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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699524/biohybrid-membrane-systems-for-testing-molecules-and-stem-cell-therapy-in-neuronal-tissue-engineering
#1
Sabrina Morelli, Antonella Piscioneri, Simona Salerno, Enrico Drioli, Loredana De Bartolo
Current research in neural tissue-engineering is focused on the development of advanced biomaterials for the creation of sophisticated neuro-tissue analogues, showing that mimicking the in vivo tissue disposition and functions is a useful tool for the study of brain-related issues in normal and pathological states. In addition, the most common approach for developing new drug therapies is to carry out in vitro investigation before in vivo test, thus, it is increasingly important to develop valuable models that can predict the results of in vivo studies...
July 10, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694020/transdifferentiation-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-secreting-mesenchymal-stem-cells-significantly-enhance-bdnf-secretion-and-schwann-cell-marker-proteins
#2
Metzere Bierlein De la Rosa, Anup D Sharma, Surya K Mallapragada, Donald S Sakaguchi
The use of genetically modified mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a rapidly growing area of research targeting delivery of therapeutic factors for neuro-repair. Cells can be programmed to hypersecrete various growth/trophic factors such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and nerve growth factor (NGF) to promote regenerative neurite outgrowth. In addition to genetic modifications, MSCs can be subjected to transdifferentiation protocols to generate neural cell types to physically and biologically support nerve regeneration...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691434/universal-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-infected-children-a-review-of-the-benefits-and-risks-to-consider-during-implementation
#3
Linda Barlow-Mosha, Victor Musiime, Mary-Ann Davies, Andrew J Prendergast, Philippa Musoke, George Siberry, Martina Penazzato
BACKGROUND: The 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) consolidated guidelines on the use of antiretroviral drugs for treating and preventing HIV infection, recommended to start all HIV-infected children on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Here, we explore the possible benefits and risks of implementing universal ART for all HIV-infected children and adolescents and outline some of the key considerations that led to the 2016 revision of WHO guidelines. METHODS: We conducted a review of the published data from 2000 to 2016, to ascertain the clinical and programmatic benefits, as well as the risks of implementing universal ART for all children...
June 27, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666838/mmp-2-a-modulator-of-neuronal-precursor-activity-and-cognitive-and-motor-behaviors
#4
Qi Li, Michael Michaud, Ravi Shankar, Sandra Canosa, Michael Schwartz, Joseph A Madri
Matrix Metalloproteinase2, (MMP2, gelatinase A) is a zinc-containing enzyme with a broad substrate specificity including components of the extracellular matrix, cell surface molecules and a wide range bioactive molecules. MMP2 is known to play important roles in a variety of signaling pathways and processes in a wide range of cell types and tissues. In this report we elucidate the effects of the absence of MMP2 in Neural Precursor Cells (NPC) derived from C57BL/6 MMP2 KO mice and in primary and secondary neurosphere formation...
June 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664468/tumor-treating-fields-in-neuro-oncological-practice
#5
REVIEW
Maciej M Mrugala, Jacob Ruzevick, Piotr Zlomanczuk, Rimas V Lukas
Electric fields are known to produce biological effects. Depending on specific frequency, they can stimulate healing, directly damage tissues, or produce anti-mitotic activity. Frequencies of 100-300 KHz have been shown to disrupt mitosis and lead to cellular death. Growth of cancer cell lines, both in vitro and in vivo, was shown to be inhibited by application of the electric fields. In the clinical setting, electric fields are available for treatment of brain tumors, specifically glioblastoma (GBM), through a portable device producing so-called tumor treating fields (TTF)...
August 2017: Current Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646336/nogo-a-antibodies-enhance-axonal-repair-and-remyelination-in-neuro-inflammatory-and-demyelinating-pathology
#6
Benjamin V Ineichen, Sandra Kapitza, Christiane Bleul, Nicolas Good, Patricia S Plattner, Maryam S Seyedsadr, Julia Kaiser, Marc P Schneider, Björn Zörner, Roland Martin, Michael Linnebank, Martin E Schwab
Two hallmarks of chronic multiple sclerosis lesions are the absence of significant spontaneous remyelination and primary as well as secondary neurodegeneration. Both characteristics may be influenced by the presence of inhibitory factors preventing myelin and neuronal repair. We investigated the potential of antibodies against Nogo-A, a well-known inhibitory protein for neuronal growth and plasticity, to enhance neuronal regeneration and remyelination in two animal models of multiple sclerosis. We induced a targeted experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) lesion in the dorsal funiculus of the cervical spinal cord of adult rats resulting in a large drop of skilled forelimb motor functions...
June 23, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632137/electrospun-silk-polyaniline-conduits-for-functional-nerve-regeneration-in-rat-sciatic-nerve-injury-model
#7
Suradip Das, Manav Sharma, Dhiren Saharia, Kushal Sarma, Elizabeth Muir, Utpal Bora
The present study describes the fabrication of polyaniline-silk fibroin nanocomposite based nerve conduits and its subsequent implantation in a rat sciatic nerve injury model for peripheral nerve regeneration. This is the first in vivo study of polyaniline based nerve conduit describing the safety and efficacy of the conduits in treating peripheral nerve injuries. The nanocomposite was synthesised by electrospinning a mixture of silk fibroin protein and polyaniline wherein the silk nanofibers were observed to be uniformly coated with polyaniline nanoparticles...
