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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664177/-osler-warned-was-william-osler-a-grave-robber-while-at-mcgill-or-was-he-a-victim-or-perpetrator-of-one-final-practical-joke
#1
James R Wright
Bodysnatching was an illegal way to procure cadavers for anatomical dissection before the existence of effective anatomy legislation. As knowledge of anatomy was fundamental to medical practice, many famous 19th century physicians turned a blind eye to this activity or even participated. Sir William Osler, perhaps the most revered physician of all time, received his medical degree from McGill University in 1872 and then served as pathologist at Montreal General Hospital from 1874 to 1884, where he began a career which culminated in him becoming both the first Professor of Medicine at Johns Hopkins and then Regius Professor at Oxford...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656284/findings-of-optical-coherence-tomography-angiography-in-best-vitelliform-macular-dystrophy
#2
Xiao Na Wang, Qi Sheng You, Qian Li, Yang Li, Yu Mao, Feng Hu, Hui Ying Zhao, Frank F Tsai, Xiao Yan Peng
PURPOSE: To evaluate the vascular anatomy of eyes with Best vitelliform macular dystrophy (BVMD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: This retrospective case-control study enrolled 11 consecutive BVMD patients and 13 age-matched healthy participants. Both eyes of each participant were imaged using a macular OCTA scan (3 × 3 mm) by 70-kHz 840-nm spectral-domain OCT. The flow signal was calculated using the split-spectrum amplitude-decorrelation angiography (SSADA) algorithm...
April 13, 2018: Ophthalmic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652167/computational-phantoms-icrp-icru-and-further-developments
#3
M Zankl, J Becker, C Lee, W E Bolch, Y S Yeom, C H Kim
Phantoms simulating the human body play a central role in radiation dosimetry. The first computational body phantoms were based upon mathematical expressions describing idealised body organs. With the advent of more powerful computers in the 1980s, voxel phantoms have been developed. Being based on three-dimensional images of individuals, they offer a more realistic anatomy. Hence, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) decided to construct voxel phantoms representative of the adult Reference Male and Reference Female for the update of organ dose coefficients...
January 1, 2018: Annals of the ICRP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615868/insect-responses-to-linearly-polarized-reflections-orphan-behaviors-without-neural-circuits
#4
REVIEW
Tanja Heinloth, Juliane Uhlhorn, Mathias F Wernet
The e-vector orientation of linearly polarized light represents an important visual stimulus for many insects. Especially the detection of polarized skylight by many navigating insect species is known to improve their orientation skills. While great progress has been made towards describing both the anatomy and function of neural circuit elements mediating behaviors related to navigation, relatively little is known about how insects perceive non-celestial polarized light stimuli, like reflections off water, leaves, or shiny body surfaces...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603656/guiding-low-spatial-ability-individuals-through-visual-cueing-the-dual-importance-of-where-and-when-to-look
#5
Victoria A Roach, Graham M Fraser, James H Kryklywy, Derek G V Mitchell, Timothy D Wilson
Research suggests that spatial ability may predict success in complex disciplines including anatomy, where mastery requires a firm understanding of the intricate relationships occurring along the course of veins, arteries, and nerves, as they traverse through and around bones, muscles, and organs. Debate exists on the malleability of spatial ability, and some suggest that spatial ability can be enhanced through training. It is hypothesized that spatial ability can be trained in low-performing individuals through visual guidance...
March 30, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588898/low-subfrontal-dural-opening-for-anterior-clinoid-meningioma
#6
Michael R Chicoine
Introduction  A variety of dural openings are described for frontal-temporal and cranio-orbital craniotomies. As with any surgical technique, the goal is to optimally and safely address the pathology, minimize normal anatomy disruption, and optimize postoperative recovery. This study reports a modified dural opening for frontal-temporal approaches which minimizes brain exposure while facilitating visualization for neoplastic and vascular lesions of the anterior clinoid, supra- and parasellar and adjacent regions...
April 2018: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part B, Skull Base
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576957/the-anatomy-of-the-foveola-reinvestigated
#7
Alexander V Tschulakow, Theo Oltrup, Thomas Bende, Sebastian Schmelzle, Ulrich Schraermeyer
Objective: In the foveola of the eye, photoreceptors and Müller cells with a unique morphology have been described, but little is known about their 3D structure and orientation. Considering that there is an angle-dependent change in the foveolar photoreceptor response for the same light beam, known as the Stiles Crawford Effect of the first kind (SCE I), which is still not fully understood, a detailed analysis of the anatomy of the foveolar cells might help to clarify this phenomenon...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576928/interindividual-variations-in-foveal-anatomy-and-artifacts-seen-on-inner-retinal-probability-maps-from-spectral-domain-oct-scans-of-the-macula
#8
Carlos Gustavo De Moraes, Hassan Muhammad, Khushmit Kaur, Diane Wang, Robert Ritch, Donald C Hood
Purpose: We tested the hypothesis that variations in foveal morphology can account for artifacts seen on optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal ganglion cell (RGC) layer probability maps. Methods: A total of 126 healthy subjects were tested with spectral domain (sd) OCT. Thickness and probability maps of the macular RGC plus inner plexiform layer (RGC+) were obtained with customized software. Macular b-scans were analyzed to derive three foveal anatomic parameters: width, depth, and slope...
