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Histidine kinase

Gregory A DeIulio, Li Guo, Yong Zhang, Jonathan M Goldberg, H Corby Kistler, Li-Jun Ma
The Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) is a group of soilborne pathogens causing severe disease in more than 100 plant hosts, while individual strains exhibit strong host specificity. Both chromosome transfer and comparative genomics experiments have demonstrated that lineage-specific (LS) chromosomes contribute to the host-specific pathogenicity. However, little is known about the functional importance of genes encoded in these LS chromosomes. Focusing on signaling transduction, this study compared the kinomes of 12 F...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Fernando Santos-Beneit
BACKGROUND: Glycopeptide antibiotics inhibit bacterial cell-wall synthesis, and are important for the treatment of infections caused by multi drug-resistant strains of enterococci, streptococci and staphylococci. The main mechanism by which bacteria resist the action of glycopeptides is by producing a modified cell-wall in which the dipeptide D-Alanine-D-Alanine is substituted by D-Alanine-D-Lactate or D-Alanine-D-Serine. Recently, it has been shown that inorganic phosphate (Pi) induces hypersensitivity to vancomycin in Streptomyces coelicolor (which is highly resistant to the antibiotic in low-Pi media)...
June 14, 2018: BMC Genomics
Erin Wall, Nadim Majdalani, Susan Gottesman
RcsB, a response regulator of the FixJ/NarL family, is at the center of a complex network of regulatory inputs and outputs. Cell surface stress is sensed by an outer membrane lipoprotein, RcsF, which regulates interactions of the inner membrane protein IgaA, lifting negative regulation of a phosphorelay. In vivo evidence supports a pathway in which histidine kinase RcsC transfers phosphate to phosphotransfer protein RcsD, resulting in phosphorylation of RcsB. RcsB acts either alone or in combination with RcsA to positively regulate capsule synthesis and synthesis of small RNA (sRNA) RprA as well as other genes, and to negatively regulate motility...
June 13, 2018: Annual Review of Microbiology
Brad J Schmier, Stewart Shuman
5' and 3' end-healing are key steps in nucleic acid break repair in which 5'-OH and 3'-PO4 or 2',3'-cyclic-PO4 ends are converted to 5'-PO4 and 3'-OH termini suitable for sealing by polynucleotide ligases. Here we characterize Deinococcus radiodurans HD-Pnk as a bifunctional end-healing enzyme composed of N-terminal HD (histidine-aspartate) phosphoesterase and C-terminal P-loop polynucleotide kinase (Pnk) domains. HD-Pnk phosphorylates 5'-OH DNA in the presence of ATP and magnesium. HD-Pnk has 3'-phosphatase and 2',3'-cyclic-phosphodiesterase activity in the presence of transition metals, optimally cobalt or copper, and catalyzes copper-dependent hydrolysis of p -nitrophenylphosphate...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Kumari S Choudhary, Nathan Mih, Jonathan Monk, Erol Kavvas, James T Yurkovich, George Sakoulas, Bernhard O Palsson
Two-component systems (TCSs) consist of a histidine kinase and a response regulator. Here, we evaluated the conservation of the AgrAC TCS among 149 completely sequenced Staphylococcus aureus strains. It is composed of four genes: agrBDCA . We found that: (i) AgrAC system ( agr ) was found in all but one of the 149 strains, (ii) the agr positive strains were further classified into four agr types based on AgrD protein sequences, (iii) the four agr types not only specified the chromosomal arrangement of the agr genes but also the sequence divergence of AgrC histidine kinase protein, which confers signal specificity, (iv) the sequence divergence was reflected in distinct structural properties especially in the transmembrane region and second extracellular binding domain, and (v) there was a strong correlation between the agr type and the virulence genomic profile of the organism...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Germán E Piñas, Nicolás M Reinoso-Vizcaino, Nubia Y Yandar Barahona, Paulo R Cortes, Rosario Duran, Chandan Badapanda, Ankita Rathore, Dario R Bichara, Melina B Cian, Nadia B Olivero, Daniel R Perez, José Echenique
Streptococcus pneumoniae is an opportunistic human bacterial pathogen that usually colonizes the upper respiratory tract, but the invasion and survival mechanism in respiratory epithelial cells remains elusive. Previously, we described that acidic stress-induced lysis (ASIL) and intracellular survival are controlled by ComE through a yet unknown activation mechanism under acidic conditions, which is independent of the ComD histidine kinase that activates this response regulator for competence development at pH 7...
