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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662451/risk-assessment-and-risk-minimization-in-nanomedicine-a-need-for-predictive-alternative-and-3rs-strategies
#1
REVIEW
Lisa Accomasso, Caterina Cristallini, Claudia Giachino
The use of nanomaterials in medicine has grown very rapidly, leading to a concern about possible health risks. Surely, the application of nanotechnology in medicine has many significant potentialities as it can improve human health in at least three different ways: by contributing to early disease diagnosis, improved treatment outcomes and containment of health care costs. However, toxicology or safety assessment is an integral part of any new medical technology and the nanotechnologies are no exception. The principle aim of nanosafety studies in this frame is to enable safer design of nanomedicines...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651758/the-role-of-emergency-medicine-clerkship-e-portfolio-to-monitor-the-learning-experience-of-students-in-different-settings-a-prospective-cohort-study
#2
Arif Alper Cevik, Sami Shaban, Margret El Zubeir, Fikri M Abu-Zidan
BACKGROUND: Although emergency departments provide acute care learning opportunities for medical students, student exposure to recommended curriculum presentations and procedures are limited. In this perspective, clinical environments providing learning opportunities for students should be monitored as part of an ongoing quality improvement process. This study aims to analyze student exposures and their involvement levels in two different hospitals (Tawam and Al Ain) so as to improve the teaching and learning activities...
April 12, 2018: International Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649399/a-rules-based-algorithm-to-prioritize-poor-prognosis-cancer-patients-in-need-of-advance-care-planning
#3
Christine M Bestvina, Kristen E Wroblewski, Bobby Daly, Brittany Beach, Selina Chow, Andrew Hantel, Monica Malec, Michael T Huber, Blase N Polite
BACKGROUND: Accurate understanding of the prognosis of an advanced cancer patient can lead to decreased aggressive care at the end of life and earlier hospice enrollment. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to determine the association between high-risk clinical events identified by a simple, rules-based algorithm and decreased overall survival, to target poor prognosis cancer patients who would urgently benefit from advanced care planning. DESIGN: A retrospective analysis was performed on outpatient oncology patients with an index visit from April 1, 2015, through June 30, 2015...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629681/antibiotic-prescribing-practice-and-adherence-to-guidelines-in-primary-care-in-the-cape-town-metro-district-south-africa
#4
J Gasson, M Blockman, B Willems
BACKGROUND: Knowledge of antibiotic prescribing practice in primary care in South Africa is limited. As 80% of human antibiotic use is in primary care, this knowledge is important in view of the global problem of antibiotic resistance. OBJECTIVES: To assess antibiotic prescribing in primary care facilities in the Cape Town Metro District and compare it with current national guidelines, and to assess the reasons why prescriptions were not adherent to guidelines. METHODS: A retrospective medical record review was performed in April/May 2016...
March 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627355/contemporary-reviews-in-critical-care-medicine-atrial-fibrillation-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#5
REVIEW
Nicholas A Bosch, Jonathan Cimini, Allan J Walkey
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia encountered in the intensive care unit. Pre-existing AF is highly prevalent among older patients with chronic conditions who are at risk for critical illness, while new-onset AF can be triggered by accelerated atrial remodeling and arrhythmogenic triggers encountered during critical illness. The acute loss of atrial systole and onset of rapid ventricular rates that characterize new-onset AF often lead to decreased cardiac output and hemodynamic compromise...
April 5, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575112/the-what-when-and-why-of-human-prostate-cancer-xenografts
#6
REVIEW
W Nathaniel Brennen, John T Isaacs
BACKGROUND: Presently, ∼85 serially transplantable human prostate cancer xenografts spanning the phenotypic, epigenetic, and genetic heterogeneity seen clinically are available in a variety of laboratories throughout the world. If distributed to the prostate cancer research community, these can provide an experimental platform for resolving the specificity versus generalizability of basic cancer biology principles (eg, credentialing of therapeutic molecular targets) and for validating translational approaches for prevention, diagnosis, and therapy...
March 24, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574586/precision-medicine-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis-with-nasal-polyps
#7
REVIEW
Klementina Avdeeva, Wytske Fokkens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic rhinosinusitis is a disease with high prevalence, significant impact on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and it is associated with substantial healthcare and productivity costs. We face an urgent need to improve the level of disease control and achieve higher patient satisfaction and disease prevention. Precision medicine is increasingly recognized as the way forward in optimal patient care. The combination of personalized care, prevention of disease, prediction of success of treatment, and participation of the patient in the elaboration of the treatment plan is expected to guarantee the best possible therapeutic approach for individuals suffering from a chronic disabling condition...
