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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817239/novel-dissection-of-the-central-nervous-system-to-bridge-gross-anatomy-and-neuroscience-for-an-integrated-medical-curriculum
#1
Rebecca J Hlavac, Rachel Klaus, Kourtney Betts, Shilo M Smith, Maureen E Stabio
Medical schools in the United States continue to undergo curricular change, reorganization, and reformation as more schools transition to an integrated curriculum. Anatomy educators must find novel approaches to teach in a way that will bridge multiple disciplines. The cadaveric extraction of the central nervous system (CNS) provides an opportunity to bridge gross anatomy, neuroanatomy, and clinical neurology. In this dissection, the brain, brainstem, spinal cord, cauda equina, optic nerve/tract, and eyes are removed in one piece so that the entire CNS and its gateway to the periphery through the spinal roots can be appreciated...
August 17, 2017: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808784/the-history-of-optic-chiasm-from-antiquity-to-the-twentieth-century
#2
REVIEW
Claudia Florida Costea, Şerban Turliuc, Cătălin Buzdugă, Andrei Ionuţ Cucu, Gabriela Florenţa Dumitrescu, Anca Sava, Mihaela Dana Turliuc
PURPOSE: The optic chiasm is an essential structure located at the skull base that stirred over time the curiosity of anatomists, who became more and more interested in its structure and function. Through centuries, the optic chiasm was viewed as a vessel crossing, a way of transporting tears secreted by the brain to the eye, integrating images, or responsible for coordinated eye movements. The paper aims to overview the history of understanding the optic chiasm from the beginnings of antiquity to the twentieth century...
August 14, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799757/immobilization-of-growth-factors-to-collagen-surfaces-using-visible-light
#3
Gabriella Maria Fernandes Cunha, Hyun Jong Lee, Alisha Kumar, Alexander Kreymerman, Sarah Christine Heilshorn, David Myung
In the treatment of traumatic injuries, burns, and ulcers of the eye, inadequate epithelial tissue healing remains a major challenge. Wound healing is a complex process involving the temporal and spatial interplay between cells and their extracellular milieu. It can be impaired by a variety of causes including infection, poor circulation, loss of critical cells and/or proteins, and a deficiency in normal neural signaling (e.g. neurotrophic ulcers). Ocular anatomy is particularly vulnerable to lasting morbidity from delayed healing, whether it be scarring or perforation of the cornea, destruction of the conjunctival mucous membrane, or cicatricial changes to the eyelids and surrounding skin...
August 11, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795351/advancements-in-understanding-immunogenicity-of-biotherapeutics-in-the-intraocular-space
#4
Eric Wakshull, Valerie Quarmby, Hanns-Christian Mahler, Hongwen Rivers, Dhananjay Jere, Meg Ramos, Piotr Szczesny, Karoline Bechtold-Peters, Sharmila Masli, Swati Gupta
Therapeutic breakthroughs in a number of retinal degenerative diseases have come about through the development of biotherapeutics administered directly into the eye. As a consequence of their use, we have gained more insight into the immune privileged status of the eye and the various considerations that development, manufacturing, and use of these drugs require. It has been observed that therapeutic proteins injected into the vitreous can elicit an immune response resulting in the production of anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) which can have clinical consequences...
August 9, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794900/structure-versus-function-correlation-between-outer-retinal-and-choroidal-thicknesses-measured-by-swept-source-oct-with-multifocal-electroretinography-and-visual-acuity
#5
Ignacio Flores-Moreno, Luis Arias-Barquet, Marcos J Rubio-Caso, Alex Muñoz-Blanco, María Vidal-Martí, Jaume Catala-Mora, José M Ruiz-Moreno, Jay S Duker, Josep M Caminal
BACKGROUND: To correlate retina-choroidal anatomy as assessed via swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) with retinal function as determined by best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG). METHODS: Thirty-three eyes from 33 patients including 16 with neovascular AMD (nvAMD) and 17 controls were included. Patients were included in the present study after a complete ophthalmologic examination, including BCVA, slit-lamp study, intraocular pressure measurement, dilated fundus examination after tropicamide instillation, SD-OCT, SS-OCT, fundus photographs and mfERG...
2017: International Journal of Retina and Vitreous
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782543/the-active-construction-of-the-visual-world
#6
REVIEW
Thomas Parr, Karl J Friston
What we see is fundamentally dependent on where we look. Despite this seemingly obvious statement, many accounts of the neurobiology underpinning visual perception fail to consider the active nature of how we sample our sensory world. This review offers an overview of the neurobiology of visual perception, which begins with the control of saccadic eye movements. Starting from here, we can follow the anatomy backwards, to try to understand the functional architecture of neuronal networks that support the interrogation of a visual scene...
