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Histidine kinase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647331/combination-of-histidine-lysine-methionine-and-leucine-promotes-%C3%AE-casein-synthesis-via-the-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-signaling-pathway-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#1
H N Gao, S G Zhao, N Zheng, Y D Zhang, S S Wang, X Q Zhou, J Q Wang
The ratio of different AA in the diets of cows is vital to improve milk protein yield. β-Casein is one of the important milk proteins with high nutritive value. However, the suitable ratio of essential amino acids (EAA) for the expression of β-casein in the immortalized bovine mammary epithelial cell line is not fully characterized. This study employed response surface methodology to determine the optimal ratio of His, Lys, Met, and Leu on β-casein expression level in vitro and clarified the effect of the 4 EAA on β-casein via the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642776/regulation-involved-in-colonization-of-intercellular-spaces-of-host-plants-in-ralstonia-solanacearum
#2
REVIEW
Yasufumi Hikichi, Yuka Mori, Shiho Ishikawa, Kazusa Hayashi, Kouhei Ohnishi, Akinori Kiba, Kenji Kai
A soil-borne bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum invading plant roots first colonizes the intercellular spaces of the root, and eventually enters xylem vessels, where it replicates at high levels leading to wilting symptoms. After invasion into intercellular spaces, R. solanacearum strain OE1-1 attaches to host cells and expression of the hrp genes encoding components of the type III secretion system (T3SS). OE1-1 then constructs T3SS and secrets effectors into host cells, inducing expression of the host gene encoding phosphatidic acid phosphatase...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634232/the-phosphocarrier-protein-hpr-of-the-bacterial-phosphotransferase-system-globally-regulates-energy-metabolism-by-directly-interacting-with-multiple-enzymes-in-escherichia-coli
#3
Irina A Rodionova, Zhongge Zhang, Jitender Mehla, Norman Goodacre, Mohan Babu, Andrew Emili, Peter Uetz, Milton H Saier
The histidine-phosphorylatable phosphocarrier protein HPr, is an essential component of the sugar-transporting phosphotransferase system (PTS) in many bacteria. Recent interactome findings suggested that HPr interacts with several carbohydrate-metabolizing enzymes, but whether HPr plays a regulatory role was unclear. Here, we provide evidence that HPr interacts with a large number of proteins in Escherichia coli. We demonstrate HPr-dependent allosteric regulation of the activities of pyruvate kinase (PykF, but not PykA), phosphofructokinase (PfkB, but not PfkA), glucosamine 6-phosphate deaminase (NagB) and adenylate kinase (Adk)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633292/ahp2-ahp3-and-ahp5-act-downstream-of-cki1-in-arabidopsis-female-gametophyte-development
#4
Zhenning Liu, Li Yuan, Xiaoya Song, Xiaolin Yu, Venkatesan Sundaresan
Histidine phosphotransfer proteins (HPs) are key elements of the two-component signaling system, which act as a shuttle to transfer phosphorylation signals from histidine kinases (HKs) to response regulators (RRs). CYTOKININ INDEPENDENT 1 (CKI1), a key regulator of central cell specification in the Arabidopsis female gametophyte, activates the cytokinin signaling pathway through the Arabidopsis histidine phosphotransfer proteins (AHPs). There are five HP genes in Arabidopsis, AHP1-AHP5, but it remains unknown which AHP genes act downstream of CKI1 in Arabidopsis female gametophyte development...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630129/the-polar-organizing-protein-popz-is-required-for-chromosome-segregation-in-agrobacterium-tumefaciens
#5
Haley M Ehrle, Jacob T Guidry, Rebecca Iacovetto, Anne K Salisbury, D J Sandidge, Grant Bowman
Despite being perceived as relatively simple organisms, many bacteria exhibit an impressive degree of sub-cellular organization. In Caulobacter crescentus, the evolutionarily conserved polar organizing protein PopZ facilitates cytoplasmic organization by recruiting chromosome centromeres and regulatory proteins to the cell poles. Here, we characterize the localization and function of PopZ in Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a genetically related species with distinct anatomy. In this species, we find that PopZ molecules are relocated from the old pole to the new pole in the minutes following cell division...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607158/the-two-component-signal-transduction-system-vxrab-positively-regulates-vibrio-cholerae-biofilm-formation