March 24, 2018: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562541/patient-engagement-the-fundaci%C3%A3-ace-framework-for-improving-recruitment-and-retention-in-alzheimer-s-disease-research
#8
Mercè Boada, Miguel A Santos-Santos, Octavio Rodríguez-Gómez, Montserrat Alegret, Pilar Cañabate, Asunción Lafuente, Carla Abdelnour, Mar Buendía, Maria José de Dios, América Morera, Ángela Sanabria, Laura Campo, Agustín Ruiz, Lluís Tárraga
Alzheimer's disease (AD) research is at a critical time. The global society is increasingly aware of the frightening rate of growth of the human and financial burden caused by this condition and of the urgent need to halt its progression. Consequently, the scientific community holds great responsibility to quickly put in place and optimize the machinery necessary for testing new treatments or interventions. In this context demand for participants for AD research is at an all-time high. In this review, we will focus on a methodological factor that is increasingly recognized as a key factor that shapes trial populations and affects validity of results in clinical trials: patient engagement, recruitment, and retention...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29548923/precision-medicine-for-drug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-high-burden-countries-is-individualised-treatment-desirable-and-feasible
#9
REVIEW
Helen Cox, Jennifer Hughes, John Black, Mark P Nicol
Treatment for drug-resistant tuberculosis is largely delivered through standardised, empirical combination regimens in low-resource, high-burden settings. However, individualised treatment, guided by detailed drug susceptibility testing, probably results in improved individual outcomes and is the standard of care in well-resourced settings. Driven by the urgent need to scale up treatment provision, new tuberculosis drugs, incorporated into standardised regimens, are being tested. Although standardised regimens are expected to improve access to treatment in high-burden settings, they are also likely to contribute to the emergence of resistance, even with good clinical management...
March 13, 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543146/-oral-drops-unsafe-or-unwieldy-method-of-administration
#10
D A van Riet-Nales, E D Nijholt-Faber, A de Boer
The Netherlands Medicines Evaluation Board (MEB) was recently informed about a serious pipamperone overdose in a 6-year-old boy, which happened because the boy was given the medication in streams rather than in drops. This article describes the use of drops in pharmaceutical patient care and explains why the MEB has maintained marketing authorization for the product on the basis of currently available information. The MEB urgently requests the healthcare professional groups to report all problems concerning drug use to the Netherlands Pharmacovigilance Centre Lareb, and the Portal for Patient Safety; this is the only way in which it can be verified whether incidental medication errors are actually, and continue to be, incidental...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542108/improving-care-using-a-bidirectional-geriatric-cardiology-consultative-conference
#11
Eleonore V Grant, Adam H Skolnick, Joshua Chodosh, Michael H Perskin, Nicole M Orr, Caroline Blaum, John A Dodson
More than 13 million persons in the United States aged 65 and older have cardiovascular disease (CVD), and this population is expected to increase exponentially over the next several decades. In the absence of clinical studies that would inform how best to manage this population, there is an urgent need for collaborative, thoughtful approaches to their care. Although cardiologists are traditionally regarded as leaders in the care of older adults with CVD, these individuals have multiple comorbidities, physiological differences, and distinct goals of care than younger patients that require a specialized geriatric lens...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531100/use-of-asthma-apgar-tools-in-primary-care-practices-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Barbara P Yawn, Peter C Wollan, Matthew A Rank, Susan L Bertram, Young Juhn, Wilson Pace
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess patient and practice outcomes after introducing the Asthma APGAR (Activities, Persistent, triGGers, Asthma medications, Response to therapy) tools into primary care practices. METHODS: We used a pragmatic cluster-randomized controlled design in 18 US family medicine and pediatric practices to compare outcomes in patients with persistent asthma aged 5 to 45 years after introduction of the Asthma APGAR tools vs usual care...
