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Cancer immunity cycle

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927119/effect-of-glutamine-enriched-nutritional-support-on-intestinal-mucosal-barrier-function-mmp-2-mmp-9-and-immune-function-in-patients-with-advanced-gastric-cancer-during-perioperative-chemotherapy
#1
Juan Wang, Yanfen Li, Yuanling Qi
We studied the effects of glutamine-enriched nutritional support on intestinal mucosal barrier, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9 and immune function during perioperative chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastric cancer. The study was conducted on 94 patients with advanced gastric cancer admitted from April 2015 to March 2016. They were randomly divided into observation and control groups, n=47. Control group was given basic nutritional support whereas glutamine-enriched nutritional support was given to patients in observation group...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927065/mast-cell-chymase-affects-the-proliferation-and-metastasis-of-lung-carcinoma-cells-in-vitro
#2
Yuan Jiang, Yudan Wu, William James Hardie, Xiaoying Zhou
Metastasis of lung carcinoma cells is a major cause of organ failure and mortality of patients with lung cancer. Lung mast cells are a type of immune cell which reside in the respiratory mucosa. High numbers of mast cells are associated with the majority of common types of cancer; however, the effects of mast cells on cancer remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of mast cell chymase (MCC) on the proliferation and adhesion of the lung carcinoma cell lines A549 and H520 was investigated. After 24 h of treatment, the highest dose of MCC (50 mU/ml) decreased the proliferation rate of A549 and H520 cells, whereas the lowest dose of MCC (5 mU/ml) resulted in a small increase in the viability...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925398/functional-significance-and-therapeutic-implication-of-ring-type-e3-ligases-in-colorectal-cancer
#3
REVIEW
L Liu, C C Wong, B Gong, J Yu
Accumulative studies revealed that E3 ubiquitin ligases have important roles in colorectal carcinogenesis. The pathogenic mechanisms of colorectal cancer (CRC) initiation and progression are complex and heterogeneous, involving somatic mutations, abnormal gene fusion, deletion or amplification and epigenetic alteration, which may cause aberrant expression or altered function of E3 ligases in CRC. Defects of E3 ligases have been reported to be involved in the molecular etiology and pathogenesis of CRC. The aberrant expressed E3 ligases can function as either oncogenes or tumor suppressors depending on ubiquiting target substrates in CRC...
September 18, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919922/anti-tumor-effects-of-the-american-cockroach-periplaneta-americana
#4
REVIEW
Yanan Zhao, Ailin Yang, Pengfei Tu, Zhongdong Hu
Since the incidence of cancer has been on the rise due to increasing exposure to various carcinogenic factors in recent years, cancer has gradually become the first killer to the health of human beings. A growing attention has been paid to anti-cancer effects of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) with low toxicity and good efficacy. As a kind of TCM, Periplaneta americana (P. americana) has a good effect on clinical application, and its anti-tumor effects has been increasingly well studied. In this review, the research progress on the anti-tumor effects of P...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913619/bile-duct-obstruction-in-a-patient-treated-with-nivolumab-as-second-line-chemotherapy-for-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-a-case-report
#5
Jumpei Kashima, Yusuke Okuma, Ryoko Shimizuguchi, Kazuro Chiba
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are becoming a standard therapy for non-small-cell lung cancer in the advanced stage. As these ICIs become widely available in clinical practice, immune-related adverse effects will become more common. Here we report a patient with lung adenocarcinoma who was treated with nivolumab and developed obstruction because of biliary inflammation. A 63-year-old Japanese man having lung adenocarcinoma with pleural dissemination complained of epigastric pain on the fifth cycle of nivolumab...
