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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040598/effect-of-metformin-on-vascular-function-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-a-12-month-randomized-controlled-trial
#1
Jemma J A Anderson, Jennifer J Couper, Lynne C Giles, Catherine E Leggett, Roger Gent, Brian Coppin, Alexia S Peña
Context: Children with type 1 diabetes have vascular dysfunction preceding atherosclerosis. Early interventions are needed to reduce cardiovascular disease. Objective: To evaluate the effect of metformin on vascular function in type 1 diabetes children. Design: 12 month double blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Setting: Tertiary pediatric diabetes clinic. Participants: 90 type 1 diabetes children(8-18 years), above 50th percentile body mass index (BMI)...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032593/association-analysis-of-the-actn3-r577x-polymorphism-with-passive-muscle-stiffness-and-muscle-strain-injury
#2
Naokazu Miyamoto, Eri Miyamoto-Mikami, Kosuke Hirata, Noriko Kimura, Noriyuki Fuku
Passive muscle stiffness is considered to be a major factor affecting joint flexibility and is thought to relate to the occurrence of muscle strain injury. In skinned muscle fiber experiments, the R577X polymorphism of the α-actinin-3 gene (ACTN3) has been associated with passive muscle stiffness. Our primary purpose was to clarify whether the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism influences passive stiffness of human muscle in vivo. We also examined whether the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with the occurrence of hamstring strain injury...
October 15, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030342/the-sex-specific-impact-of-aging-on-the-blood-pressure-response-to-exercise
#3
Joel D Trinity, Gwenael Layec, Corey R Hart, Russell S Richardson
An exaggerated blood pressure (BP) response to exercise has been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD), but little is known about the impact of age and sex on this response. Therefore, this study examined the hemodynamic and skeletal muscle metabolic response to dynamic plantar flexion exercise, at 40% of WRmax, in 40 physical activity-matched young (n=20, 23±1 yr) and old (n=20, 73±2 yr), equally distributed, male and female subjects. Central hemodynamics and BP (finometer), popliteal artery (PA) blood flow (Doppler ultrasound), and skeletal muscle metabolism (phosphorous magnetic resonance spectroscopy, (31)P-MRS) were measured during 5 mins of plantar flexion exercise...
October 13, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030047/evaluation-of-the-time-dependent-changes-and-the-vulnerability-of-carotid-plaques-using-contrast-enhanced-carotid-ultrasonography
#4
Hirofumi Shimada, Toshiyasu Ogata, Koichi Takano, Hiroshi Abe, Toshio Higashi, Takaaki Yamashita, Akira Matsunaga, Tooru Inoue
BACKGROUND: The association of carotid plaque enhancement on contrast-enhanced carotid ultrasound (CEUS) and plaque vulnerability evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was to be determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The 103 patients underwent CEUS from May 2013 until June 2016. CEUS images of the carotid plaque were obtained offline. Plaque images obtained at 1, 3, 5, and 10 minutes were compared with the reference image, defined as the image obtained at 0 minute...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028499/fasciculations-in-nerve-and-muscle-disorders-a-prospective-study-of-muscle-ultrasound-compared-to-electromyography
#5
M T Johansson, H R Ellegaard, H Tankisi, A Fuglsang-Frederiksen, E Qerama
OBJECTIVES: We examined the clinical utility of muscle ultrasound (MUS) in detecting fasciculations in patients with nerve and muscle disorders (NMD) and investigated the impact on diagnostic sensitivity when combining electromyography (EMG) and MUS. METHODS: We included 58 consecutive patients suspected to have NMD and 38 healthy subjects (HS). Patients and HS underwent MUS in 14 skeletal and two bulbar muscles and the video recordings of the MUS were anonymised...
September 22, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026892/prompt-diagnosis-of-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-with-papillary-muscle-rupture-by-point-of-care-ultrasound-in-the-emergency-department
#6
Koon Ho Cheung, Colin Graham Alexander
A previously healthy 61-year-old man presented to the emergency department with chest pain and dyspnoea for 6 hours. Examination revealed distress with an apical pansystolic murmur. Initial electrocardiogram showed sinus tachycardia and ST elevation in leads II, III, and aVF compatible with an inferior ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Point-of-care echocardiography in the emergency department showed a flail anterior mitral leaflet and severe mitral regurgitation, leading to a provisional diagnosis of papillary muscle rupture...
September 2017: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024213/the-newborn-rat-gastric-emptying-rate-is-volume-and-not-developmentally-dependent
#7
C H F Ferreira, Y Shifrin, J Pan, J Ivanovska, P J McNamara, J Belik
BACKGROUND: Gastric residuals are a common finding in enterally fed preterm neonates and traditionally thought to reflect immaturity-related delayed gastric emptying. Adult human data suggest that the meal volume regulate the gastric emptying rate, but early in life, this has not been adequately evaluated. The goal of this study was to study the rat postnatal changes in gastric emptying rate and the strain-induced effect on muscle contraction. We hypothesized that the stomach content volume and not developmental factors determines the newborn gastric emptying rate, via the Rho-kinase 2 (ROCK-2) pathway...