June 20, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629826/silencing-of-fkbp51-alleviates-the-mechanical-pain-threshold-inhibits-drg-inflammatory-factors-and-pain-mediators-through-the-nf-kappab-signaling-pathway
#8
Hong-Mei Yu, Qi Wang, Wen-Bo Sun
Neuropathic pain is chronic pain caused by lesions or diseases of the somatosensory system, currently available analgesics provide only temporal relief. The precise role of FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP51) in neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) is not clear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects and possible mechanisms of FKBP51 in neuropathic pain in the rat model of CCI. Our results showed that FKBP51 was obviously upregulated in a time-dependent manner in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in CCI rats...
June 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613308/on-chip-cryo-anesthesia-of-drosophila-larvae-for-high-resolution-in-vivo-imaging-applications
#9
Amrita Ray Chaudhury, Ryan Insolera, Ran-Der Hwang, Yih-Woei Fridell, Catherine Collins, Nikos Chronis
We present a microfluidic chip for immobilizing Drosophila melanogaster larvae for high resolution in vivo imaging. The chip creates a low-temperature micro-environment that anaesthetizes and immobilizes the larva in under 3 minutes. We characterized the temperature distribution within the chip and analyzed the resulting larval body movement using high resolution fluorescence imaging. Our results indicate that the proposed method minimizes submicron movements of internal organs and tissue without affecting the larva physiology...
June 27, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578413/dna-methylation-in-schizophrenia-in-different-patient-derived-cell-types
#10
Alejandra M Vitale, Nicholas A Matigian, Alexandre S Cristino, Katia Nones, Sugandha Ravishankar, Bernadette Bellette, Yongjun Fan, Stephen A Wood, Ernst Wolvetang, Alan Mackay-Sim
DNA methylation of gene promoter regions represses transcription and is a mechanism via which environmental risk factors could affect cells during development in individuals at risk for schizophrenia. We investigated DNA methylation in patient-derived cells that might shed light on early development in schizophrenia. Induced pluripotent stem cells may reflect a "ground state" upon which developmental and environmental influences would be minimal. Olfactory neurosphere-derived cells are an adult-derived neuro-ectodermal stem cell modified by developmental and environmental influences...
January 23, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575023/orexin-receptor-agonist-yan-7874-is-a-weak-agonist-of-orexin-hypocretin-receptors-and-shows-orexin-receptor-independent-cytotoxicity
#11
Ainoleena Turku, Maiju K Rinne, Gustav Boije Af Gennäs, Henri Xhaard, Dan Lindholm, Jyrki P Kukkonen
Two promising lead structures of small molecular orexin receptor agonist have been reported, but without detailed analyses of the pharmacological properties. One of them, 1-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-[2-imino-3-(4-methylbenzyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-1-yl]ethan-1-ol (Yan 7874), is commercially available, and we set out to analyze its properties. As test system we utilized human OX1 and OX2 orexin receptor-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) K1 cells as well as control CHO-K1 and neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572154/novel-role-of-npy-in-neuro-immune-interaction-and-lung-growth-after-intrauterine-growth-restriction
#12
Chansutha Thangaratnarajah, Katharina Dinger, Christina Vohlen, Christian Klaudt, Jawed Nawabi, Eva Lopez Garcia, Grazyna Kwapiszewska, Julia Dobner, Kai D Nuesken, Silke van Koningsbruggen-Rietschel, Stephan von Hoersten, Jörg Dötsch, Miguel Angel Alejandre Alcazar
Individuals with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are at risk for chronic lung disease. Using a rat model, our previous studies showed that altered lung structure is related to IL-6/STAT3 signaling. As Neuropeptide Y (NPY), a co-neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nerve system, regulates proliferation and immune response, we hypothesized that dysregulated NPY after IUGR is linked to IL-6, impaired myofibroblast function, and alveolar growth. IUGR was induced in rats by isocaloric low-protein diet; lungs were analyzed on embryonic day (E) 21, postnatal day (P) 3, P12 and P23...
