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eye anatomy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048573/su-f-t-423-automating-treatment-planning-for-cervical-cancer-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#1
K Kisling, L Zhang, J Yang, A Jhingran, P Balter, R McCarroll, B Beadle, R Howell, K Schmeler, L Court
PURPOSE: To develop and test two independent algorithms that automatically create the photon treatment fields for a four-field box beam arrangement, a common treatment technique for cervical cancer in low- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Two algorithms were developed and integrated into Eclipse using its Advanced Programming Interface:3D METHOD: We automatically segment bony anatomy on CT using an in-house multi-atlas contouring tool and project the structures into the beam's-eye-view...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048554/th-ab-202-03-a-novel-tool-for-computing-deliverable-doses-in-dynamic-mlc-tracking-treatments
#2
M Fast, C Kamerling, S Crijns, M Menten, S Nill, B Raaymakers, U Oelfke
PURPOSE: In tracked dynamic multi-leaf collimator (MLC) treatments, segments are continuously adapted to the target centroid motion in beams-eye-view. On-the-fly segment adaptation, however, potentially induces dosimetric errors due to the finite MLC leaf width and non-rigid target motion. In this study, we outline a novel tool for computing the 4d dose of lung SBRT plans delivered with MLC tracking. METHODS: The following automated workflow was developed: A) centroid tracking, where the initial segments are morphed to each 4dCT phase based on the beams-eye-view GTV shift (followed by a dose calculation on each phase); B) re-optimized tracking, in which all morphed initial plans from (A) are further optimised ("warm-started") in each 4dCT phase using the initial optimisation parameters but phase-specific volume definitions...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041615/functional-anatomy-of-the-macaque-temporo-parieto-frontal-connectivity
#3
REVIEW
Elena Borra, Giuseppe Luppino
The primate parietal lobe is primarily dedicated to the processing of sensory information for the guidance of motor behavior, based on the integration of sensory with motor signals (sensorimotor transformations), mediated by specific, strong, and reciprocal connections with the motor cortex. Sensorimotor transformations have been regarded as an automatic process carried out independently from the temporal cortex, which is considered the location where sensory information is used for perceptual processes. However, both human and non-human primate studies have shown interactions between these two regions in different aspects of sensorimotor and cognitive processes...
December 18, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040808/periocular-fillers-and-related-anatomy
#4
Julie A Woodward
Aging of the periocular area involves changes of the skin, muscle, fat, and bones. Facial fillers can be helpful in minimizing these changes by restoring youthful fullness to periocular areas that have undergone volume loss or loss of support. Physicians should understand the complicated anatomy surrounding the eyes, both to understand the aging process and to minimize treatment complications.
November 2016: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003734/debs-a-unification-theory-for-dry-eye-and-blepharitis
#5
James M Rynerson, Henry D Perry
For many years, blepharitis and dry eye disease have been thought to be two distinct diseases, and evaporative dry eye distinct from aqueous insufficiency. In this treatise, we propose a new way of looking at dry eye, both evaporative and insufficiency, as the natural sequelae of decades of chronic blepharitis. Dry eye is simply the late form and late manifestation of one disease, blepharitis. We suggest the use of a new term in describing this one chronic disease, namely dry eye blepharitis syndrome (DEBS)...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003411/dorsal-versus-ventral-differences-in-fast-up-state-associated-oscillations-in-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-mpfc-of-the-urethane-anaesthetised-rat
#6
Sabine Gretenkord, Adrian Rees, Miles A Whittington, Sarah E Gartside, Fiona E N LeBeau
Cortical slow oscillations (0.1 - 1 Hz), which may play a role in memory consolidation, are a hallmark of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep and also occur under anaesthesia. During slow oscillations the neuronal network generates faster oscillations on the active Up-states and these nested oscillations are particularly prominent in the PFC. In rodents the mPFC consists of several subregions: anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), prelimbic (PrL), infralimbic (IL) and dorsal peduncular cortices (DP). Although each region has a distinct anatomy and function, it is not known whether slow or fast network oscillations differ between subregions in vivo...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002851/prenatal-ultrasonographic-diagnosis-of-cataract-in-utero-manifestations-of-cryptic-disease
#7
Eran Ashwal, Asaf Achiron, Yinon Gilboa, Michal Berkenstadt, Mordecai Rosner, Reuven Achiron
Purpose To report and review our experience with antenatal evaluation for fetuses diagnosed with congenital cataract. Materials and Methods We retrospectively identified pregnancies diagnosed with fetal cataract during antenatal ultrasound. Evaluation of fetal eyes included intraocular anatomy and biometry. Data on fetal malformations, serology and fetal karyotype were collected. Results 8 cases, identified over the course of 10 years, were reviewed. Week 15 was the mean time for diagnosis (range 11 - 34)...