March 2018: Annals of Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530444/technology-enhanced-simulation-improves-trainee-readiness-transitioning-to-cardiothoracic-training
#13
Patrick G Chan, Lara W Schaheen, Ernest G Chan, Chris C Cook, James D Luketich, Jonathan D'Cunha
OBJECTIVE: Transitioning from medical school and general surgery training to cardiothoracic (CT) surgical training poses unique challenges for trainees and patient care. We hypothesized that participation in technology-enhanced simulation modules that provided early exposure to urgent/emergent CT patient problems would improve cognitive skills and readiness to manage common urgencies/emergencies. DESIGN: Traditional and integrated cardiothoracic residents at our institution participated in a technology-enhanced simulation curriculum...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512070/blood-based-biomarker-screening-with-agnostic-biological-definitions-for-an-accurate-diagnosis-within-the-dimensional-spectrum-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#14
Filippo Baldacci, Simone Lista, Sid E O'Bryant, Roberto Ceravolo, Nicola Toschi, Harald Hampel
The discovery, development, and validation of novel candidate biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are increasingly gaining momentum. As a result, evolving diagnostic research criteria of NDs are beginning to integrate biofluid and neuroimaging indicators of pathophysiological mechanisms. More than 10% of people aged over 65 suffer from NDs. There is an urgent need for a refined two-stage diagnostic model to first initiate an early, sensitive, and noninvasive process in primary care settings...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502347/acupuncture-for-depression
#15
REVIEW
Caroline A Smith, Mike Armour, Myeong Soo Lee, Li-Qiong Wang, Phillipa J Hay
BACKGROUND: Depression is recognised as a major public health problem that has a substantial impact on individuals and on society. People with depression may consider using complementary therapies such as acupuncture, and an increasing body of research has been undertaken to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression. This is the second update of this review. OBJECTIVES: To examine the effectiveness and adverse effects of acupuncture for treatment of individuals with depression...
March 4, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495476/potential-for-bacteriophage-endolysins-to-supplement-or-replace-antibiotics-in-food-production-and-clinical-care
#16
REVIEW
Michael J Love, Dinesh Bhandari, Renwick C J Dobson, Craig Billington
There is growing concern about the emergence of bacterial strains showing resistance to all classes of antibiotics commonly used in human medicine. Despite the broad range of available antibiotics, bacterial resistance has been identified for every antimicrobial drug developed to date. Alarmingly, there is also an increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, rendering some patients effectively untreatable. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop alternatives to conventional antibiotics for use in the treatment of both humans and food-producing animals...
February 27, 2018: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456356/the-current-state-of-rural-neurosurgical-practice-an-international-perspective
#17
REVIEW
Pavan S Upadhyayula, John K Yue, Jason Yang, Harjus S Birk, Joseph D Ciacci
Introduction: Rural and low-resource areas have diminished capacity to care for neurosurgical patients due to lack of infrastructure, healthcare investment, and training programs. This review summarizes the range of rural neurosurgical procedures, novel mechanisms for delivering care, rapid training programs, and outcome differences across international rural neurosurgical practice. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed for English language manuscripts with keywords "rural" and "neurosurgery" using the National Library of Medicine PubMed database (01/1971-06/2017)...
January 2018: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446766/are-whole-exome-and-whole-genome-sequencing-approaches-cost-effective-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#18
Katharina Schwarze, James Buchanan, Jenny C Taylor, Sarah Wordsworth
PurposeWe conducted a systematic literature review to summarize the current health economic evidence for whole-exome sequencing (WES) and whole-genome sequencing (WGS).MethodsRelevant studies were identified in the EMBASE, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, EconLit and University of York Centre for Reviews and Dissemination databases from January 2005 to July 2016. Publications were included in the review if they were economic evaluations, cost studies, or outcome studies.ResultsThirty-six studies met our inclusion criteria...
February 15, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440815/aspiring-pain-practitioners-in-india-assessing-challenges-and-building-opportunities
#19
Sushma Bhatnagar, Anuradha Patel, Srinivasa N Raja
Background: Pain medicine is a developing specialty, aimed at relieving pain and suffering, enhancing function, and improving the quality of life of patients. Pain is often ignored, under-reported and mismanaged by health-care providers. Aspiring pain physicians in India face many challenges and barriers in advancing their specialty. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the challenges in establishing a pain practice in India and to discuss the opportunities and strategies to overcome these barriers...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420761/chinese-military-evaluation-of-a-portable-near-infrared-detector-of-traumatic-intracranial-hematomas
#20
Chun-Yang Liang, Yang Yang, Chun-Sen Shen, Hai-Jiang Wang, Nai-Ming Liu, Zhi-Wen Wang, Feng-Lei Zhu, Ru-Xiang Xu
Introduction: Secondary brain injury is the main cause of mortality from traumatic brain injury (TBI). One hallmark of TBI is intracranial hemorrhage, which occurs in 40-50% of severe TBI cases. Early identification of intracranial hematomas in TBI patients allows early surgical evacuation and can reduce the case fatality rate of TBI. As pre-hospital care is the weakest part of Chinese emergency care, there is an urgent need for a capability to detect brain hematomas early. In China, in addition to preventing injuries and diseases in military staff and in enhancing the military armed forces during war, military medicine participates in actions such as emergency public health crises, natural disasters, emerging conflicts, and anti-terrorist campaigns during peacetime...
February 6, 2018: Military Medicine
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