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Bone specific alkaline phosphatase

S Farmer, V V Shanbhogue, S Hansen, C I Stahlberg, H Vestergaard, A P Hermann, H Frederiksen
: In this cross-sectional study of 45 patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms, we found no evidence of secondary osteoporosis. INTRODUCTION: Patients with essential thrombocythemia (ET) and polycythaemia vera (PV) are at increased risk of fractures but the underlying mechanisms have not been settled. We conducted a study to assess bone mineral density, microarchitecture, estimated bone strength and global bone turnover in 45 patients with ET or PV. METHODS: Patients were evaluated in a cross-sectional study with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) at the hip and spine; high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) at the distal radius and distal tibia; and biochemical markers of bone turnover including pro-collagen type 1 N-terminal pro-peptide, osteocalcin, C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide of type 1 collagen and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase...
October 13, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Monique Ae Schoeman, Angela E Oostlander, Karien E de Rooij, Edward R Valstar, Rob Ghh Nelissen
During the process of aseptic loosening of prostheses, particulate wear debris induces a continuous inflammatory-like response resulting in the formation of a layer of fibrous peri-prosthetic tissue at the bone-prosthesis interface. The current treatment for loosening is revision surgery which is associated with a high morbidity rate, especially in old patients. Therefore, less invasive alternatives are necessary. One approach could be to re-establish osseointegration of the prosthesis by inducing osteoblast differentiation in the peri-prosthetic tissue...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Parvin Abraham, Tessy Thomas Maliekal
Research of the past two decades has proved the relevance of single cell biology in basic research and translational medicine. Successful detection and isolation of specific subsets is the key to understand their functional heterogeneity. Antibodies are conventionally used for this purpose, but their relevance in certain contexts is limited. In this review, we discuss some of these contexts, posing bottle neck for different fields of biology including biomedical research. With the advancement of chemistry, several methods have been introduced to overcome these problems...
October 6, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Silvina R Mastaglia, Gabriel Aguilar, Beatriz Oliveri
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the most widely used drugs to treat osteoporosis. However, recent reports associated to long-term BPs use with atypical low-impact fractures and prodromal pain. It is estimated that 26% of the cases of atypical fractures associated with the long-term use of BPs show delayed healing or nonunion. Teriparatide [PTH1-34] (TPTD) is an anabolic drug shown to be effective in stimulating bone formation. The aim was to describe the course of a right diaphyseal femoral fracture sustained by a patient on long-term BPs treatment...
June 2016: Eur J Rheumatol
Michael Pujari-Palmer, Shiuli Pujari-Palmer, Xi Lu, Thomas Lind, Håkan Melhus, Thomas Engstrand, Marjam Karlsson-Ott, Hakan Engqvist
Pyrophosphate is a potent mitogen, capable of stimulating proliferation in multiple cell types, and a critical participant in bone mineralization. Pyrophosphate can also affect the resorption rate and bioactivity of orthopedic ceramics. The present study investigated whether calcium pyrophosphate affected proliferation, differentiation and gene expression in early (MC3T3 pre-osteoblast) and late stage (SAOS-2 osteosarcoma) osteoblasts. Pyrophosphate stimulated peak alkaline phosphatase activity by 50% and 150% at 100μM and 0...
2016: PloS One
Marta Carnovali, Livio Luzi, Giuseppe Banfi, Massimo Mariotti
Type II diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia that induce other pathologies including diabetic retinopathy and bone disease. The mechanisms implicated in bone alterations induced by type II diabetes mellitus have been debated for years and are not yet clear because there are other factors involved that hide bone mineral density alterations. Despite this, it is well known that chronic hyperglycemia affects bone health causing fragility, mechanical strength reduction and increased propensity of fractures because of impaired bone matrix microstructure and aberrant bone cells function...
October 1, 2016: Endocrine
Mahin Ghorban-Sabbagh, Fatemeh Nazemian, Massih Naghibi, Mohammad-Taghi Shakeri, Saeedeh Ahmadi-Simab, Reza Javidi-Dasht-Bayaz
INTRODUCTION: For diagnosing of specific types of bone lesions in hemodialysis (HD) patients, it is necessary to conduct a bone biopsy as the gold standard method. However, it is an invasive procedure. While different markers have been suggested as alternative methods, none of them has been selected. The frequency of hip fractures is 80 fold in HD patients who have two-fold mortality as compared with general population. OBJECTIVES: Recently, serum leptin has been suggested as a bone density marker...