December 21, 2016: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27996202/long-term-evolution-of-superficial-optic-disc-drusen
#8
Lasse Malmqvist, Henrik Lund-Andersen, Steffen Hamann
PURPOSE: Optic disc drusen (ODD) is hyaline deposits in the optic nerve head seen in 1-2% of the population. Long-term evolution of ODD anatomy and visual field defects in ODD patients is a key factor for learning more about pathophysiology and prognosis of the condition. With a median follow-up period of 56 years, this is the first study that evaluates superficial optic disc anatomy and visual fields in patients with ODD over a life span. METHODS: Observational case series investigating progression of superficial optic disc anatomy and visual fields in ODD patients...
December 20, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984217/using-levator-aponeurosis-to-create-physiologically-natural-double-eyelid-a-new-reconstruction-technique-based-on-three-key-factors-in-double-eyelid-formation
#9
Lin Lu, Ming Zhu, Xusong Luo, Qun Yang, Xi Wang, Jun Yang, Fei Liu
BACKGROUND: Double eyelidplasty has 3 key factors: motor power, connecting tissue, and skin adhesion. OBJECTIVE: To create natural double eyelid, new anatomy structure should be rebuilt according to physiological double eyelid in these 3 aspects. METHODS: Levator aponeurosis is used as "connecting tissue" to transmit dynamic "motor power" of levator muscle to upper eyelid, and "skin adhesion" is induced between levator aponeurosis and skin in a plane manner...
December 14, 2016: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943532/-%C3%A2-the-eyes-of-vesalius-and-of-harvey-might-be-dazzled-by-the-sight-of-the-tree-that-has-grown-out-of-their-physick-and-anatomy-grain-of-mustard-seed
#10
EDITORIAL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941226/estimating-head-and-neck-tissue-dose-from-x-ray-scatter-to-physicians-performing-x-ray-guided-cardiovascular-procedures-a-phantom-study
#11
Kenneth A Fetterly, Beth A Schueler, Michael P Grams, Glenn M Sturchio
Physicians performing x-ray guided interventional procedures have a keen interest in radiation safety. Radiation dose to tissues and organs of the head and neck are of particular interest because they are not routinely protected by wearable radiation safety devices. This study was conducted to facilitate estimation of radiation dose to tissues of the head and neck of interventional physicians based on the dose recorded by a personal dosimeter worn on the left collar. Scatter beam qualities maximum energy and HVL were measured for 40 scatter beams emitting from an anthropomorphic patient phantom...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935599/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-the-functional-anatomy-of-the-superior-oblique-muscle-in-patients-with-primary-superior-oblique-overaction
#12
Q Gong, M Janowski, H Tang, Q Yang, H Wei, X Zhou, L Liu
PurposeTo quantitatively determine the size and contractility of the superior oblique (SO) muscle in primary SO overaction (PSOOA).Patients and methodsA prospective, observational study was conducted on 12 patients with PSOOA, and 10 healthy, orthotropic subjects. Sets of contiguous, 2 mm slice thickness, quasi-coronal magnetic resonance imaging were obtained during different gazes, giving pixel resolution of 0.391 mm. Cross-sectional areas of the SO muscles were determined in primary position, supraduction, and infraduction to evaluate size and contractility...
December 9, 2016: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927679/temporal-ocular-coherence-tomography-measured-changes-in-anterior-chamber-angle-and-diurnal-intraocular-pressure-after-laser-iridoplasty-impact-study
#13
Rupert R A Bourne, Ivailo Zhekov, Shahina Pardhan
AIMS: To evaluate temporal change in anterior chamber angle anatomy following argon laser peripheral iridoplasty (ALPI) in eyes with occludable angles postlaser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) compared with control eyes. Additionally, the effect on diurnal intraocular pressure (DIOP) fluctuation (maximum-minimum IOP) was investigated. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with bilateral primary angle closure/suspects with gonioscopically occludable anterior chamber angles following LPI were randomised to receive ALPI (n=11) or no further treatment (n=11)...
