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Tlr4 itch

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26645545/toll-like-receptor-4-contributes-to-chronic-itch-alloknesis-and-spinal-astrocyte-activation-in-male-mice
#1
Tong Liu, Qingjian Han, Gang Chen, Ya Huang, Lin-Xia Zhao, Temugin Berta, Yong-Jing Gao, Ru-Rong Ji
Increasing evidence suggests that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) contributes importantly to spinal cord glial activation and chronic pain sensitization; however, its unique role in acute and chronic itch is unclear. In this study, we investigated the involvement of TLR4 in acute and chronic itch models in male mice using both transgenic and pharmacological approaches. Tlr4 mice exhibited normal acute itch induced by compound 48/80 and chloroquine, but these mice showed substantial reductions in scratching in chronic itch models of dry skin, induced by acetone and diethylether followed by water (AEW), contact dermatitis, and allergic contact dermatitis on the neck...
April 2016: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26244698/a-novel-role-of-numb-as-a-regulator-of-pro-inflammatory-cytokine-production-in-macrophages-in-response-to-toll-like-receptor-4
#2
Patipark Kueanjinda, Sittiruk Roytrakul, Tanapat Palaga
Activation of macrophages triggers the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines leading to inflammation. Numb is a negative regulator of Notch signaling, but the role of Numb in macrophages is not fully understood. In this study, the role of Numb as a regulator of inflammatory responses in macrophages was investigated. Murine bone marrow-derived macrophages, in which expression of Numb was silenced, secreted significantly less TNFα, IL-6 and IL-12 and more IL-10 upon activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a ligand for Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), despite increased Notch signaling...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25861777/itch-control-by-toll-like-receptors
#3
REVIEW
Sarah Taves, Ru-Rong Ji
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are cellular sensors designed to recognize molecular danger signals associated with exogenous or endogenous threats. Their activation leads to initiation of the host's immune responses in order to remove or contain the danger. However, one of the most effective methods of defense against invading pathogens and parasites is itch. The perception of itch elicits the rapid defensive action to scratch, which can remove the offending pathogen or parasite before infection can occur. Recent findings show that TLRs such as TLR3, TLR4, and TLR7 are expressed in a subset of pruriceptive/nociceptive neurons in the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglion providing a direct link between TLR activation and itch...
2015: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25139109/tlr4-enhances-histamine-mediated-pruritus-by-potentiating-trpv1-activity
#4
Hyunjung Min, Hyunkyoung Lee, Hyoungsub Lim, Yong Ho Jang, Sung Jun Chung, C Justin Lee, Sung Joong Lee
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have indicated that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a pathogen-recognition receptor that triggers inflammatory signals in innate immune cells, is also expressed on sensory neurons, implicating its putative role in sensory signal transmission. However, the possible function of sensory neuron TLR4 has not yet been formally addressed. In this regard, we investigated the role of TLR4 in itch signal transmission. RESULTS: TLR4 was expressed on a subpopulation of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory neurons that express TRPV1...
2014: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23174050/sig1273-a-new-cosmetic-functional-ingredient-to-reduce-blemishes-and-propionibacterium-acnes-in-acne-prone-skin
#5
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
José R Fernandéz, Karl Rouzard, Michael Voronkov, Xuyan Feng, Jeffry B Stock, Maxwell Stock, Joel S Gordon, Braham Shroot, Michael S Christensen, Eduardo Pérez
BACKGROUND: Propionibacterium acnes is a major contributing factor to the inflammatory component of acne. The interaction of P. acnes with keratinocytes leads to an innate immune response via activation of toll-like receptors (TLR2, TLR4) resulting in the production and secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators. SIG1273, an isoprenylcysteine small molecule modulates inflammatory signaling pathways and kills P. acnes. SIG1273 represents a novel cosmetic functional ingredient that provides relief from blemishes in acne prone skin...
December 2012: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23163649/establishing-an-allergic-eczema-model-employing-recombinant-house-dust-mite-allergens-der-p-1-and-der-p-2-in-balb-c-mice
#6
Krisztina Szalai, Tamara Kopp, Anna Lukschal, Caroline Stremnitzer, Julia Wallmann, Philipp Starkl, Luc Vander Elst, Jean-Marie Saint-Remy, Isabella Pali-Schöll, Erika Jensen-Jarolim
The major house dust mite allergens Der p 1 and Der p 2 are prevalent inducers of eczema. Der p 1 is a cysteine protease disrupting epithelial barriers, whereas Der p 2 functionally mimics the LPS-binding compound MD-2 within the TLR4 complex. In this work, we tested the percutaneous sensitizing capacity of recombinant (r) Der p 1 and Der p 2 in BALB/c mice. Mice were sensitized by percutaneous application of low (10 μg/application) and high dose (100 μg) rDer p 1 or rDer p 2, or with rDer p 1 followed by rDer p 2...
November 2012: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22466124/emerging-role-of-toll-like-receptors-in-the-control-of-pain-and-itch
#7
REVIEW
Tong Liu, Yong-Jing Gao, Ru-Rong Ji
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are germline-encoded pattern-recognition receptors that initiate innate immune responses by recognizing molecular structures shared by a wide range of pathogens, known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). After tissue injury or cellular stress, TLRs also detect endogenous ligands known as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). TLRs are expressed in both non-neuronal and neuronal cell types in the central nervous system (CNS) and contribute to both infectious and non-infectious disorders in the CNS...
April 2012: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21255673/inflammation-induced-airway-smooth-muscle-responsiveness-is-strain-dependent-in-mice
#8
REVIEW
Jesper Säfholm, Cecilia Lövdahl, Linda Swedin, Piet J M Boels, Sven-Erik Dahlén, Anders Arner, Mikael Adner
Different mouse strains display different degrees of inflammation-induced airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo. It is not known whether these variations are attributable to distinct properties of the airway smooth muscle. Therefore, tracheal ring segments from C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice were exposed to three different pro-inflammatory stimuli for 4 days while maintained under tissue-culture conditions: tumour necrosis factor α (100 ng/ml), the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 agonist polyI:C (10 μg/ml), and the TLR4 agonist LPS (10 μg/ml)...
August 2011: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
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