August 3, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777464/preliminary-experience-using-eye-tracking-technology-to-differentiate-novice-and-expert-image-interpretation-for-ultrasound-guided-regional-anesthesia
#7
Lindsay K Borg, T Kyle Harrison, Alex Kou, Edward R Mariano, Ankeet D Udani, T Edward Kim, Cynthia Shum, Steven K Howard
OBJECTIVES: Objective measures are needed to guide the novice's pathway to expertise. Within and outside medicine, eye tracking has been used for both training and assessment. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that eye tracking may differentiate novices from experts in static image interpretation for ultrasound (US)-guided regional anesthesia. METHODS: We recruited novice anesthesiology residents and regional anesthesiology experts. Participants wore eye-tracking glasses, were shown 5 sonograms of US-guided regional anesthesia, and were asked a series of anatomy-based questions related to each image while their eye movements were recorded...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776594/the-inner-retinal-structures-of-the-eyes-of-children-with-a-history-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#8
Y-S Lee, S H L Chang, S-C Wu, L-C See, S-H Chang, M-L Yang, W-C Wu
PurposeTo investigate the microstructural differences of the inner retina in the peripapillary and macular areas in children with or without retinopathy of prematurity (ROP).MethodsThis prospective cohort study included school-age children with a history of ROP and age-matched healthy, full-term children. The macular ganglion cell complex (mGCC), peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL), refractive status, and ocular biometry were measured. The metrics of the mGCC and associated anatomical changes were the primary outcomes...
August 4, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749895/mechanical-modeling-of-a-keratoconic-cornea
#9
Jean Marc Perone, Jean Baptiste Conart, Pierre-Jean Bertaux, Nicolas Sujet-Perone, Nadia Ouamara, Maxime Sot, Jean Jacques Henry
PURPOSE: We created a laboratory model of a cornea that was subjected to various pressures and thermal and mechanical factors to better understand the genesis of keratoconus deformation. METHODS: A steel base allowed for fixation of circular multilaminated patches of araldite (10 cm in diameter, 5 mm thick) in which the corneal anatomy was modeled. The model was plunged into a steam room (374°F/3 bars of pressure for 1 h) to ensure thermal homogeneity and was subjected to pressure using compressed air...
July 26, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746271/facial-assessment-and-injection-guide-for-botulinum-toxin-and-injectable-hyaluronic-acid-fillers-focus-on-the-upper-face
#10
Maurício de Maio, Arthur Swift, Massimo Signorini, Steven Fagien
Techniques for the administration of injectable fillers and neuromodulators for facial aesthetic rejuvenation and enhancement continue to evolve. As the number of physicians with limited experience in providing aesthetic treatments expands, the need for guidance and training from more experienced injectors has become apparent. The use of a slow, careful, and methodical injection technique is imperative in all treatment settings and for all facial areas. Constant attention to local anatomy, particularly arteries, veins, and nerve bundles, is critical for minimizing complications...
August 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744658/characteristics-of-retinal-vessels-in-surgically-closed-macular-hole-an-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-study
#11
Cheolmin Yun, Jaemoon Ahn, Mingue Kim, Jee Taek Kim, Soon-Young Hwang, Seong-Woo Kim, Jaeryung Oh
PURPOSE: The purpose of our study was to investigate characteristics of retinal vessels in eyes with surgically closed macular holes (MH). METHODS: We included patients who underwent surgery for idiopathic MH and a follow-up examination using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). The area of the foveal avascular zone (FAZ) and retinal vascular densities of the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) and deep capillary plexus (DCP) were calculated on the postoperative OCTA images and compared with those of age-matched normal controls...
July 25, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724812/use-of-glycerol-preserved-corneas-for-corneal-transplants
#12
Neeti Gupta, Prerna Upadhyay
PURPOSE: This study was carried out to see the results of glycerol-preserved cornea (GPC) in emergency situation when fresh corneal tissue was not available. The aim was to study the outcome of corneal transplantation using GPC. METHODS: This was a retrospective study. The medical records of all the patients were reviewed, who underwent keratoplasty using "GPC" during the period from October 2011 to December 2015. The indication of keratoplasty, duration of preservation of the GPC, and its outcome were analyzed...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724810/updates-on-upper-eyelid-blepharoplasty
#13
REVIEW
Kasturi Bhattacharjee, Diva Kant Misra, Nilutparna Deori
The human face is composed of small functional and cosmetic units, of which the eyes and periocular region constitute the main point of focus in routine face-to-face interactions. This dynamic region plays a pivotal role in the expression of mood, emotion, and character, thus making it the most relevant component of the facial esthetic and functional unit. Any change in the periocular unit leads to facial imbalance and functional disharmony, leading both the young and the elderly to seek consultation, thus making blepharoplasty the surgical procedure of choice for both cosmetic and functional amelioration...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710528/-anatomy-and-immunology-of-the-eye
#14
U Pleyer, D Pohlmann
The eye has all the mechanisms necessary for detection and processing (afferent immune reaction) as well as adequate initiation of an (efferent) immune response. Apart from the typical antigen-processing cells, locally present elements (e.g. glial cells and retinal pigment epithelium) can also be involved in the afferent reaction. For the efferent mechanisms a complex regulative system exists, which includes cellular and humoral responses and is essentially determined by surface molecules. In addition, the ocular environment is rich in immunosuppressive molecules that contribute to the regulation of immune cells...