September 14, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912872/preclinical-trial-of-the-multi-targeted-lenvatinib-in-combination-with-cellular-immunotherapy-for-treatment-of-renal-cell-carcinoma
#6
Chengkuan Cai, Jingyuan Tang, Baixin Shen, Liucheng Ding, Yunpeng Shao, Zhengsen Chen, Yinchao Ma, Haoliang Xue, Zhongqing Wei
Lenvatinib is an oral, multi-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptors 1-3, fibroblast growth factor receptors 1-4, platelet-derived growth factor receptor β, RET and KIT. Cellular immunotherapy has the potential to be a highly targeted treatment, with low toxicity to normal tissues and a high capacity to eradicate tumor tissue. The present study assessed the safety, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and preliminary antitumor activity of lenvatinib and cellular immunotherapy in a murine model of renal cell carcinoma (RCC)...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912136/tumor-resection-boosts-therapeutic-efficacy-of-encapsulated-stem-cells-expressing-a-highly-secretable-variant-of-interferon-%C3%AE-in-glioblastomas
#7
Sung Hugh Choi, Daniel W Stuckey, Sara Pignatta, Clemens Reinshagen, Jasneet K Khalsa, Nicolaas C Roozendaal, Jordi Martinez-Quintanilla, Kaoru Tamura, Erhan Keles, Khalid Shah
PURPOSE: Despite tumor resection being the frontline clinical care for glioblastoma (GBM) patients, nearly all preclinical immune therapy models intends to treat established GBM tumor. Characterizing cytoreductive surgery-induced immune-response combined with the administration of immune cytokines has the potential of offering a new treatment paradigm of immune therapy for GBMs.  Experimental design: We developed syngeneic orthotopic mouse GBM models of tumor-resection and characterized the immune response of intact and resected tumors...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911826/immunoproteasome-selective-and-non-selective-inhibitors-a-promising-approach-for-the-treatment-of-multiple-myeloma
#8
REVIEW
Roberta Ettari, Maria Zappalà, Silvana Grasso, Caterina Musolino, Vanessa Innao, Alessandro Allegra
The ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) is the major non-lysosomal proteolytic system for the degradation of abnormal or damaged proteins no longer required. The proteasome is involved in degradation of numerous proteins which regulate the cell cycle, indicating a role in controlling cell proliferation and maintaining cell survival. Defects in the UPS can lead to anarchic cell proliferation and to tumor development. For these reasons UPS inhibition has become a significant new strategy for drug development in cancer treatment...
September 11, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888400/characterization-of-inflammasome-related-genes-in-urine-sediments-of-patients-receiving-intravesical-bcg-therapy
#9
Giulia Poli, Giovanni Cochetti, Andrea Boni, Maria Giulia Egidi, Stefano Brancorsini, Ettore Mearini
BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) instillation is the method of choice for the postsurgical treatment of high-grade nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer , to reduce both recurrence rate and risk of progression. BCG is hypothesized to correct the immune system disequilibrium occurring during carcinogenesis, through an immunostimulation with detrimental effects for tumoral cells. Inflammation plays a crucial role in tumor progression. The deregulation of inflammasomes upon carcinogenesis underlines its importance both in physiologic and pathologic human conditions...
September 6, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887158/lack-of-association-of-casc8-rs1447295-with-colorectal-cancer-in-iranian-population-a-multicenter-case-control-study
#10
Monir Sadat Haerian, Batoul Sadat Haerian, Saadat Molanaei, Farid Kosari, Shahram Sabeti, Farahnaz Bidari-Zerehpoosh, Ebrahim Abdolali
Several studies reported the potential role of the rs1447295 polymorphism in susceptibility to cancer. This variant located in the cancer susceptibility candidate 8 (CASC8) is a long noncoding RNA (lnRNA) gene and does not code protein. LnRNA transcripts play a potential regulatory role in the expression of key genes involved in multiple cellular pathways, including cell cycle, pluripotency, and immune response. The aim of this study is to evaluate this association with colorectal cancer (CRC) in a large case-control study of the Iranian population...