2016: Journal of Renal Injury Prevention
Hayato Kinoshita, Naohisa Miyakoshi, Tsuyoshi Kashiwagura, Yuji Kasukawa, Yusuke Sugimura, Yoichi Shimada
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of denosumab (compared with that of bisphosphonates) for preventing secondary osteoporosis and inflammation caused by excessive bone resorption in Japanese rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients never previously treated for osteoporosis. METHODS: Ninety-eight patients with coexisting RA and osteoporosis were enrolled. The patients were subdivided by whether they were treated with denosumab (n = 49) or traditional bisphosphonates (n = 49)...
September 23, 2016: Modern Rheumatology
Shani Samuel, Raja Elina Ahmad, Thamil Selvee Ramasamy, Puvanan Karunanithi, Sangeetha Vasudevaraj Naveen, Malliga Raman Murali, Azlina A Abbas, Tunku Kamarul
Previous studies have shown that platelet concentrates used in conjunction with appropriate growth media enhance osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). However, their potential in inducing osteogenesis of hMSCs when cultured in serum free medium has not been explored. Furthermore, the resulting osteogenic molecular signatures of the hMSCs have not been compared to standard osteogenic medium. We studied the effect of infrequent supplementation (8-day interval) of 15% non-activated platelet-rich concentrate (PRC) in serum free medium on hMSCs proliferation and differentiation throughout a course of 24 days, and compared the effect with those cultured in a standard osteogenic medium (OM)...
2016: PeerJ
Enas A A Abdallah, Reem N Said, Dalia S Mosallam, Eman M I Moawad, Naglaa M Kamal, Mohammed G E-D Fathallah
Metabolic bone disease of prematurity is a condition characterized by reduction in bone mineral content (osteopenia). It is a problem faced by very low birth weight (VLBW) infants because of lack of fetal mineralization during the last trimester. Our aim was to assess serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) level as an early biomarker for osteopenia in premature infants and to estimate an optimal cutoff value of serum ALP at which osteopenia is detected radiologically in premature newborns.This prospective study was conducted on a cohort of 120 newborn infants of both sex of ≤34 weeks' gestational age and <1500 g birth weight...
September 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yue Guo, Chen-Yi Tang, Xiao-Fei Man, Hao-Neng Tang, Jun Tang, Fang Wang, Ci-La Zhou, Shu-Wen Tan, Yun-Zhi Feng, Hou-De Zhou
Insulin promotes bone formation via a well-studied canonical signaling pathway. An adapter in this pathway, insulin-receptor substrate (IRS)-1, has been implicated in the diabetic osteopathy provoked by impaired insulin signaling. To further investigate IRS-1's role in the bone metabolism, we generated Irs-1-deficient mice (Irs-1(smla/smla)). These null mice developed a spontaneous mutation that led to an increase in trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) in 12-mo-old, but not in 2-mo-old mice. Analyses of the bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) from these mice revealed their differential expression of osteogenesis-related genes and miRNAs...
September 13, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Thomas J Weber, Eileen K Sawyer, Scott Moseley, Tatjana Odrljin, Priya S Kishnani
BACKGROUND: Hypophosphatasia (HPP) is a rare metabolic bone disease caused by loss-of-function mutation(s) in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline (TNSALP) phosphatase gene, which manifests as rickets and/or osteomalacia with systemic complications and affects patients of all ages. The burden of disease is poorly characterized in adult patients. AIMS: We assessed patient-reported burden of disease using two surveys reasonably specific for HPP symptomatology, the Hypophosphatasia Impact Patient Survey (HIPS) and the Hypophosphatasia Outcomes Study Telephone interview (HOST)...
October 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Alieh Aminian, Bahareh Shirzadi, Zahra Azizi, Kathrin Maedler, Eike Volkmann, Nils Hildebrand, Michael Maas, Laura Treccani, Kurosch Rezwan
Functional bone and dental implant materials are required to guide cell response, offering cues that provide specific instructions to cells at the implant/tissue interface while maintaining full biocompatibility as well as the desired structural requirements and functions. In this work we investigate the influence of covalently immobilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an enzyme involved in bone mineralization, on the first contact and initial cell adhesion. To this end, ALP is covalently immobilized by carbodiimide-mediated chemoligation on two highly bioinert ceramics, alpha-alumina (Al2O3) and yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) that are well-established for load-bearing applications...
