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eye anatomy

David Bouget, Max Allan, Danail Stoyanov, Pierre Jannin
In recent years, tremendous progress has been made in surgical practice for example with Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS). To overcome challenges coming from deported eye-to-hand manipulation, robotic and computer-assisted systems have been developed. Having real-time knowledge of the pose of surgical tools with respect to the surgical camera and underlying anatomy is a key ingredient for such systems. In this paper, we present a review of the literature dealing with vision-based and marker-less surgical tool detection...
September 13, 2016: Medical Image Analysis
V Kocaba, O Damour, C Auxenfans, C Burillon
Limbal stem cell deficiency is predominantly caused by severe eye burns resulting in a decreased or a complete ablation of the regenerative potential of these stem cells. The inability to reconstruct the corneal epithelium further leads conjunctivalization of the gimbal-epithelial barrier. These abnormalities collectively result in the progressive opacification of the cornea responsible for blindness that is driven by chronic corneal ulceration and neovascularization. The underlying pathology of the cornea affects the homeostasis of the neighboring conjunctiva, eyelids, and tear film...
October 11, 2016: Journal Français D'ophtalmologie
J Stephen Huff, Everett W Austin
Understanding the anatomy and physiology of the eye, the orbit, and the central connections is key to understanding neuro-ophthalmologic emergencies. Anisocoria is an important sign that requires a systematic approach to avoid misdiagnosis of serious conditions, including carotid dissection (miosis) and aneurysmal third nerve palsy (mydriasis). Ptosis may be a sign of either Horner syndrome or third nerve palsy. An explanation should be pursued for diplopia since the differential diagnosis ranges from the trivial to life-threatening causes...
November 2016: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Vaitheeswaran Ranganathan, K Joseph Maria Das
AIM: An empirical scheme called "anatomy-guided segment counting (AGSC)" is proposed for automatic selection of maximum number of segments (NOS) for direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO). BACKGROUND: Direct machine parameter optimization (DMPO) requires the user to define the maximum number of segments (NOS) in order to proceed with an optimization process. Till date there is no established approach to arrive at an optimal and case-specific maximum NOS in DMPO, and this step is largely left to the planner's experience...
November 2016: Reports of Practical Oncology and Radiotherapy
Victoria A Roach, Graham M Fraser, James H Kryklywy, Derek G V Mitchell, Timothy D Wilson
Learning in anatomy can be both spatially and visually complex. Pedagogical investigations have begun exploration as to how spatial ability may mitigate learning. Emerging hypotheses suggests individuals with higher spatial reasoning may attend to images differently than those who are lacking. To elucidate attentional patterns associated with different spatial ability, eye movements were measured in individuals completing a timed electronic mental rotation test (EMRT). The EMRT was based on the line drawings of Shepherd and Metzler...
October 5, 2016: Anatomical Sciences Education
C M Champ, M Vorobyev, N J Marshall
Coral reef fishes are among the most colourful animals in the world. Given the diversity of lifestyles and habitats on the reef, it is probable that in many instances coloration is a compromise between crypsis and communication. However, human observation of this coloration is biased by our primate visual system. Most animals have visual systems that are 'tuned' differently to humans; optimized for different parts of the visible spectrum. To understand reef fish colours, we need to reconstruct the appearance of colourful patterns and backgrounds as they are seen through the eyes of fish...