October 11, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024196/pelvic-floor-muscle-assessment-at-3-and-4-dimensional-transperineal-ultrasound-in-women-with-endometriosis-with-or-without-retroperitoneal-infiltration-a-step-towards-complete-functional-assessment
#8
Mohamed Mabrouk, Diego Raimondo, Simona Del Forno, Federica Baruffini, Alessandro Arena, Arianna Benfenati, Aly Youssef, Valentina Martelli, Renato Seracchioli
OBJECTIVES: Previous studies, comparing women with deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) and healthy controls, underlined an association between pelvic floor muscle (PFM) hypertonic dysfunction and deep lesions. The aim of the study is to compare the morphometry of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) in women affected by ovarian endometriosis with or without DIE, to assess the impact of retroperitoneal infiltration by the disease on PFM function. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted between March 2015 to December 2016 on symptomatic women with clinical and sonographic diagnosis of ovarian endometriosis with or without DIE, submitted to laparoscopic surgery...
October 11, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024119/automatic-segmentation-of-the-puborectalis-muscle-in-3d-transperineal-ultrasound
#9
Frieda van den Noort, Anique T M Grob, Cornelis H Slump, Carl H van der Vaart, Marijn van Stralen
OBJECTIVES: The introduction of 3D analysis of the puborectalis muscle, for diagnostic purposes, into daily practice is hindered by the need for appropriate training of the observers. Automatic 3D segmentation of the puborectalis muscle in 3D transperineal ultrasound may aid to its adaption in clinical practice. METHOD: A manual 3D segmentation protocol was developed to segment the puborectalis muscle. The data of 20 women, in their first trimester of pregnancy, was used to validate the reproducibility of this protocol...
October 11, 2017: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018363/moderate-load-muscular-endurance-strength-training-did-not-improve-peak-power-or-functional-capacity-in-older-men-and-women
#10
Simon Walker, Guy G Haff, Keijo Häkkinen, Robert U Newton
The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64-75 y). Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first) with short rest intervals (30-60 s between sets) at an intensity of 50-60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM) for 15-20 repetitions...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016577/can-a-leaflet-with-brief-verbal-instruction-teach-nepali-women-how-to-correctly-contract-their-pelvic-floor-muscles
#11
Delena-Mae Caagbay, Kirsten Black, Ganesh Dangal, Camille Raynes-Greenow
BACKGROUND: Pelvic organ prolapse is a common disorder for women in Nepal causing symptoms and reduced quality of life. Pelvic floor muscle exercise is a conservative treatment option for pelvic organ prolapse but the effective way to teach women in Nepal is not known. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if an illustrative leaflet with brief verbal instruction could teach Nepali women to correctly contract their pelvic floor muscles. METHODS: Fifteen parous women attending two outpatient gynecology clinics in Kathmandu Valley were interviewed to assess their knowledge of pelvic organ prolapse and pelvic floor muscles exercise...
September 8, 2017: Journal of Nepal Health Research Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016400/alterations-in-the-mechanical-response-of-deep-dorsal-neck-muscles-in-individuals-suffering-from-whiplash-associated-disorders-compared-to-healthy-controls-an-ultrasound-study
#12
Leila Rahnama, Gunnel Peterson, Anoshirvan Kazemnejad, Johan Trygg, Anneli Peolsson
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the mechanical responses of dorsal neck muscles in individuals with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) versus healthy individuals. DESIGN: This study included 36 individuals with WAD (26 women and 10 men) and 36 healthy controls (26 women and 10 men). Ultrasound imaging with speckle tracking was used to measure deformation and deformation rate in five dorsal neck muscles during a neck extension task...
October 7, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016298/case-report-cysticercosis-sonographic-diagnosis-of-a-treatable-cause-of-epilepsy-and-skin-nodules
#13
Tom Heller, Claudia Wallrauch, Daniel Kaminstein, Sam Phiri
A case of disseminated cysticercosis of brain, muscle subcutaneous tissue is reported and the use of musculoskeletal ultrasound in the diagnosis of the condition emphasized.
October 2, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990251/waist-to-calf-ratio-is-an-independent-predictor-of-hepatic-steatosis-and-fibrosis-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#14
Eun Yeong Choe, Yong-Ho Lee, Young Ju Choi, Byung Wook Huh, Byung-Wan Lee, Soo-Kyung Kim, Eun Seok Kang, Bong-Soo Cha, Eun Jig Lee, Kap Bum Huh, Zobair M Younossi
BACKGROUND: Although a combination of central obesity and decreased skeletal muscle mass have been associated with various cardiometabolic disorders, its influence on the presence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is unclear. AIM: We investigated whether waist-to-calf circumference ratio (WCR) predicts NAFLD or hepatic fibrosis in T2D. METHODS: Patients with T2D (n=5,507) were enrolled in this study. Hepatic steatosis was diagnosed using abdominal ultrasound and predicting score...