June 1, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560252/dna-methylation-in-schizophrenia-in-different-patient-derived-cell-types
#13
Alejandra M Vitale, Nicholas A Matigian, Alexandre S Cristino, Katia Nones, Sugandha Ravishankar, Bernadette Bellette, Yongjun Fan, Stephen A Wood, Ernst Wolvetang, Alan Mackay-Sim
DNA methylation of gene promoter regions represses transcription and is a mechanism via which environmental risk factors could affect cells during development in individuals at risk for schizophrenia. We investigated DNA methylation in patient-derived cells that might shed light on early development in schizophrenia. Induced pluripotent stem cells may reflect a "ground state" upon which developmental and environmental influences would be minimal. Olfactory neurosphere-derived cells are an adult-derived neuro-ectodermal stem cell modified by developmental and environmental influences...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544935/liquiritin-lt-exhibits-suppressive-effects-against-the-growth-of-human-cervical-cancer-cells-through-activating-caspase-3-in-vitro-and-xenograft-mice-in-vivo
#14
She-Hong He, Hong-Gai Liu, Yu-Fei Zhou, Qing-Fen Yue
Cervical cancer is one of the most common female malignancies worldwide. Liquiritin (LT), a major constituent of Glycyrrhiza Radix, possesses a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer, anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and neuro-protective effects. However, its role in human cervical cancer remains to be elusive. In our study, we found that LT suppressed cervical cancer cell migration, invasion and cloning ability with little cytotoxicity to human normal cells. In addition, apoptosis was induced by LT in cervical cancer cells through activation of Caspase-3 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534946/differentiation-of-nestin%C3%A2-negative-human-hair-follicle-outer-root-sheath-cells-into-neurons-in%C3%A2-vitro
#15
Wei Wu, Xiao-Li Wu, Yu-Qing Ji, Zhen Gao
A specialized quiescent population of hair follicle stem cells, residing in the hair follicle outer root sheath cells (ORSCs), has previously demonstrated pluripotency for differentiation into neural stem cells (NSCs). A previous study indicated that nestin‑positive hair follicle ORSCs are able to differentiate into neurons. However, little has been reported on the isolation of nestin‑negative human ORSCs and whether they can successfully differentiate into neurons in vitro. In the present study, nestin‑positive ORSCs were significantly reduced with a prolonged incubation time in vitro...
July 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531331/diagnostic-challenges-in-meningioma
#16
Martha Nowosielski, Nobert Galldiks, Sarah Iglseder, Philipp Kickingereder, Andreas von Deimling, Martin Bendszus, Wolfgang Wick, Felix Sahm
Advances in molecular profiling and the application of advanced imaging techniques are currently refreshing diagnostic considerations in meningioma patients. Not only technical refinements but also sophisticated histopathological and molecular studies have the potential to overcome some of the challenges during meningioma management. Exact tumor delineation, assessment of tumor growth and pathophysiological parameters were recently addressed by "advanced" magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography...
May 20, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522659/validation-of-an-mri-brain-injury-and-growth-scoring-system-in-very-preterm-infants-scanned-at-29-to-35-week-postmenstrual-age
#17
J M George, S Fiori, J Fripp, X K Pannek, X J Bursle, X R X Moldrich, X A Guzzetta, X A Coulthard, X R S Ware, X S E Rose, X P B Colditz, X R N Boyd
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The diagnostic and prognostic potential of brain MR imaging before term-equivalent age is limited until valid MR imaging scoring systems are available. This study aimed to validate an MR imaging scoring system of brain injury and impaired growth for use at 29 to 35 weeks postmenstrual age in infants born at <31 weeks gestational age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-three infants in a prospective cohort study underwent early 3T MR imaging between 29 and 35 weeks' postmenstrual age (mean, 32(+2) ± 1(+3) weeks; 49 males, born at median gestation of 28(+4) weeks; range, 23(+6)-30(+6) weeks; mean birthweight, 1068 ± 312 g)...
May 18, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522182/hodotopy-neuroplasticity-and-diffuse-gliomas
#18
H Duffau
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The historical approach in neurooncology is used to mainly investigate the tumor, with very few considerations regarding the brain itself. Nonetheless, to select the best personalized therapeutic management for each patient with a diffuse glioma, i.e. to optimize the "onco-functional balance", the brain reaction induced by glioma growth and migration should be studied. Indeed, due to strong interactions between the glioma and the brain, cerebral adaptive phenomena often occur in order to maintain neurological and cognitive functions, as well as to compensate glioma spreading...
May 15, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501736/role-of-il-8-crp-and-epidermal-growth-factor-in-depression-and-anxiety-patients-treated-with-mindfulness-based-therapy-or-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-in-primary-health-care
#19
Ashfaque A Memon, Kristina Sundquist, Abrar Ahmad, Xiao Wang, Anna Hedelius, Jan Sundquist
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and inflammatory markers have been associated with various neuro-psychiatric disorders. However, their role in mild to moderate depression and anxiety patients treated with mindfulness-based group therapy (mindfulness) or cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is not known. In this study we analyzed plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and EGF before (baseline) and after treatment (8 weeks) and investigated their role in response to both arms of the treatment...
May 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474333/the-egf-epidermal-growth-factor-counteracts-tat-modulation-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-of-the-w-family-in-astrocytes
#20
Elena Uleri, Claudia Piu, Maurizio Caocci, Gabriele Ibba, Caterina Serra, Antonina Dolei
Human astrocyte cells were exposed to HIV-Tat and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF), to monitor the expression of the neuropathogenic MSRV and Syncytin-1 elements of the HERV-W family of endogenous retroviruses and of TNFα. The results indicate that EGF counteracts Tat regulation of HERV-W/MSRVenv/Syncytin-1, throughout EGFR activation; this effect occurs by interfering with the induction of TNFα production by Tat. The novel effect of EGF counteraction of Tat-mediated regulation of the neuropathogenic HERV-Ws could be neuro-protective, but its actual role in the brain remains to be elucidated...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
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