March 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571543/dysphagia-in-children
#9
Kimberly L Duffy
Speech-Language Pathologists (SLP) play an integral role in evaluating and treating pediatric patients with dysphagia related to aerodigestive disorders. Non-supportive anatomy, cardio-respiratory and medical status, state control, neurologic functioning, postural stability and control, gastrointestinal functioning, hunger and satiation, developmental abilities, oral-motor skills, oral/pharyngeal reflexes, airway protection and secretion management can create barriers to successful oral feeding. Swallowing is broken down into four phases and difficulties can occur during any phase or in combination with another phase of swallowing...
March 2018: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567872/-tentorial-dural-arteriovenous-fistula-presenting-with-ocular-symptoms-a-case-report
#10
Naotsugu Toki, Osamu Masuo, Hiroki Nishibayashi, Rie Yako, Takumi Kawaguchi, Daisuke Izawa, Naoyuki Nakao
Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula(dAVF)is classified as Cognard 4 with a high risk of aggressive feature, such as intracranial hemorrhage, venous infarction, and intracranial hypertension. We report a rare case presenting with ocular symptoms caused by tentorial dAVF. A 59-year-old man presented with progressive chemosis and exophthalmos of his left eye. Angiography showed a tentorial dAVF that was primarily fed by the middle meningeal artery and the meningohypophyseal artery. The AVF drained into the superior ophthalmic vein and the cerebellar cortical vein via an enlarged petrosal vein...
March 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560615/horizontal-extraocular-muscle-and-scleral-anatomy-in-children-a-swept-source-anterior-segment-optical-coherence-tomography-study
#11
Jung Yeob Han, Dong Cheol Lee, Se Youp Lee
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of anterior segment swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) for examining horizontal extraocular muscle thickness, distance from the corneal limbus to the insertion of the horizontal extraocular muscle (limbus to insertion distance), and scleral thickness in Korean pediatric strabismus patients. METHODS: This study included pediatric strabismus patients between 5 and 10 years of age. Children with any ocular disease other than strabismus or a history of ocular surgery were excluded...
March 19, 2018: Korean Journal of Ophthalmology: KJO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545576/age-related-changes-in-eye-brain-and-visuomotor-behavior-in-the-dba-2j-mouse-model-of-chronic-glaucoma
#12
Xiao-Ling Yang, Yolandi van der Merwe, Jeffrey Sims, Carlos Parra, Leon C Ho, Joel S Schuman, Gadi Wollstein, Kira L Lathrop, Kevin C Chan
Although elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) and age are major risk factors for glaucoma, their effects on glaucoma pathogenesis remain unclear. This study examined the onset and progression of glaucomatous changes to ocular anatomy and physiology, structural and physiological brain integrity, and visuomotor behavior in the DBA/2J mice via non-invasive tonometry, multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and optokinetic assessments from 5 to 12 months of age. Using T2-weighted MRI, diffusion tensor MRI, and manganese-enhanced MRI, increasing IOP elevation at 9 and 12 months old coincided with anterior chamber deepening, altered fractional anisotropy and radial diffusivity of the optic nerve and optic tract, as well as reduced anterograde manganese transport along the visual pathway respectively in the DBA/2J mice...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545509/self-organization-and-progenitor-targeting-generate-stable-patterns-in-planarian-regeneration
#13
Kutay Deniz Atabay, Samuel A LoCascio, Thom de Hoog, Peter W Reddien
During animal regeneration cells must organize into discrete and functional systems. We show that self-organization, along with patterning cues, govern progenitor behavior in planarian regeneration. Surgical paradigms allowed manipulation of planarian eye regeneration in predictable locations and numbers, generating alternative stable neuroanatomical states for wild-type animals with multiple functional ectopic eyes. We utilized animals with multiple ectopic eyes and eye transplantation to demonstrate that broad progenitor specification, combined with self-organization, allows anatomy maintenance during regeneration...