October 8, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988152/acute-effects-of-static-stretching-on-the-shear-elastic-moduli-of-the-medial-and-lateral-gastrocnemius-muscles-in-young-and-elderly-women
#15
Masatoshi Nakamura, Tome Ikezoe, Satoru Nishishita, Jun Umehara, Misaka Kimura, Noriaki Ichihashi
PURPOSE: Generally, static stretching (SS) is the recommended intervention for a decline in the range of motion among elderly adults. However, no study has investigated the acute effects of SS on the shear elastic modulus in elderly people. The aims of the present study were to investigate the acute effects of SS on the shear elastic moduli of the medial and lateral gastrocnemius muscles and to examine the differences in these acute effects between young and elderly women. METHODS: This study included 15 healthy young women (age: 23...
September 25, 2017: Musculoskeletal Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986861/ultrasound-assessment-of-rectus-femoris-and-anterior-tibialis-muscles-in-young-trauma-patients
#16
Maria Giuseppina Annetta, Mauro Pittiruti, Davide Silvestri, Domenico Luca Grieco, Alessio Maccaglia, Michele Fabio La Torre, Nicola Magarelli, Giovanna Mercurio, Anselmo Caricato, Massimo Antonelli
PURPOSE: Quantitative and qualitative changes of skeletal muscle are typical and early findings in trauma patients, being possibly associated with functional impairment. Early assessment of muscle changes-as evaluated by muscle ultrasonography-could yield important information about patient's outcome. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we used ultrasonography to evaluate the morphological changes of rectus femoris (RF) and anterior tibialis (AT) muscles in a group of young, previously healthy trauma patients on enteral feeding...
October 6, 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985894/in-vivo-fascicle-length-measurements-via-b-mode-ultrasound-imaging-with-single-vs-dual-transducer-arrangements
#17
Scott F Brennan, Andrew G Cresswell, Dominic J Farris, Glen A Lichtwark
Ultrasonography is a useful technique to study muscle contractions in vivo, however larger muscles like vastus lateralis may be difficult to visualise with smaller, commonly used transducers. Fascicle length is often estimated using linear trigonometry to extrapolate fascicle length to regions where the fascicle is not visible. However, this approach has not been compared to measurements made with a larger field of view for dynamic muscle contractions. Here we compared two different single-transducer extrapolation methods to measure VL muscle fascicle length to a direct measurement made using two synchronised, in-series transducers...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982942/phosphodiesterase-5-inhibition-preserves-exercise-onset-vasodilator-kinetics-when-nos-activity-is-reduced
#18
J Mikhail Kellawan, Jacqueline K Limberg, Zachariah M Scruggs, Wayne T Nicholson, William G Schrage, Michael J Joyner, Timothy B Curry
BBackground: Nitric oxide (NO) mediated vasodilation contributes to the rapid rise in muscle blood flow at exercise onset. This occurs via increased cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which is catabolized by phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5). Whether PDE-5 limits exercise vasodilation onset kinetics is unknown. We hypothesized the time-course of exercise vasodilation would be: 1) accelerated during PDE-5 inhibition (sildenafil citrate, SDF), 2) decelerated during NO synthase inhibition (L-N(G)-monomethyl arginine, L-NMMA), 3) effect of SDF on vasodilation onset kinetics would be attenuated with concurrent L-NMMA...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982622/retroperitoneal-compartment-syndrome-in-renal-transplantation-how-to-salvage-the-graft
#19
Karen Pineda-Solís, Wen Yan Xie, Vivian McAlister, Alp Sener, Patrick P Luke
OBJECTIVE: Early allograft dysfunction may be caused by several technical factors including vascular complications such as thrombosis, kinking, or extrinsic compression. Renal allograft compartment syndrome (RACS) is an unrecognized cause of early allograft dysfunction. This complication is characterized by increased pressure of the iliac fossa that reduces the blood supply to the graft with a potentially devastating consequence. The main objective when recognizing this condition is to create a tension-free muscle closure...
September 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979212/muscle-shear-moduli-changes-and-frequency-of-alternate-muscle-activity-of-plantar-flexor-synergists-induced-by-prolonged-low-level-contraction
#20
Ryota Akagi, Takahito Fukui, Masato Kubota, Masashi Nakamura, Ryoichi Ema
During prolonged low-level contractions, synergist muscles are activated in an alternating pattern of activity and silence called as alternate muscle activity. Resting muscle stiffness is considered to increase due to muscle fatigue. Thus, we investigated whether the difference in the extent of fatigue of each plantar flexor synergist corresponded to the difference in the frequency of alternate muscle activity between the synergists using muscle shear modulus as an index of muscle stiffness. Nineteen young men voluntarily participated in this study...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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