#6
Jennifer K Teschler, Andrew T Cheng, Fitnat H Yildiz
Two-component signal transduction systems (TCSs), typically composed of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR), are the primary mechanism by which pathogenic bacteria sense and respond to extracellular signals. The pathogenic bacterium Vibrio cholerae is no exception and encodes for 52 RR genes. Using in frame deletion mutants of each RR gene, we performed a systematic analysis of their role in V. cholerae biofilm formation. We determined that 7 RRs impacted expression of an essential biofilm gene and found that the recently characterized RR, VxrB, regulates expression of key structural and regulatory biofilm-genes in V...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605194/discovery-of-two-bacterial-nitric-oxide-responsive-proteins-and-their-roles-in-bacterial-biofilm-regulation
#7
Sajjad Hossain, Lisa-Marie Nisbett, Elizabeth M Boon
Bacterial biofilms form when bacteria adhere to a surface and produce an exopolysaccharide matrix ( Costerton Science 1999 , 284 , 1318 ; Davies Science 1998 , 280 , 295 ; Flemming Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2010 , 8 , 623 ). Because biofilms are resistant to antibiotics, they are problematic in many aspects of human health and welfare, causing, for instance, persistent fouling of medical implants such as catheters and artificial joints ( Brunetto Chimia 2008 , 62 , 249 ). They are responsible for chronic infections in the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients and in open wounds, such as those associated with burns and diabetes...
June 12, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602714/functional-analysis-of-bas2108-2109-two-component-system-evidence-for-protease-regulation-in-bacillus-anthracis
#8
Vatika Gupta, Neha Chaudhary, Somya Aggarwal, Nidhi Adlakha, Pooja Gulati, Rakesh Bhatnagar
BACKGROUND: Bacillus anthracis (BA) is a major bioterrorism concern which has evolved complex regulatory mechanisms for its virulence factors. Secreted proteases play an imperative role in the pathogenesis of BA, however their regulation remains elusive. Two component systems (TCS) are often employed by bacteria to sense and adapt to the environmental perturbations. In several pathogens, TCS are commonly associated with the regulation of virulence factors including proteases. The genome of BA encodes 41 TCS pairs, however, the role of any TCS in regulation of its proteases is not known...
June 6, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583948/lysinibacillus-fusiformis-m5-induces-increased-complexity-in-bacillus-subtilis-168-colony-biofilms-via-hypoxanthine
#9
Ramses Gallegos-Monterrosa, Stefanie Kankel, Sebastian Götze, Robert Barnett, Pierre Stallforth, Ákos T Kovács
In recent years, biofilms have become a central subject of research in the fields of microbiology, medicine, agriculture, or systems biology amongst others. The sociomicrobiology of multispecies biofilms, however, is still poorly understood. Here, we report a screening system that allowed us to identify soil bacteria, which induce architectural changes in biofilm colonies when cocultured with B. subtilis We identified the soil bacterium Lysinibacillus fusiformis M5 as inducer of wrinkle-formation in B. subtilis colonies mediated by a diffusible signaling molecule...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580356/fungal-histidine-phosphotransferase-plays-a-crucial-role-in-photomorphogenesis-and-pathogenesis-in-magnaporthe-oryzae
#10
Varsha C Mohanan, Pinal M Chandarana, Bharat B Chattoo, Rajesh N Patkar, Johannes Manjrekar
Two-component signal transduction (TCST) pathways play crucial roles in many cellular functions such as stress responses, biofilm formation, and sporulation. The histidine phosphotransferase (HPt), which is an intermediate phosphotransfer protein in a two-component system, transfers a phosphate group to a phosphorylatable aspartate residue in the target protein(s), and up-regulates stress-activated MAP kinase cascades. Most fungal genomes carry a single copy of the gene coding for HPt, which are potential antifungal targets...
