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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922558/anatomy-of-the-periorbital-area
#1
Tracey A Hotta
Dermal filler and neurotoxin treatments around the periorbital area are assessed when addressing the early signs of aging. Having a comprehensive understanding of the anatomy related to the structures of the eye may reduce the risk of complications, which include severe bruising, persistent swelling, blindness, and cerebral infarction. Understanding the function of the muscles and ligaments, location of the nerves, and the pathway of the blood vessels are crucial when addressing concerns in this area.
October 2016: Plastic Surgical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898469/update-on-pigment-dispersion-syndrome-and-pigmentary-glaucoma
#2
Kingsley Okafor, Kateki Vinod, Steven J Gedde
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article reviews the clinical features and pathogenesis of pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma and provides an update regarding their diagnosis and management. RECENT FINDINGS: Newer imaging modalities including ultrasound biomicroscopy and anterior segment optical coherence tomography facilitate visualization of the iris concavity characteristic of eyes with pigment dispersion syndrome and pigmentary glaucoma. Patients with pigmentary glaucoma may be distinguished from those with other glaucoma types by the presence of typical symptoms, personality type, and patterns of diurnal intraocular pressure fluctuation...
November 25, 2016: Current Opinion in Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890189/diplopia-what-to-double-check-in-radiographic-imaging-of-double-vision
#3
REVIEW
Claudia F E Kirsch, Karen Black
When patients see double with both eyes open, known as "binocular diplopia," this may be a harbinger of underlying life-threatening causes. This article presents pertinent anatomy, critical abnormality, and radiographic features that should be double checked for in diplopia. Key areas requiring a double check using the acronym VISION include Vascular, Infectious and Inflammatory, the Scalp for giant cell arteritis, Sphenoid and Skull base in trauma, Increased intracranial pressure (pseudotumor cerebri), Onset of new headaches or psychosis, and Neoplasm...
January 2017: Radiologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888891/periorbital-scar-correction
#4
REVIEW
Christopher B Chambers, Kristen S Moe
Periorbital scarring with eyelid retraction can have serious visual effects and can lead to loss of vision or even loss of the eye. Understanding of eyelid anatomy and the delicate balance of its structural supports is critical for the identification of the eyelid disorder responsible for the cicatrix and helps to guide treatment. The 2-finger test and lateral distraction of the lid can also be of significant help in proper diagnosis of the underlying disorder. Proper reconstruction with respect to the anterior and posterior lamellae helps to ensure a favorable outcome...
February 2017: Facial Plastic Surgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845202/the-synganglion-of-the-jumping-spider-marpissa-muscosa-arachnida-salticidae-insights-from-histology-immunohistochemistry-and-microct-analysis
#5
Philip O M Steinhoff, Andy Sombke, Jannis Liedtke, Jutta M Schneider, Steffen Harzsch, Gabriele Uhl
Jumping spiders are known for their extraordinary cognitive abilities. The underlying nervous system structures, however, are largely unknown. Here, we explore and describe the anatomy of the brain in the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa (Clerck, 1757) by means of paraffin histology, X-ray microCT analysis and immunohistochemistry as well as three-dimensional reconstruction. In the prosoma, the CNS is a clearly demarcated mass that surrounds the esophagus. The anteriormost neuromere, the protocerebrum, comprises nine bilaterally paired neuropils, including the mushroom bodies and one unpaired midline neuropil, the arcuate body...
November 11, 2016: Arthropod Structure & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837354/congenital-cranial-dysinnervation-disorders
#6
REVIEW
Anupam Singh, P K Pandey, Ajai Agrawal, Sanjeev Kumar Mittal, Kartik Maheshbhai Rana, Chirag Bahuguna
The European Neuromuscular Centre (ENMC) derived the term Congenital Cranial Dysinnervation Disorders in 2002 at an international workshop for a group of congenital neuromuscular diseases. CCDDs are congenital, non-progressive ophthalmoplegia with restriction of globe movement in one or more fields of gaze. This group of sporadic and familial strabismus syndromes was initially referred to as the 'congenital fibrosis syndromes' because it was assumed that the primary pathologic process starts in the muscles of eye motility...
November 11, 2016: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831838/clinical-radiologic-correlation-of-extraocular-eye-movement-disorders-seeing-beneath-the-surface
#7
Joshua Thatcher, Yu-Ming Chang, Margaret N Chapman, Keegan Hovis, Akifumi Fujita, Rachel Sobel, Osamu Sakai
Extraocular eye movement disorders are relatively common and may be a significant source of discomfort and morbidity for patients. The presence of restricted eye movement can be detected clinically with quick, easily performed, noninvasive maneuvers that assess medial, lateral, upward, and downward gaze. However, detecting the presence of ocular dysmotility may not be sufficient to pinpoint the exact cause of eye restriction. Imaging plays an important role in excluding, in some cases, and detecting, in others, a specific cause responsible for the clinical presentation...