December 7, 2016: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922558/anatomy-of-the-periorbital-area
#14
Tracey A Hotta
Dermal filler and neurotoxin treatments around the periorbital area are assessed when addressing the early signs of aging. Having a comprehensive understanding of the anatomy related to the structures of the eye may reduce the risk of complications, which include severe bruising, persistent swelling, blindness, and cerebral infarction. Understanding the function of the muscles and ligaments, location of the nerves, and the pathway of the blood vessels are crucial when addressing concerns in this area.
October 2016: Plastic Surgical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898469/update-on-pigment-dispersion-syndrome-and-pigmentary-glaucoma
#15
Kingsley Okafor, Kateki Vinod, Steven J Gedde
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article reviews the clinical features and pathogenesis of pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma and provides an update regarding their diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Newer imaging modalities including ultrasound biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography facilitate visualization of the iris concavity characteristic of eyes with pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Patients with pigmentary glaucoma may be distinguished from those with other glaucoma types by the presence of typical symptoms, personality type, and patterns of diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuation...
November 25, 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890189/diplopia-what-to-double-check-in-radiographic-imaging-of-double-vision
#16
REVIEW
Claudia F E Kirsch, Karen Black
When patients see double with both eyes open, known as "binocular diplopia," this may be a harbinger of underlying life-threatening causes. This article presents pertinent anatomy, critical abnormality, and radiographic features that should be double checked for in diplopia. Key areas requiring a double check using the acronym VISION include Vascular, Infectious and Inflammatory, the Scalp for giant cell arteritis, Sphenoid and Skull base in trauma, Increased intracranial pressure (pseudotumor cerebri), Onset of new headaches or psychosis, and Neoplasm...
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888891/periorbital-scar-correction
#17
REVIEW
Christopher B Chambers, Kristen S Moe
Periorbital scarring with eyelid retraction can have serious visual effects and can lead to loss of vision or even loss of the eye. Understanding of eyelid anatomy and the delicate balance of its structural supports is critical for the identification of the eyelid disorder responsible for the cicatrix and helps to guide treatment. The 2-finger test and lateral distraction of the lid can also be of significant help in proper diagnosis of the underlying disorder. Proper reconstruction with respect to the anterior and posterior lamellae helps to ensure a favorable outcome...
February 2017: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845202/the-synganglion-of-the-jumping-spider-marpissa-muscosa-arachnida-salticidae-insights-from-histology-immunohistochemistry-and-microct-analysis
#18
Philip O M Steinhoff, Andy Sombke, Jannis Liedtke, Jutta M Schneider, Steffen Harzsch, Gabriele Uhl
Jumping spiders are known for their extraordinary cognitive abilities. The underlying nervous system structures, however, are largely unknown. Here, we explore and describe the anatomy of the brain in the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa (Clerck, 1757) by means of paraffin histology, X-ray microCT analysis and immunohistochemistry as well as three-dimensional reconstruction. In the prosoma, the CNS is a clearly demarcated mass that surrounds the esophagus. The anteriormost neuromere, the protocerebrum, comprises nine bilaterally paired neuropils, including the mushroom bodies and one unpaired midline neuropil, the arcuate body...
December 17, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837354/congenital-cranial-dysinnervation-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Anupam Singh, P K Pandey, Ajai Agrawal, Sanjeev Kumar Mittal, Kartik Maheshbhai Rana, Chirag Bahuguna
The European Neuromuscular Centre (ENMC) derived the term Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders in 2002 at an international workshop for a group of congenital neuromuscular diseases. CCDDs are congenital, non-progressive ophthalmoplegia with restriction of globe movement in one or more fields of gaze. This group of sporadic and familial strabismus syndromes was initially referred to as the 'congenital fibrosis syndromes' because it was assumed that the primary pathologic process starts in the muscles of eye motility...
November 11, 2016: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831838/clinical-radiologic-correlation-of-extraocular-eye-movement-disorders-seeing-beneath-the-surface
#20
Joshua Thatcher, Yu-Ming Chang, Margaret N Chapman, Keegan Hovis, Akifumi Fujita, Rachel Sobel, Osamu Sakai
Extraocular eye movement disorders are relatively common and may be a significant source of discomfort and morbidity for patients. The presence of restricted eye movement can be detected clinically with quick, easily performed, noninvasive maneuvers that assess medial, lateral, upward, and downward gaze. However, detecting the presence of ocular dysmotility may not be sufficient to pinpoint the exact cause of eye restriction. Imaging plays an important role in excluding, in some cases, and detecting, in others, a specific cause responsible for the clinical presentation...
November 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
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