2017: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577341/the-malate-sensing-two-component-system-maekr-is-a-non-canonical-class-of-sensory-complex-for-c4-dicarboxylates
#11
L Miguel-Romero, P Casino, J M Landete, V Monedero, M Zúñiga, A Marina
Microbial colonization of different environments is enabled to a great extent by the plasticity of their sensory mechanisms, among them, the two-component signal transduction systems (TCS). Here, an example of TCS plasticity is presented: the regulation of L-malate catabolism via malic enzyme by MaeRK in Lactobacillales. MaeKR belongs to the citrate family of TCS as the Escherichia coli DcuSR system. We show that the Lactobacillus casei histidine-kinase MaeK is defective in autophosphorylation activity as it lacks a functional catalytic and ATP binding domain...
June 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552574/structural-coupling-between-autokinase-and-phosphotransferase-reactions-in-a-bacterial-histidine-kinase
#12
Ariel E Mechaly, Silvia Soto Diaz, Nathalie Sassoon, Alejandro Buschiazzo, Jean-Michel Betton, Pedro M Alzari
Bacterial two-component systems consist of a sensor histidine kinase (HK) and a response regulator (RR). HKs are homodimers that catalyze the autophosphorylation of a histidine residue and the subsequent phosphoryl transfer to its RR partner, triggering an adaptive response. How the HK autokinase and phosphotransferase activities are coordinated remains unclear. Here, we report X-ray structures of the prototypical HK CpxA trapped as a hemi-phosphorylated dimer, and of the receiver domain from the RR partner, CpxR...
June 6, 2017: Structure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551817/discovery-of-novel-inhibitors-for-leishmania-nucleoside-diphosphatase-kinase-ndk-based-on-its-structural-and-functional-characterization
#13
Arjun K Mishra, Nidhi Singh, Pragati Agnihotri, Shikha Mishra, Saurabh P Singh, Bala K Kolli, Kwang Poo Chang, Amogh A Sahasrabuddhe, M I Siddiqi, J Venkatesh Pratap
Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDKs) are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the transfer of the γ-phosphate moiety from an NTP donor to an NDP acceptor, crucial for maintaining the cellular level of nucleoside triphosphates (NTPs). The inability of trypanosomatids to synthesize purines de novo and their dependence on the salvage pathway makes NDK an attractive target to develop drugs for the diseases they cause. Here we report the discovery of novel inhibitors for Leishmania NDK based on the structural and functional characterization of purified recombinant NDK from Leishmania amazonensis...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Computer-aided Molecular Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545064/transcriptomic-analysis-of-the-response-of-pseudomonas-fluorescens-to-epigallocatechin-gallate-by-rna-seq
#14
Xiaoxiang Liu, Bimiao Shen, Peng Du, Nan Wang, Jiaxue Wang, Jianrong Li, Aihua Sun
Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a main constituent of green tea polyphenols that are widely used as food preservatives and are considered to be safe for consumption. However, the underlying antimicrobial mechanism of EGCG and the bacterial response to EGCG are not clearly understood. In the present study, a genome-wide transcriptional analysis of a typical spoilage bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens that responded to EGCG was performed using RNA-seq technology. A total of 26,365,414 and 23,287,092 clean reads were generated from P...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544098/crystal-structure-of-the-sensor-domain-of-baes-from-serratia-marcescens-fs14
#15
Ya Zhang, Shenshen Qiu, Shanshan Jia, Dongqing Xu, Tingting Ran, Weiwu Wang
The sensor histidine kinases of two-component signal-transduction systems (TCSs) are essential for bacteria to adapt to variable environmental conditions. The two-component regulatory system BaeS/R increases multidrug and metal resistance in Salmonella and Escherichia coli. In this study, we report the X-ray structure of the periplasmic sensor domain of BaeS from Serratia marcescens FS14. The BaeS sensor domain (34-160) adopts a mixed α/β-fold containing a central four-stranded antiparallel β-sheet flanked by a long N-terminal α-helix and additional loops and a short C-terminal α-helix on each side...