September 5, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884000/catabolic-and-anabolic-faces-of-insulin-resistance-and-their-disorders-a-new-insight-into-circadian-control-of-metabolic-disorders-leading-to-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Polina M Schwartsburd
Maintenance of glucose homeostasis during circadian behavioral cycles is critical. The processes controlling the switch between predominant lipolysis/fatty oxidation during fasting and predominant lipid storage/glucose oxidation following feeding are determined principally by insulin. Chronic elevated threshold of insulin resistance (IR) is a key pathological feature of obesity, Type 2 diabetes, sepsis and cancer cachexia; however, a temporal reduced threshold of IR is widely met in fasting/hibernation, pregnancy, antibacterial immunity, exercise and stress...
August 2017: Future Science OA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883079/folate-dietary-insufficiency-and-folic-acid-supplementation-similarly-impair-metabolism-and-compromise-hematopoiesis
#12
Curtis J Henry, Travis Nemkov, Matias Casas-Selves, Ganna Bilousova, Vadym Zaberezhnyy, Kelly C Higa, Natalie J Serkova, Krik C Hansen, Angelo D' Alessandro, James DeGregori
While dietary folate deficiency is associated with increased risk for birth defects and other diseases, evidence suggests that supplementation with folic acid can contribute to predisposition to some diseases, including immune dysfunction and cancer. Here we show that diets supplemented with folic acid both below and above the recommended levels led to significantly altered metabolism in multiple tissues in mice. Surprisingly, both low and excessive dietary folate induced similar metabolic changes, which were particularly evident for nucleotide biosynthetic pathways in B-progenitor cells...
September 7, 2017: Haematologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877632/case-report-pembrolizumab-induced-type-1-diabetes-in-a-patient-with-metastatic-cholangiocarcinoma
#13
Matthew A Smith-Cohn, David Gill, Benjamin N Voorhies, Neeraj Agarwal, Ignacio Garrido-Laguna
BACKGROUND:  Immune checkpoint inhibitors are novel cancer therapies associated with numerous autoimmune toxicities, some of which are only now being appreciated. CASE PRESENTATION:  A 67-year old female with metastatic cholangiocarcinoma and no prior history of diabetes was treated with leucovorin, fluorouracil, oxaliplatin and pembrolizumab. After eight cycles, she developed new onset type 1 diabetes mellitus with positive glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody titers...
September 2017: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874144/circadian-disruption-promotes-tumor-growth-by-anabolic-host-metabolism-experimental-evidence-in-a-rat-model
#14
Natalí N Guerrero-Vargas, Raful Navarro-Espíndola, Mara A Guzmán-Ruíz, María Del Carmen Basualdo, Estefania Espitia-Bautista, Ana López-Bago, Ricardo Lascurain, Cinthya Córdoba-Manilla, Ruud M Buijs, Carolina Escobar
BACKGROUND: Light at night creates a conflicting signal to the biological clock and disrupts circadian physiology. In rodents, light at night increases the risk to develop mood disorders, overweight, disrupted energy metabolism, immune dysfunction and cancer. We hypothesized that constant light (LL) in rats may facilitate tumor growth via disrupted metabolism and increased inflammatory response in the host, inducing a propitious microenvironment for tumor cells. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were exposed to LL or a regular light-dark cycle (LD) for 5 weeks...
September 6, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873125/neurological-complications-associated-with-anti-programmed-death-1-pd-1-antibodies
#15
Justin C Kao, Bing Liao, Svetomir N Markovic, Christopher J Klein, Elie Naddaf, Nathan P Staff, Teerin Liewluck, Julie E Hammack, Paola Sandroni, Heidi Finnes, Michelle L Mauermann
Importance: Neurological complications are an increasingly recognized consequence of the use of anti-programmed death 1 (PD-1) antibodies in the treatment of solid-organ tumors, with an estimated frequency of 4.2%. To date, the clinical spectrum and optimum treatment approach are not established. Objective: To investigate the frequency, clinical spectrum, and optimum treatment approach to neurological complications associated with anti-PD-1 therapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center, retrospective cohort study was conducted from either September or December 2014 (the approval dates of the study drugs by the US Food and Drug Administration) to May 19, 2016...