March 15, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545195/the-suprachoroidal-space-as-a-route-of-administration-to-the-posterior-segment-of-the-eye
#14
Bryce Chiang, Jaehwan Jung, Mark Prausnitz
The suprachoroidal space (SCS) is a potential space between the sclera and choroid that traverses the circumference of the posterior segment of the eye. The SCS is an attractive site for drug delivery because it targets the choroid, retinal pigment epithelium and retina with high bioavailability, while maintaining low levels elsewhere in the eye. Indeed, phase III clinical trials are investigating the safety and efficacy of SCS drug delivery. Here, we review the anatomy and physiology of the SCS; methods to access the SCS; kinetics of SCS drug delivery; strategies to target within the SCS; current and potential clinical indications; and the safety and efficacy of this approach in preclinical animal studies and clinical trials...
March 12, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544779/slam-based-dense-surface-reconstruction-in-monocular-minimally-invasive-surgery-and-its-application-to-augmented-reality
#15
Long Chen, Wen Tang, Nigel W John, Tao Ruan Wan, Jian Jun Zhang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: While Minimally Invasive Surgery (MIS) offers considerable benefits to patients, it also imposes big challenges on a surgeon's performance due to well-known issues and restrictions associated with the field of view (FOV), hand-eye misalignment and disorientation, as well as the lack of stereoscopic depth perception in monocular endoscopy. Augmented Reality (AR) technology can help to overcome these limitations by augmenting the real scene with annotations, labels, tumour measurements or even a 3D reconstruction of anatomy structures at the target surgical locations...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516160/-capsule-rupture-and-vitrectomy-during-phacoemulsification
#16
S Lotfipour, S Kohnen
BACKGROUND: Rupture of the posterior capsule can occur as one of the complications during phacoemulsification. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether the risk of capsule rupture depends on the surgeon's concentration or experience, time of day and season, the side to be operated on and anatomy of the eye as well as the frequency with which it can be expected. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The patient collective was derived from patients who underwent cataract surgery by phacoemulsification between 2004 and 2014...
March 7, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508057/late-onset-hydrocephalus-in-a-child-with-joubert-syndrome-a-case-report
#17
M K Fehrenbach, U Nestler, J Meixensberger, M K Bernhard, A Merkenschlager, S Weise, M Krause
INTRODUCTION: The ciliopathy "Joubert syndrome" was first described in 1969 by Dr. Marie Joubert and most subtypes follow an autosomal recessive inheritance. The complex disorder shows typical clinical features, such as hyperventilation, abnormal eye movements, and retardation. A pathognomonic midbrain-hindbrain malformation, the molar tooth sign, can be found on magnetic resonance imaging of the brainstem. There are a little more than 200 reports of Joubert syndrome in the literature...
March 5, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507782/eyes-and-stroke-the-visual-aspects-of-cerebrovascular-disease
#18
REVIEW
John H Pula, Carlen A Yuen
A large portion of the central nervous system is dedicated to vision and therefore strokes have a high likelihood of involving vision in some way. Vision loss can be the most disabling residual effect after a cerebral infarction. Transient vision problems can likewise be a harbinger of stroke and prompt evaluation after recognition of visual symptoms can prevent future vascular injury. In this review, we discuss the visual aspects of stroke. First, anatomy and the vascular supply of the visual system are considered...
December 2017: Stroke and Vascular Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505466/measurement-of-medial-wall-bowing-and-clinical-associations-in-thyroid-eye-disease
#19
Christine L Bokman, Shoaib Ugradar, Daniel B Rootman
PURPOSE: To propose and validate a measure of medial wall bowing in thyroid eye disease (TED) and to assess the clinical correlates of bowing in TED. METHODS: In this cross-sectional cohort study, all patients affected with TED seen by a single specialist over a 2-year period were screened for study entry. Eligible participants were adults with clinical evidence of TED and either CT or MRI of the orbits. Exclusion criteria included prior history of decompression surgery and/or medical or other ophthalmic conditions that could alter the orbital anatomy...
March 2, 2018: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499436/fully-automated-alignment-of-3d-fetal-brain-ultrasound-to-a-canonical-reference-space-using-multi-task-learning
#20
Ana I L Namburete, Weidi Xie, Mohammad Yaqub, Andrew Zisserman, J Alison Noble
Methods for aligning 3D fetal neurosonography images must be robust to (i) intensity variations, (ii) anatomical and age-specific differences within the fetal population, and (iii) the variations in fetal position. To this end, we propose a multi-task fully convolutional neural network (FCN) architecture to address the problem of 3D fetal brain localization, structural segmentation, and alignment to a referential coordinate system. Instead of treating these tasks as independent problems, we optimize the network by simultaneously learning features shared within the input data pertaining to the correlated tasks, and later branching out into task-specific output streams...
February 21, 2018: Medical Image Analysis
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