September 2016: Royal Society Open Science
Sanne K Verbakel, Johannes P H van de Ven, Linda M P Le Blanc, Joannes M M Groenewoud, Eiko K de Jong, B Jeroen Klevering, Carel B Hoyng
Purpose: Little is known regarding the therapeutic effect of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) in the management of cystic macular lesions in children with X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XLRS) despite the fact that this disease often manifests during childhood. Therefore, our goal was to determine the efficacy of CAIs in the treatment of cystic macular lesions in children with XLRS. Methods: We used CAIs to treat cystic macular lesions in 18 eyes of nine children with XLRS...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
T Schrom, R Amberg, F Bast
PURPOSE: Plastic surgery on the eyelids for the purpose of aesthetic or functional correction requires precise knowledge of lid anatomy. Changes in the tarsal curvature of the upper eyelid relative to line of vision are important, particularly when a surgical correction of paralytic lagophthalmos is undertaken. We used a computer-based image-processing algorithm to establish a relationship between changes in the curvature of the tarsus relative to the line of vision. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A dynamic, ultrasound examination of the upper eyelids of 100 participants (100 eyes) was performed transpalpebrally using a 7...
March 2016: Ultrasound Int Open
E J Caterson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Yeon Soo Yeom, Zhao Jun Wang, Thang Tat Nguyen, Han Sung Kim, Chansoo Choi, Min Cheol Han, Chan Hyeong Kim, Jai Ki Lee, Beom Sun Chung, Maria Zankl, Nina Petoussi-Henss, Wesley E Bolch, Choonsik Lee
The reference adult computational phantoms of the international commission on radiological protection (ICRP) described in Publication 110 are voxel-type computational phantoms based on whole-body computed tomography (CT) images of adult male and female patients. The voxel resolutions of these phantoms are in the order of a few millimeters and smaller tissues such as the eye lens, the skin, and the walls of some organs cannot be properly defined in the phantoms, resulting in limitations in dose coefficient calculations for weakly penetrating radiations...
October 7, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Ya-Min Zhang, Rui Shi, Jian-Cun Hou, Zi-Rong Liu, Zi-Lin Cui, Yang Li, Di Wu, Yuan Shi, Zhong-Yang Shen
PURPOSE: Clear delineation between tumors and normal tissues is ideal for real-time surgical navigation imaging. We investigated applying indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging navigation using an intraoperative administration method in liver resection. METHODS: Fifty patients who underwent liver resection were divided into two groups based on clinical situation and operative purpose. In group I, sizes of superficial liver tumors were determined; tiny tumors were identified...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
Xi Wang, Bingjie Chen, Longqian Liu
PURPOSE: To report a patient with cyclic esotropia with a high accommodative convergence to accommodation (AC/A) ratio after surgical correction of intermittent exotropia who was found to have bilateral anomalous medial rectus muscle insertion sites. METHOD: A 5-year-old girl developed intermittent esotropia on alternating days after undergoing bilateral lateral rectus recessions for correction of intermittent exotropia. Alternate prism and cover measurement of ocular alignment and binocular function was assessed on consecutive days...
September 15, 2016: International Ophthalmology
Vladimir Theodor Thaller, Kaveh Vahdani
We promote a simple, reversible temporary tarsorrhaphy technique and describe how to place a 4/0 polypropylene suture, on a round-body needle, into the upper and lower tarsal plate to create a strong suture tarsorrhaphy. This technique has been found to be extremely effective over 20 years' experience with minimal patient discomfort or complications. The eyelid margin anatomy is not disrupted and maintains its normal architecture and contour following release of the tarsorrhaphy. This temporary suture tarsorrhaphy technique is inexpensive, safe and easy to learn and above all comfortable for the patient...
September 6, 2016: Orbit
Martin O Bohlen, Susan Warren, Michael J Mustari, Paul J May
In this study, two points related to the pattern of innervation of the extraocular muscles were explored. 1. Species differences exist in the location of the motoneurons supplying multiply innervated fibers (MIFs) and singly innervated fibers (SIFs) in eye muscles. MIF motoneurons are located outside the extraocular nuclei in primates, but are intermixed with SIF motoneurons within rat extraocular nuclei. To test whether this difference is related to visual capacity and frontal placement of eyes, we injected retrograde tracers into the medial rectus muscle of the cat, a highly visual, non-primate with frontally placed eyes...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Lisandro Negrete, Francisco Brusa
A new species of land planarians of the genus Cratera is described. Cratera viridimaculata sp. n. was recorded in the Atlantic Forest Ecoregion, in north-eastern Argentina, and represents the first report of the genus Cratera outside Brazil. The new species is about 50 mm in length and externally characterized by a color pattern consisting of a light green olive pigmentation on the dorsum, stippled with dark gray fine spots, and dorsal eyes. Other features regarding the internal anatomy are the presence of a glandular margin, Cutaneous Muscular Index (CMI) of 10-13%, pharynx cylindrical, prostatic vesicle extrabulbar, tubular and C-shaped, with a proximal bifurcated portion, penis papilla protrusible with ejaculatory duct widened in its distal portion, and female atrium funnel-shaped...
