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Acetyl carnitine AND thyroid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26485433/3-5-diiodo-l-thyronine-t2-does-not-prevent-hepatic-steatosis-or-insulin-resistance-in-fat-fed-sprague-dawley-rats
#1
Daniel F Vatner, Jaclyn Snikeris, Violeta Popov, Rachel J Perry, Yasmeen Rahimi, Varman T Samuel
Thyroid hormone mimetics are alluring potential therapies for diseases like dyslipidemia, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and insulin resistance. Though diiodothyronines are thought inactive, pharmacologic treatment with 3,5- Diiodo-L-Thyronine (T2) reportedly reduces hepatic lipid content and improves glucose tolerance in fat-fed male rats. To test this, male Sprague Dawley rats fed a safflower-oil based high-fat diet were treated with T2 (0.25 mg/kg-d) or vehicle. Neither 10 nor 30 days of T2 treatment had an effect on weight, adiposity, plasma fatty acids, or hepatic steatosis...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25516653/t%C3%A2-induced-liver-amp-activated-protein-kinase-signaling-redox-dependency-and-upregulation-of-downstream-targets
#2
Luis A Videla, Virginia Fernández, Pamela Cornejo, Romina Vargas, Paula Morales, Juan Ceballo, Alvaro Fischer, Nicolás Escudero, Oscar Escobar
AIM: To investigate the redox dependency and promotion of downstream targets in thyroid hormone (T3)-induced AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling as cellular energy sensor to limit metabolic stresses in the liver. METHODS: Fed male Sprague-Dawley rats were given a single ip dose of 0.1 mg T3/kg or T3 vehicle (NaOH 0.1 N; controls) and studied at 8 or 24 h after treatment. Separate groups of animals received 500 mg N-acetylcysteine (NAC)/kg or saline ip 30 min prior T3...
December 14, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25372779/3-iodothyronamine-mediated-metabolic-suppression-increases-the-phosphorylation-of-ampk-and-induces-fuel-choice-toward-lipid-mobilization
#3
H Ju, H Shin, C Son, K Park, I Choi
Despite broad medical application, induction of artificial hypometabolism in vitro and its biochemical consequence have been rarely addressed. This study aimed to elucidate whether 3-iodothyronamine (T1AM) induces hypometabolism in an in vitro model with activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and whether it leads to a switch in primary fuel from carbohydrates to lipids as observed in in vivo models. Mouse C2C12 myotube and T1AM, a natural derivative of thyroid hormone, were used in this study. The oxygen consumption rate (OCR) decreased in a dose-dependent manner in response to 0-100 μM T1AM for up to 10 h...
July 2015: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25239532/differential-gene-expression-pattern-in-hypothalamus-of-chickens-during-fasting-induced-metabolic-reprogramming-functions-of-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-in-the-feed-intake-of-chickens
#4
Xin-Ling Fang, Xiao-Tong Zhu, Sheng-Feng Chen, Zhi-Qi Zhang, Qing-Jie Zeng, Lin Deng, Jian-Long Peng, Jian-Jian Yu, Li-Na Wang, Song-Bo Wang, Ping Gao, Qing-Yan Jiang, Gang Shu
Fasting-induced hypothalamic metabolic reprogramming is involved in regulating energy homeostasis and appetite in mammals, but this phenomenon remains unclear in poultry. In this study, the expression patterns of a panel of genes related to neuropeptides, glucose, and lipid metabolism enzymes in the hypothalamus of chickens during fasting and refeeding were characterized by microarray analysis and quantitative PCR. Results showed that 48 h of fasting upregulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA expressions of orexigenic neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein but downregulated (P < 0...
November 2014: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23905631/binge-ethanol-induced-hdac3-down-regulates-cpt1%C3%AE-expression-leading-to-hepatic-steatosis-and-injury
#5
Irina Kirpich, Jingwen Zhang, Leila Gobejishvili, Giorgi Kharebava, David Barker, Smita Ghare, Swati Joshi-Barve, Craig J McClain, Shirish Barve
BACKGROUND: Recently, we have demonstrated that acute alcohol exposure due to binge drinking leads to hepatic steatosis with the deregulation of hepatic histone deacetylase (HDAC) expression. Various class I, II, and IV HDACs were down-regulated, whereas expression of HDAC3 was solely up-regulated. Hence, in the present work, we specifically examined the mechanistic role of HDAC3 in the development of hepatic steatosis occurring in response to binge alcohol administration. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were gavaged 3 times with ethanol (EtOH) at a dose of 4...
November 2013: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23489246/acetyl-l-carnitine-suppresses-thyroid-hormone-induced-and-spontaneous-anuran-tadpole-tail-shortening
#6
Hideki Hanada, Hirotsugu Kobuchi, Masanao Yamamoto, Keiko Kashiwagi, Kenjiro Katsu, Toshihiko Utsumi, Akihiko Kashiwagi, Junzo Sasaki, Masayasu Inoue, Kozo Utsumi
Mitochondrial membrane permeability transition (MPT) plays a crucial role in apoptotic tail shortening during anuran metamorphosis. L-carnitine is known to shuttle free fatty acids (FFAs) from the cytosol into mitochondria matrix for β-oxidation and energy production, and in a previous study we found that treatment with L-carnitine suppresses 3, 3', 5-triiodothyronine (T3 ) and FFA-induced MPT by reducing the level of FFAs. In the present study we focus on acetyl-L-carnitine, which is also involved in fatty acid oxidation, to determine its effect on T3 -induced tail regression in Rana rugosa tadpoles and spontaneous tail regression in Xenopus laevis tadpoles...