November 2016: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811130/impact-of-neuroradiology-based-peer-review-on-head-and-neck-radiotherapy-target-delineation
#8
S Braunstein, C M Glastonbury, J Chen, J M Quivey, S S Yom
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: While standard guidelines assist in target delineation for head and neck radiation therapy planning, the complex anatomy, varying patterns of spread, unusual or advanced presentations, and high risk of treatment-related toxicities produce continuous interpretive challenges. In 2007, we instituted weekly treatment planning quality assurance rounds as a joint enterprise of head and neck radiation oncology and neuroradiology. Here we describe its impact on head and neck radiation therapy target delineation...
November 3, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798766/a-comprehensive-insight-on-ocular-pharmacokinetics
#9
REVIEW
Vibhuti Agrahari, Abhirup Mandal, Vivek Agrahari, Hoang M Trinh, Mary Joseph, Animikh Ray, Hicheme Hadji, Ranjana Mitra, Dhananjay Pal, Ashim K Mitra
The eye is a distinctive organ with protective anatomy and physiology. Several pharmacokinetics compartment models of ocular drug delivery have been developed for describing the absorption, distribution, and elimination of ocular drugs in the eye. Determining pharmacokinetics parameters in ocular tissues is a major challenge because of the complex anatomy and dynamic physiological barrier of the eye. In this review, pharmacokinetics of these compartments exploring different drugs, delivery systems, and routes of administration is discussed including factors affecting intraocular bioavailability...
October 31, 2016: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779556/multimodal-imaging-of-serpiginous-choroiditis
#10
Hashim Ali Khan, Muhammad Aamir Shahzad
PURPOSE: To report a case of atypical serpiginous choroiditis with previously unreported findings on optical coherence tomographic angiography. CASE REPORT: A 35-year-old otherwise healthy man had a 1-week history of vision loss in his right eye. The visual acuity in right eye was counting fingers at 1 meter. Fundoscopy showed a classic peripapillary serpiginous lesion and a solitary macular lesion. Fundus fluorescein angiography revealed early hypofluorescence of active lesions with gradual increase in fluorescence across the phase of angiogram...
October 25, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774056/microglomerular-synaptic-complexes-in-the-sky-compass-network-of-the-honeybee-connect-parallel-pathways-from-the-anterior-optic-tubercle-to-the-central-complex
#11
Martina Held, Annuska Berz, Ronja Hensgen, Thomas S Muenz, Christina Scholl, Wolfgang Rössler, Uwe Homberg, Keram Pfeiffer
While the ability of honeybees to navigate relying on sky-compass information has been investigated in a large number of behavioral studies, the underlying neuronal system has so far received less attention. The sky-compass pathway has recently been described from its input region, the dorsal rim area (DRA) of the compound eye, to the anterior optic tubercle (AOTU). The aim of this study is to reveal the connection from the AOTU to the central complex (CX). For this purpose, we investigated the anatomy of large microglomerular synaptic complexes in the medial and lateral bulbs (MBUs/LBUs) of the lateral complex (LX)...
2016: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771339/the-value-of-clinical-practice-in-cadaveric-dissection-lessons-learned-from-a-course-in-eye-and-orbital-anatomy
#12
Christopher Schulz
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that there is greater benefit in a dissection-based anatomy course among those participants with clinical experience in the relevant field, and those without. DESIGN: A retrospective comparative study. SETTING: Brighton and Sussex Medical School Anatomy Department: an educational facility that provides undergraduate and postgraduate anatomy teaching using cadaveric specimens. PARTICIPANTS: All attendees (n = 40) to a postgraduate course in eye and orbital anatomy completed course evaluation forms...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767958/noncavernous-arteriovenous-shunts-mimicking-carotid-cavernous-fistulae
#13
Chai Kobkitsuksakul, Pakorn Jiarakongmun, Ekachat Chanthanaphak, Sirintara Pongpech
PURPOSE: The classic symptoms and signs of carotid cavernous sinus fistula or cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) consist of eye redness, exophthalmos, and gaze abnormality. The angiography findings typically consist of arteriovenous shunt at cavernous sinus with ophthalmic venous drainage with or without cortical venous reflux. In rare circumstances, the shunts are localized outside the cavernous sinus, but mimic symptoms and radiography of the cavernous shunt. We would like to present the other locations of the arteriovenous shunt, which mimic the clinical presentation of carotid cavernous fistulae, and analyze venous drainages...