2016: ZooKeys
James Thomas Patrick Decourcy Hallinan, Premilla Pillay, Lilian Hui Li Koh, Kong Yong Goh, Wai-Yung Yu
Eye globe abnormalities can be readily detected on dedicated and non-dedicated CT and MR studies. A primary understanding of the globe anatomy is key to characterising both traumatic and non-traumatic globe abnormalities. The globe consists of three primary layers: the sclera (outer), uvea (middle), and retina (inner layer). The various pathological processes involving these layers are highlighted using case examples with fundoscopic correlation where appropriate. In the emergent setting, trauma can result in hemorrhage, retinal/choroidal detachment and globe rupture...
September 2016: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
Alex Muntz, Kevin van Doorn, Lakshman N Subbaraman, Lyndon W Jones
Few reports on the cellular anatomy of the lid wiper (LW) area of the inner eyelid exist and only one report makes use of cytological methods. The optimization of a method of collecting, staining and imaging cells from the LW region using impression cytology (IC) is described in this study. Cells are collected from the inner surface of the upper eyelid of human subjects using hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes, and stained with cytological dyes to reveal the presence of goblet cells, mucins, cell nuclei and various degrees of pre- and para-keratinization...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Oscar M Carrasco-Zevallos, Derek Nankivil, Christian Viehland, Brenton Keller, Joseph A Izatt
Volumetric acquisition with anterior segment optical coherence tomography (ASOCT) is necessary to obtain accurate representations of the tissue structure and to account for asymmetries of the anterior eye anatomy. Additionally, recent interest in imaging of anterior segment vasculature and aqueous humor flow resulted in application of OCT angiography techniques to generate en face and 3D micro-vasculature maps of the anterior segment. Unfortunately, ASOCT structural and vasculature imaging systems do not capture volumes instantaneously and are subject to motion artifacts due to involuntary eye motion that may hinder their accuracy and repeatability...
2016: PloS One
Mary Joseph, Hoang M Trinh, Kishore Cholkar, Dhananjay Pal, Ashim K Mitra
INTRODUCTION: Biologics are generally macromolecules, large in size with poor stability in biological environments. Delivery of biologics to tissues at the back of the eye remains a challenge. To overcome these challenges and treat posterior ocular diseases, several novel approaches have been developed. Nanotechnology-based delivery systems, like drug encapsulation technology, macromolecule implants and gene delivery are under investigation. We provide an overview of emerging technologies for biologics delivery to back of the eye tissues...
August 30, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Kwok Thye David Loh, Jun Jin Chua, Hung Ming Lee, Joyce Teng-Ee Lim, Gerard Chuah, Benjamin Yim, Boon Kwang Puah
INTRODUCTION: With the increased use of filler and fat injections for aesthetic purposes, there has been a corresponding increase in the incidence of complications. Vision loss as an uncommon but devastating vascular side effect of filler injections was the focus of this paper. METHODS: A review committee, consisting of plastic surgeons, aesthetic medical practitioners, ophthalmologists and dermatologists from Singapore, was convened by the Society of Aesthetic Medicine (Singapore) to review and recommend methods for the prevention and management of vision loss secondary to filler injections...
August 2016: Singapore Medical Journal
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