June 8, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Clement M Potel, Domenico Fasci, Albert J R Heck
Nm23/NME was identified 30 years ago as the first metastatic gene suppressor family. Despite extensive studies, the mechanism of action behind the observed anti-metastatic potential of Nm23 has remained largely unresolved. Human Nm23 is present in various isoforms, of which Nm23-H1 and Nm23-H2 are by far the most dominant. Both isoforms are multi-functional enzymes involved in important cellular processes, through their nucleic acid binding ability, their protein-protein interactions and/or their histidine kinase activity...
June 4, 2018: FEBS Journal
Pilar Sánchez-Blázquez, Elsa Cortés-Montero, María Rodríguez-Muñoz, Javier Garzón
Background: Several currently available animal models reproduce select behavioral facets of human mania as well as the abnormal glutamatergic neurotransmission and dysregulation of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) that accompanies this disease. Methods: In this study, we addressed the therapeutic potential of ligands of sigma receptor type 1 (σ1R) in two putative models of mania: the "manic" Black Swiss outbred mice from Taconic farms (BStac) and mice with the 129 genetic background and histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) deletion (HINT1-/- mice) that exhibit bipolar-like behaviors...
May 31, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Huasong Lu, Dan Yu, Anders S Hansen, Sourav Ganguly, Rongdiao Liu, Alec Heckert, Xavier Darzacq, Qiang Zhou
Hyperphosphorylation of the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the RPB1 subunit of human RNA polymerase (Pol) II is essential for transcriptional elongation and mRNA processing1-3 . The CTD contains 52 heptapeptide repeats of the consensus sequence YSPTSPS. The highly repetitive nature and abundant possible phosphorylation sites of the CTD exert special constraints on the kinases that catalyse its hyperphosphorylation. Positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb)-which consists of CDK9 and cyclin T1-is known to hyperphosphorylate the CTD and negative elongation factors to stimulate Pol II elongation1,4,5 ...
May 30, 2018: Nature
Jozef Dingemans, Bandita Poudyal, Holger Sondermann, Karin Sauer
The formation of inherently drug-tolerant biofilms by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires the sensor-regulator hybrid SagS, with Δ sagS biofilms being unstructured and exhibiting increased antimicrobial susceptibility. Recent findings indicated SagS to function as a switch to control biofilm formation and drug tolerance independently. Moreover, findings suggested the periplasmic sensory HmsP domain of SagS is likely to be the control point in the regulation of biofilm formation and biofilm cells transitioning to a drug-tolerant state...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Marta Gallego, Leticia Mora, Fidel Toldrá
Oxidative modifications of proteins and peptides can negatively affect nutritional, sensory and quality characteristics of dry-cured hams. The aim of this study was to use a peptidomics strategy for the identification and relative quantification of oxidised peptides in two different muscles, the external Semimembranosus (SM) and the internal Biceps femoris (BF), from dry-cured hams of 12 months of curing. The analysis by nanoliquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry identified peptides showing oxidation at different amino acid residues such as methionine, cysteine, histidine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine...
July 2018: Food Research International
Sergey N Lomin, Yulia A Myakushina, Oksana O Kolachevskaya, Irina A Getman, Dmitry V Arkhipov, Ekaterina M Savelieva, Dmitry I Osolodkin, Georgy A Romanov
Potato is the most economically important non-cereal food crop. Tuber formation in potato is regulated by phytohormones, cytokinins (CKs) in particular. The present work was aimed to study CK signal perception in potato. The sequenced potato genome of doubled monoploid Phureja was used for bioinformatic analysis and as a tool for identification of putative CK receptors from autotetraploid potato cv. Désirée. All basic elements of multistep phosphorelay (MSP) required for CK signal transduction were identified in Phureja genome, including three genes orthologous to three CK receptor genes (AHK 2-4) of Arabidopsis...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
C Lori, A Kaczmarczyk, I de Jong, U Jenal
The alphaproteobacterial general stress response is governed by a conserved partner-switching mechanism that is triggered by phosphorylation of the response regulator PhyR. In the model organism Caulobacter crescentus , PhyR was proposed to be phosphorylated by the histidine kinase PhyK, but biochemical evidence in support of such a role of PhyK is missing. Here, we identify a single-domain response regulator, MrrA, that is essential for general stress response activation in C. crescentus We demonstrate that PhyK does not function as a kinase but accepts phosphoryl groups from MrrA and passes them on to PhyR, adopting the role of a histidine phosphotransferase...