November 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology: Official Journal of the Turkish Society of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764531/the-effect-of-image-quality-repeated-study-and-assessment-method-on-anatomy-learning
#14
Barbara Fenesi, Chelsea Mackinnon, Lucia Cheng, Joseph A Kim, Bruce C Wainman
The use of two-dimensional (2D) images is consistently used to prepare anatomy students for handling real specimen. This study examined whether the quality of 2D images is a critical component in anatomy learning. The visual clarity and consistency of 2D anatomical images was systematically manipulated to produce low-quality and high-quality images of the human hand and human eye. On day 0, participants learned about each anatomical specimen from paper booklets using either low-quality or high-quality images, and then completed a comprehension test using either 2D images or three-dimensional (3D) cadaveric specimens...
October 20, 2016: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763911/accounting-for-ethnicity-related-differences-in-ocular-surface-integrity-as-a-step-toward-understanding-contact-lens-discomfort
#15
Stefanie M Chan, Tatyana F Svitova, Meng C Lin
Contact lens discomfort is a common problem that can lead to unsuccessful or limited contact lens wear. Although many factors may contribute to contact lens discomfort, limited research has explored the influence of ethnicity-related differences in the anatomy and physiology of the ocular surface. Therefore, we performed a search of the literature in PubMed using key words related to "ocular surface" paired with the terms "race" and "ethnicity." The goal of this review was to determine potential areas of research regarding ethnicity differences, particularly between Asian and non-Asian eyes, in ocular surface integrity to advance our understanding of contact lens discomfort...
October 19, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27757007/focused-ultrasound-in-ophthalmology
#16
Ronald H Silverman
The use of focused ultrasound to obtain diagnostically significant information about the eye goes back to the 1950s. This review describes the historical and technological development of ophthalmic ultrasound and its clinical application and impact. Ultrasound, like light, can be focused, which is crucial for formation of high-resolution, diagnostically useful images. Focused, single-element, mechanically scanned transducers are most common in ophthalmology. Specially designed transducers have been used to generate focused, high-intensity ultrasound that through thermal effects has been used to treat glaucoma (via ciliodestruction), tumors, and other pathologies...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744253/vision-based-and-marker-less-surgical-tool-detection-and-tracking-a-review-of-the-literature
#17
David Bouget, Max Allan, Danail Stoyanov, Pierre Jannin
In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in surgical practice for example with Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS). To overcome challenges coming from deported eye-to-hand manipulation, robotic and computer-assisted systems have been developed. Having real-time knowledge of the pose of surgical tools with respect to the surgical camera and underlying anatomy is a key ingredient for such systems. In this paper, we present a review of the literature dealing with vision-based and marker-less surgical tool detection...
September 13, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742136/-limbal-stem-cell-deficiency-management-a-review
#18
REVIEW
V Kocaba, O Damour, C Auxenfans, C Burillon
Limbal stem cell deficiency is predominantly caused by severe eye burns resulting in a decreased or a complete ablation of the regenerative potential of these stem cells. The inability to reconstruct the corneal epithelium further leads conjunctivalization of the gimbal-epithelial barrier. These abnormalities collectively result in the progressive opacification of the cornea responsible for blindness that is driven by chronic corneal ulceration and neovascularization. The underlying pathology of the cornea affects the homeostasis of the neighboring conjunctiva, eyelids, and tear film...
November 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741997/neuro-ophthalmology-in-emergency-medicine
#19
J Stephen Huff, Everett W Austin
Understanding the anatomy and physiology of the eye, the orbit, and the central connections is key to understanding neuro-ophthalmologic emergencies. Anisocoria is an important sign that requires a systematic approach to avoid misdiagnosis of serious conditions, including carotid dissection (miosis) and aneurysmal third nerve palsy (mydriasis). Ptosis may be a sign of either Horner syndrome or third nerve palsy. An explanation should be pursued for diplopia since the differential diagnosis ranges from the trivial to life-threatening causes...
November 2016: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721672/an-empirical-method-for-automatic-determination-of-maximum-number-of-segments-in-dmpo-based-imrt-for-head-and-neck-cases
#20
Vaitheeswaran Ranganathan, K Joseph Maria Das
AIM: An empirical scheme called "anatomy-guided segment counting (AGSC)" is proposed for automatic selection of maximum number of segments (NOS) for direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO). BACKGROUND: Direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) requires the user to define the maximum number of segments (NOS) in order to proceed with an optimization process. Till date there is no established approach to arrive at an optimal and case-specific maximum NOS in DMPO, and this step is largely left to the planner's experience...
November 2016: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
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