July 14, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706756/impact-of-vital-dyes-on-cell-viability-and-transduction-efficiency-of-aav-vectors-used-in-retinal-gene-therapy-surgery-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-analysis
#15
Anna P Salvetti, Maria I Patrício, Alun R Barnard, Harry O Orlans, Doron G Hickey, Robert E MacLaren
PURPOSE: Treatment of inherited retinal degenerations using adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors involves delivery by subretinal injection. In the latter stages, alteration of normal anatomy may cause difficulty in visualizing the retinotomy, retinal detachment extension, and vector diffusion. Vital dyes may be useful surgical adjuncts, but their safety and impact on AAV transduction are largely unknown. METHODS: The effects of Sodium Fluorescein (SF), Membrane Blue (MB), and Membrane Blue Dual (DB) at a range of dilutions were assessed on human embryonic kidney cells in vitro using an AAV2-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter at different multiplicities of infection...
July 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691238/structure-and-ultrastructure-of-eyes-and-brains-of-thalia-democratica-thaliacea-tunicata-chordata
#16
Katrin Braun, Thomas Stach
Salps are marine planktonic chordates that possess an obligatory alternation of reproductive modes in subsequent generations. Within tunicates, salps represent a derived life cycle and are of interest in considerations of the evolutionary origin of complex anatomical structures and life history strategies. In the present study, the eyes and brains of both the sexual, aggregate blastozooid and the asexual, solitary oozooid stage of Thalia democratica (Forskål, ) were digitally reconstructed in detail based on serial sectioning for light and transmission electron microscopy...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621462/evidence-for-convergent-evolution-of-a-neocortex-like-structure-in-a-late-permian-therapsid
#17
Michael Laaß, Anders Kaestner
The special sensory, motor, and cognitive capabilities of mammals mainly depend upon the neocortex, which is the six-layered cover of the mammalian forebrain. The origin of the neocortex is still controversial and the current view is that larger brains with neocortex first evolved in late Triassic Mammaliaformes. Here, we report the earliest evidence of a structure analogous to the mammalian neocortex in a forerunner of mammals, the fossorial anomodont Kawingasaurus fossilis from the late Permian of Tanzania...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Morphology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619482/correction-of-sunken-upper-eyelid-with-orbital-fat-transposition-flap-and-dermofat-graft
#18
Won Lee, Soon-Beom Kwon, Se-Kwang Oh, Eun-Jung Yang
BACKGROUND: Sunken upper eyelid is a commonly found deformity among Asians, mostly due to the aging process and excessive orbital fat removal during oriental blepharoplasty procedures. This deformity is frequently accompanied by multiple, poorly defined upper eyelid folds and blepharoptosis. To date, autologous fat graft has been the treatment of choice for this group of patients. However, accurate placement of the graft in the orbital fat is quite challenging, and it can result in contour irregularities when injected into the preseptal plane...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614155/the-role-of-the-back-plate-in-angle-anatomy-with-the-boston-type-i-keratoprosthesis
#19
Elise V Taniguchi, Eleftherios I Paschalis, Alja Crnej, Ai Ren, Kathryn A Colby, James Chodosh, Louis R Pasquale, Lucy Q Shen, Claes H Dohlman, Andrea Cruzat
PURPOSE: To quantitatively evaluate the angle anatomy in eyes with the Boston type I keratoprosthesis (B-KPro) differing in the back plate (BP) material and size using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. METHODS: B-KPro eyes with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) (7.0 and 8.5 mm) and titanium (7.0, 8.5, and 9.5 mm) BPs were imaged with anterior segment optical coherence tomography. The angle opening distance at 500 μm from the scleral spur (AOD500), trabecular iris surface area at 500 μm from the scleral spur (TISA500), and trabecular iris angle at 500 μm from the scleral spur (TIA500) were measured...
June 13, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613427/clinical-anatomy-of-the-anterior-chamber-angle-in-congenital-aniridia-and-consequences-for-trabeculotomy-cyclophotocoagulation
#20
Arne Viestenz, Berthold Seitz, Eva Deland, Miltiadis Fiorentzis, Lorenz Latta, Anja Viestenz, Barbara Käsmann-Kellner
INTRODUCTION: Intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering surgery in congenital aniridia glaucoma (CAG) can be complicated by dysgenesis of the limbal region, anterior chamber angle, iris and lens. METHODS: The anterior segments of 23 eyes (17 patients) with congenital aniridia were investigated under general anesthesia using ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM). The structures of the anterior segment were examined: distance of ciliary body processes from the anterior chamber angle and positioning of Schlemm's canal...
June 14, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
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