May 22, 2018: MBio
Manasi P Bhate, Thomas Lemmin, Georg Kuenze, Bruk Mensa, Soumya Ganguly, Jason Peters, Nathan Schmidt, Jeffrey G Pelton, Carol Gross, Jens Meiler, William F DeGrado
NsaS is one of four intramembrane histidine kinases (HKs) in Staphylococcus aureus that mediate the pathogen's response to membrane active antimicrobials and human innate immunity. We describe the first integrative structural study of NsaS using a combination of solution state NMR spectroscopy, chemical-crosslinking, molecular modeling and dynamics. Three key structural features emerge: First, NsaS has a short N-terminal amphiphilic helix that anchors its transmembrane (TM) bundle into the inner leaflet of the membrane such that it might sense neighboring proteins or membrane deformations...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Gaurav D Sankhe, Narendra M Dixit, Deepak K Saini
Two-component signaling systems (TCSs) are central to bacterial adaptation. However, the mechanisms underlying the reactions involving TCS proteins and their reaction rates are largely undetermined. Here, we employed a combined experimental and theoretical approach to elucidate the kinetics of autophosphorylation of three histidine kinases (HKs) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , viz. , MtrB, PrrB, and PhoR, all known to play a role in regulating its virulence. Using wild-type and mutant proteins, we performed dimerization assays, thermophoretic-affinity measurements, and competition-based phosphorylation assays to establish that for HK, MtrB autophosphorylation occurs in cis , similar to what has been proposed for the PhoR and PrrB HKs...
June 27, 2018: MSphere
Matthew A Szaniawski, Adam M Spivak, James E Cox, Jonathan L Catrow, Timothy Hanley, Elizabeth S C P Williams, Michel J Tremblay, Alberto Bosque, Vicente Planelles
Macrophages are susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection despite abundant expression of antiviral proteins. Perhaps the most important antiviral protein is the restriction factor sterile alpha motif domain and histidine/aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1). We investigated the role of SAMHD1 and its phospho-dependent regulation in the context of HIV-1 infection in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages and the ability of various interferons (IFNs) and pharmacologic agents to modulate SAMHD1...
May 15, 2018: MBio
Raid Al Akeel, Ayesha Mateen, Rabbani Syed, Mohammed S Al-Qahtani, A Alqahtani
BACKGROUND: Due to growing concern towards microbial resistance, ongoing search for developing novel bioactive compounds such as peptides is on rise. The aim of this study was to evaluate antimicrobial effect of Populus trichocarpa extract, chemically identify the active peptide fraction and finds its target in Staphylococcus aureus. METHODS: In this study the active fraction of P. trichocarpa crude extract was purified and characterized using MS/MS. This peptide PT13 antimicrobial activity was confirmed by in-vitro agar based disk diffusion and in-vivo infection model of G...
May 11, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Charles W Hespen, Joel J Bruegger, Yirui Guo, Michael A Marletta
Heme nitric oxide/oxygen sensing (H-NOX) domains are direct NO sensors that regulate a variety of biological functions in both bacteria and eukaryotes. Previous work on H-NOX proteins has shown that upon NO binding, a conformational change occurs along two glycine residues on adjacent helices (termed the glycine hinge). Despite the apparent importance of the glycine hinge, it is not fully conserved in all H-NOX domains. Several H-NOX sensors from the family Flavobacteriaceae contain a native alanine substitution in one of the hinge residues...
May 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Meng Yuan, Iain W McNae, Yiyuan Chen, Elizabeth A Blackburn, Martin A Wear, Paul A M Michels, Linda A Fothergill-Gilmore, Ted Hupp, Malcolm D Walkinshaw
We have tested the effect of all 20 proteinogenic amino acids on the activity of the M2 isoenzyme of pyruvate kinase (M2PYK) and show that within physiologically relevant concentrations, phenylalanine, alanine, tryptophan, methionine, valine, and proline act as inhibitors while histidine and serine act as activators. Size exclusion chromatography has been used to show that all amino acids, whether activators or inhibitors, stabilise the tetrameric form of M2PYK. In the absence of amino-acid ligands an apparent tetramer-monomer dissociation K d is estimated to be ~0...
May 10, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Gopala Krishna Mannala, Julian Koettnitz, Walid Mohamed, Ursula Sommer, Katrin Susanne Lips, Cathrin Spröer, Boyke Bunk, Jörg Overmann, Torsten Hain, Christian Heiss, Eugen Domann, Volker Alt
Staphylococcus aureus can cause wide range of infections from simple soft skin infections to severe endocarditis, bacteremia, osteomyelitis and implant associated bone infections (IABI). The focus of the present investigation was to study virulence properties of S. aureus isolates from acute and chronic IABI by means of their in vivo lethality, in vitro osteoblasts invasion, biofilm formation and subsequently whole genome comparison between high and low virulent strains. Application of insect infection model Galleria mellonella revealed high, intermediate and low virulence phenotypes of these clinical isolates, which showed good correlation with osteoblast invasion and biofilm formation assays...
April 25, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
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