February 2013: Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21586575/regulation-of-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-4-pdk4-by-ccaat-enhancer-binding-protein-beta-c-ebpbeta
#7
Ramy R Attia, Pragya Sharma, Rachel C Janssen, Jacob E Friedman, Xiong Deng, Jae Seung Lee, Marshall B Elam, George A Cook, Edwards A Park
The conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA in mitochondria is catalyzed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). Activity of PDC is inhibited by phosphorylation via the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs). Here, we examined the regulation of Pdk4 gene expression by the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β (C/EBPβ). C/EBPβ modulates the expression of multiple hepatic genes including those involved in metabolism, development, and inflammation. We found that C/EBPβ induced Pdk4 gene expression and decreased PDC activity...
July 8, 2011: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19948729/regulation-of-pyruvate-dehydrogenase-kinase-4-pdk4-by-thyroid-hormone-role-of-the-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-gamma-coactivator-pgc-1-alpha
#8
Ramy R Attia, Sara Connnaughton, Lindsey R Boone, Fang Wang, Marshall B Elam, Gene C Ness, George A Cook, Edwards A Park
PDK4 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4) regulates pyruvate oxidation through the phosphorylation and inhibition of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). PDC catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and is an important control point in glucose and pyruvate metabolism. PDK4 gene expression is stimulated by thyroid hormone (T(3)), glucocorticoids, and long chain fatty acids. The effects of T(3) on gene expression in the liver are mediated via the thyroid hormone receptor. Here, we have identified two binding sites for thyroid hormone receptor beta in the promoter of the rat PDK4 (rPDK4) gene...
January 22, 2010: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/17478558/differential-3-5-3-triiodothyronine-mediated-regulation-of-uncoupling-protein-3-transcription-role-of-fatty-acids
#9
Pieter de Lange, Anna Feola, Maurizio Ragni, Rosalba Senese, Maria Moreno, Assunta Lombardi, Elena Silvestri, Ramon Amat, Francesc Villarroya, Fernando Goglia, Antonia Lanni
T(3) regulates energy metabolism by stimulating metabolic rate and decreasing metabolic efficiency. The discovery of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), its homology to UCP1, and regulation by T(3) rendered it a possible molecular determinant of the action of T(3) on energy metabolism, but data are controversial. This controversy may in part be attributable to discrepancies observed between the regulation by T(3) of UCP3 expression in rats, humans, and mice. To clarify this issue, we studied 1) the induction kinetics of the UCP3 gene by T(3) in rat skeletal muscle, 2) the influence of fatty acids, and 3) the structure and regulation of the various UCP3 promoters by T(3)...
August 2007: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/14584751/review-mitochondrial-medicine-cardiomyopathy-caused-by-defective-oxidative-phosphorylation
#10
REVIEW
Egil Fosslien
During experimental hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy, the heart energy metabolism reverts from the normal adult type that obtains the majority of its requirement for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from metabolism of fatty acids and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), to the fetal form, which metabolizes glucose and lactate. Mitochondrial synthesis and function require an estimated 1000 polypeptides, 37 of which are encoded by mitochondrial (mt) DNA, the rest by nuclear (n) DNA. Inherited or acquired aberrations of either mtDNA or nDNA mitochondrial genes cause mitochondrial dysfunction...
2003: Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8471068/role-of-thyroid-state-on-induction-by-ciprofibrate-of-laurate-hydroxylase-and-peroxisomal-enzymes-in-rat-liver-microsomes
#11
C Pacot, M Charmoillaux, H Goudonnet, R C Truchot, N Latruffe
The effects of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism upon liver microsomal omega-laurate hydroxylase activity (cytochrome P450 IV A1-dependent), peroxisome proliferation marker enzyme activities and acyl CoA oxidase (AOX) expression induced by ciprofibrate (2 mg/kg/day during 8 days) were studied in the male Wistar rat so as to clarify firstly the possible involvement of thyroid hormones in the modification of peroxisomal ciprofibrate-induced enzyme activities in relation to hepatic microsomal cytochrome P450 IV A1 induction, and secondly the possible direct effect of thyroid hormones on the gene expression of specific peroxisomal enzymes...
April 6, 1993: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/3426552/the-relationship-between-fat-synthesis-and-oxidation-in-the-liver-after-re-feeding-and-its-regulation-by-thyroid-hormone
#12
M J Holness, T J French, P S Schofield, M C Sugden
The administration of glucose to 48 h-starved euthyroid or hyperthyroid rats led to decreased blood concentrations of fatty acids and ketone bodies in both groups, but fatty acid concentrations were higher and ketone-body concentrations lower in the latter group. Decreased ketonaemia was not due to increased ketone-body clearance. Flux through carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 was increased, consistent with the effects of hyperthyroidism on enzyme activity demonstrated in vitro. Correlations between the concentrations of ketone bodies and long-chain acylcarnitine measured in freeze-clamped liver samples indicated that a lower proportion of the product of beta-oxidation was used for ketone-body synthesis...
November 1, 1987: Biochemical Journal
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