September 5, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870783/19p13-3-gadd45b-common-variants-and-19q13-3-ppp1r13l-and-19q13-3-cd3eap-in-lung-cancer-risk-among-chinese
#16
Wei Hou, Jiaoyang Yin, Ulla Vogel, Zhenxiang Sun, Duohong Liang
Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. The GADD45 gene family plays important roles in a variety of the responses to cell injury including cell cycle checkpoints, apoptosis, DNA repair and anti-tumor immunity. The 19p13.3-GADD45B encoded protein product is involved in apoptosis and inhibiting tumor growth. To evaluate the association of 19p13.3-GADD45B common variants and lung cancer risk, the present study containing 544 Chinese lung cancer cases and 550 cancer-free controls was conducted...
September 1, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869866/synergistic-antitumor-effect-mediated-by-a-paclitaxel-conjugated-polymeric-micelle-coated-oncolytic-adenovirus
#17
Dayananda Kasala, Soo-Hwan Lee, Jin Woo Hong, Joung-Woo Choi, Kihoon Nam, Yoon Ho Chung, Sung Wan Kim, Chae-Ok Yun
Combination treatment consisting of oncolytic adenovirus (Ad) and paclitaxel (PTX) is a promising strategy to achieve synergistic antitumor effect. However, a co-administration approach is subject to inherent limitations due to the poor solubility of PTX and chemoresistance of tumor cells. In order to overcome these limitations, an oncolytic Ad expressing a p53 variant (oAd-vp53) that is resistant to p53 inactivation in the tumor microenvironment was complexed with PEGylated and PTX-conjugated polymeric micelle (APP)...
August 23, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865151/immune-evasion-mechanisms-of-human-papillomavirus-an-update
#18
REVIEW
Alina Steinbach, Angelika B Riemer
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most frequently sexually transmitted agent in the world. It can cause cervical and other ano-genital malignancies, as well as oropharyngeal cancer. HPV has the unique ability to persist in the host's epithelium for a long time - longer than most viruses do - which is necessary to complete its replication cycle. To this end, HPV has developed a variety of immune evasion mechanisms, which unfortunately also favor the progression of the disease from infection to chronic dysplasia and eventually to cancer...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863449/glioblastoma-targeted-therapy-updated-approaches-from-recent-biological-insights
#19
M Touat, A Idbaih, M Sanson, K L Ligon
Glioblastoma (WHO grade IV astrocytoma) is the most frequent primary brain tumor in adults, representing a highly heterogeneous group of neoplasms that are among the most aggressive and challenging cancers to treat. An improved understanding of the molecular pathways that drive malignancy in glioblastoma has led to the development of various biomarkers and the evaluation of several agents specifically targeting tumor cells and the tumor microenvironment. A number of rational approaches are being investigated, including therapies targeting tumor growth factor receptors and downstream pathways, cell cycle and epigenetic regulation, angiogenesis and antitumor immune response...
July 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862667/epigenetic-alterations-in-human-papillomavirus-associated-cancers
#20
REVIEW
David Soto, Christine Song, Margaret E McLaughlin-Drubin
Approximately 15-20% of human cancers are caused by viruses, including human papillomaviruses (HPVs). Viruses are obligatory intracellular parasites and encode proteins that reprogram the regulatory networks governing host cellular signaling pathways that control recognition by the immune system, proliferation, differentiation, genomic integrity, and cell death. Given that key proteins in these regulatory networks are also subject to mutation in non-virally associated diseases and cancers, the study of oncogenic viruses has also been instrumental to the discovery and analysis of many fundamental cellular processes, including messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing, transcriptional enhancers, oncogenes and tumor suppressors, signal transduction, immune regulation, and cell cycle control...
September 1, 2017: Viruses
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