December 1, 2016: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Mona Elsafadi, Muthurangan Manikandan, Muhammad Atteya, Jamil Amjad Hashmi, Zafar Iqbal, Abdullah Aldahmash, Musaad Alfayez, Moustapha Kassem, Amer Mahmood
Human bone marrow-derived stromal stem cells (hBMSC) exhibit multiple functions, including differentiation into skeletal cells (progenitor function), hematopoiesis support, and immune regulation (nonprogenitor function). We have previously demonstrated the presence of morphological and functional heterogeneity of hBMSC cultures. In the present study, we characterized in detail two hTERT-BMSC clonal cell populations termed here CL1 and CL2 that represent an opposing phenotype with respect to morphology, markers expression: alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and CD146, and ex vivo differentiation potential...
2016: Stem Cells International
Fiona E Freeman, Hazel Y Stevens, Peter Owens, Robert E Guldberg, Laoise M McNamara
In vitro bone regeneration strategies that prime mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with chondrogenic factors, to mimic aspects of the endochondral ossification process, have been shown to promote mineralization and vascularization by MSCs both in vitro and when implanted in vivo. However, these approaches required the use of osteogenic supplements, namely dexamethasone, ascorbic acid, and β-glycerophosphate, none of which are endogenous mediators of bone formation in vivo. Rather MSCs, endothelial progenitor cells, and chondrocytes all reside in proximity within the cartilage template and might paracrineally regulate osteogenic differentiation...
October 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Rami Klaff, Eberhard Varenhorst, Anders Berglund, Per Olov Hedlund, Folke Sjöberg, Gabriel Sandblom
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of bone metastasis on survival and quality of life (QoL) in men with hormone-naïve prostate cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 900 patients from a randomized trial (No. 5) by the Scandinavian Prostate Cancer Group, comparing parenteral oestrogen with total androgen blockade. Extent of bone metastasis was categorized according to a modified Soloway score: score 1, n = 319; score 2, n = 483; and score 3, n = 98 patients...
October 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Urology
Donlaporn Kittivanichhkul, Narattaphol Charoenphandhu, Phisit Khemawoot, Suchinda Malaivijitnond
Since the in vitro and in vivo anti-osteoporotic effects of Pueraria mirifica (PM) in rodents have been verified, its activity in menopausal monkeys was evaluated as required before it can be applicable for human use. In this study, postmenopausal osteoporotic monkeys were divided into two groups (five per group), and fed daily with standard diet alone (PMP0 group) or diet mixed with 1,000 mg/kg BW of PM powder (PMP1000 group) for 16 months. Every two months, the bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC) and bone geometry parameters (cortical area and thickness, and periosteal and endosteal circumference) at the distal radius and proximal tibia were determined using peripheral quantitative computed tomography together with plasma and urinary bone markers...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Christian Muschitz, Xaver Feichtinger, Judith Haschka, Roland Kocijan
Paget's disease of bone (osteitis deformans) is a benign focal disorder of accelerated skeletal remodeling. Either a single bone (monostotic) or multiple bones (polyostotic) can be affected. In patients with suspected Paget's disease plain radiographs of the suspicious regions of the skeleton are recommended. The initial biochemical evaluation of a patient should be done using serum total ALP (alkaline phosphatase) or with the use of a more specific marker of bone formation: PINP (intact N-terminal type 1 procollagen propeptide) or CTX (cross-linked C‑telopeptide)...
September 6, 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Sławomir Rumiński, Barbara Ostrowska, Jakub Jaroszewicz, Tomasz Skirecki, Krzysztof Włodarski, Wojciech Święszkowski, Małgorzata Lewandowska-Szumieł
The capacity of bone grafts to repair critical size defects can be greatly enhanced by the delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Adipose tissue is considered the most effective source of MSCs (ADSCs); however, the efficiency of bone regeneration using undifferentiated ADSCs is low. Therefore, in this study, we propose to use scaffolds based on polycaprolactone (PCL), which is widely considered a suitable MSC delivery system, as a 3D culture environment promoting osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs. PCL scaffolds enriched with 5% tricalcium phosphate (TCP) were used...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
Xuan Zhou, Nathan J Castro, Wei Zhu, Haitao Cui, Mitra Aliabouzar, Kausik Sarkar, Lijie Grace Zhang
3D printing and ultrasound techniques are showing great promise in the evolution of human musculoskeletal tissue repair and regeneration medicine. The uniqueness of the present study was to combine low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) and advanced 3D printing techniques to synergistically improve growth and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Specifically, polyethylene glycol diacrylate bioinks containing cell adhesive Arginine-Glycine-Aspartic acid-Serene (RGDS) peptide and/or nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (nHA) were used to fabricate 3D scaffolds with different geometric patterns via novel table-top stereolithography 3D printer...
2016: Scientific Reports
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