B Gushchina, S A Mal'kov, E V Kovshun, N S Yuzhakova
Paralytic lagophthalmos, resulting from facial nerve palsy, is a difficult medical and social issue that requires cooperation of different specialists. Complications that arise in paralytic lagophthalmos may cause significant vision loss and even eye loss. Various techniques of paralytic lagophthalmos correction are used to protect the cornea and restore eyelid anatomy and functions. These comprise palliative (conservative), surgical, and alternative treatments (such as botulinum toxin type A therapy). Surgical treatment of paralytic lagophthalmos patients often has to be staged and complex...
2017: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277482/the-role-of-prosthesis-spacer-for-ocular-prostheses
#16
Luiza Alencar De Andrade Figueiredo, Aline Araújo Sampaio, Samilly Evangelista Souza, Fernando José Rigolin Ferreira, Edmur Pereira Buzzá, Celia Marisa Rizzatti-Barbosa
Eye defects can lead to emotional, psychological, and social changes, impacting negatively the quality of life of the patient. When these structures cannot be satisfactorily repaired by reconstructive surgery, the prosthetic rehabilitation is the better treatment option to restore lost ocular anatomy and promote the social integration of the individual. The aim of this clinical report is to report and discuss a case of ocular prosthesis confection eviscerated patient with opening limitation eyelid and shortening of the distance between palpebral commissure, to obtain a more natural and comfortable to the patient ocular rehabilitation...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223180/biomechanical-aspects-of-axonal-damage-in-glaucoma-a-brief-review
#17
REVIEW
Cheri Stowell, Claude F Burgoyne, Ernst R Tamm, C Ross Ethier
The biomechanical environment within the optic nerve head (ONH) is complex and is likely directly involved in the loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in glaucoma. Unfortunately, our understanding of this process is poor. Here we describe factors that influence ONH biomechanics, including ONH connective tissue microarchitecture and anatomy; intraocular pressure (IOP); and cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFp). We note that connective tissue factors can vary significantly from one individual to the next, as well as regionally within an eye, and that the understanding of ONH biomechanics is hindered by anatomical differences between small-animal models of glaucoma (rats and mice) and humans...
February 20, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220619/the-palatal-interpterygoid-vacuities-of-temnospondyls-and-the-implications-for-the-associated-eye-and-jaw-musculature
#18
Florian Witzmann, Ingmar Werneburg
A diagnostic feature of temnospondyls is the presence of an open palate with large interpterygoid vacuities, unlike the closed palate of most other early tetrapods, in which the vacuities are either slit-like or completely absent. Attachment sites on neurocranium and palatal bones in temnospondyls allow the reconstruction of a powerful m. retractor bulbi and a large, sheet-like m. levator bulbi that formed the elastic floor of the orbit. This muscle arrangement indicates that temnospondyls were able to retract the eyeballs through the interpterygoid vacuities into the buccal cavity, like extant frogs and salamanders...
February 21, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205422/ophthalmologic-wax-models-as-an-educational-tool-for-18th-century-vision-scientists
#19
Fabio Zampieri, Francesco Comacchio, Alberto Zanatta
The Medical Faculties of the University of Padua (Italy) and the University of Vienna (Austria) preserved two series of wax models, made by the Austrian Johann Nepomuk Hoffmayr at the beginning of the 19th century. These models were created in a period of evolution of both medical specialties and organ pathology, which brought morbid organs at the centre of medical investigation. Ceroplastic was considered a useful tool for didactic and research, as it provided a three-dimensional realistically coloured reproduction of organic lesions...
February 16, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196403/morphologic-patterns-formed-by-the-anomalous-fibers-occurring-along-the-anterior-capsule-of-the-crystalline-lens-in-people-with-the-long-anterior-zonule-trait
#20
Daniel K Roberts, Yongyi Yang, Christina E Morettin, Tricia L Newman, Mary F Roberts, Jacob T Wilensky
People with the long anterior zonule (LAZ) trait, which may have prevalence near 2%, have zonular fibers that extend more central than usual along the anterior capsule of the crystalline lens. The anomalous fibers can be observed in vivo with clinical slit lamp biomicroscopy after pharmacologic pupil dilation, and although minimally studied, the LAZ trait may have importance to glaucoma, retinal degeneration, and cataract surgery. To further characterize LAZ morphology, a custom computer program was used to trace LAZ fibers seen on retro-illumination photos acquired during previous study at an academic, urban eye care facility in Chicago, IL...
February 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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