May 24, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542616/regulation-of-acetyl-coa-synthetase-transcription-by-the-crbs-r-two-component-system-is-conserved-in-genetically-diverse-environmental-pathogens
#16
Kristin Jacob, Anna Rasmussen, Paul Tyler, Mariah M Servos, Mariame Sylla, Cecilia Prado, Elizabeth Daniele, Josh S Sharp, Alexandra E Purdy
The CrbS/R two-component signal transduction system is a conserved regulatory mechanism through which specific Gram-negative bacteria control acetate flux into primary metabolic pathways. CrbS/R governs expression of acetyl-CoA synthase (acsA), an enzyme that converts acetate to acetyl-CoA, a metabolite at the nexus of the cell's most important energy-harvesting and biosynthetic reactions. During infection, bacteria can utilize this system to hijack host acetate metabolism and alter the course of colonization and pathogenesis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533471/the-atypical-response-regulator-atvr-is-a-new-player-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-response-to-hypoxia-and-virulence
#17
Gilberto Hideo Kaihami, Leandro Carvalho Dantas Breda, José Roberto Fogaça de Almeida, Thays de Oliveira Pereira, Gianlucca Gonçalves Nicastro, Ana Laura Boechat, Sandro Rogério de Almeida, Regina Lúcia Baldini
Two-component systems are widespread in bacteria, allowing adaptation to environmental changes. The classical pathway is composed by a histidine kinase that phosphorylates an aspartate residue in the cognate response regulator (RR). RRs lacking the phosphorylable aspartate also occur, but their function and contribution during host-pathogen interaction are poorly characterized. AtvR (PA14_26570) is the only atypical response regulator with a DNA-binding domain in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa Macrophage infection with the atvR mutant strain resulted in higher TNF-α secretion as well as increased bacterial clearance as compared to macrophages infected with the wild-type strain...
May 22, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533218/involvement-of-two-component-signaling-in-bacterial-motility-and-biofilm-development
#18
Birgit M Prüβ
Two-component signaling is a specialized mechanism that bacteria use to respond to changes in their environment. Non-pathogenic strains of E. coli K-12 harbor 30 histidine kinases and 32 response regulators, which form a network of regulation that integrates many other global regulators that do not follow the two-component signaling mechanism, as well as signals from central metabolism. The output of this network is a multitude of phenotypic changes in response to changes in the environment. Among these phenotypic changes, many two-component systems control motility and/or the formation of biofilm, sessile communities of bacteria that form on surfaces...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527583/molecular-characterization-of-aspergillus-fumigatus-tcsc-a-characteristic-type-iii-hybrid-histidine-kinase-of-filamentous-fungi-harboring-six-hamp-domains
#19
Anja Spadinger, Frank Ebel
The type III hybrid histidine kinase (HHK) TcsC enables the pathogenic mold Aspergillus fumigatus to thrive under hyperosmotic conditions. It is, moreover, of particular interest, since it is the target of certain antifungal agents, such as fludioxonil. This study was aimed at a functional characterization of the domains that constitute the sensing and the kinase module of TcsC. The sensing module consists of six HAMP domains, an architecture that is commonly found in type III HHKs of filamentous fungi. To dissect the functional role of the individual domains, we have analyzed a set of truncated derivatives of TcsC with respect to their impact on fungal growth and their ability to respond to hyperosmotic stress and fludioxonil...
June 2017: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522691/mechanism-of-transmembrane-signaling-by-sensor-histidine-kinases
#20
Ivan Gushchin, Igor Melnikov, Vitaly Polovinkin, Andrii Ishchenko, Anastasia Yuzhakova, Pavel Buslaev, Gleb Bourenkov, Sergei Grudinin, Ekaterina Round, Taras Balandin, Valentin Borshchevskiy, Dieter Willbold, Gordon Leonard, Georg Büldt, Alexander Popov, Valentin Gordeliy
One of the major and essential classes of transmembrane (TM) receptors, present in all domains of life, is sensor histidine kinases (HKs), parts of two-component signaling systems (TCS). The structural mechanisms of transmembrane signaling by these sensors are poorly understood. We present here crystal structures of the periplasmic sensor domain, the TM domain and the cytoplasmic HAMP domain of the Escherichia coli nitrate/nitrite sensor HK NarQ in the ligand-bound and mutated ligand-free states. The structures reveal that the ligand binding induces significant rearrangements and piston-like shifts of TM helices...
May 18, 2017: Science
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