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Cancer immunity cycle

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811972/uncovering-the-immunotherapeutic-cycle-initiated-by-p19arf-and-interferon-%C3%AE-gene-transfer-to-cancer-cells-an-inducer-of-immunogenic-cell-death
#1
REVIEW
Ruan F V Medrano, Aline Hunger, João P P Catani, Bryan E Strauss
Simultaneous reestablishment of p53/p19(Arf) and interferon-β pathways in melanoma cells culminates in a cell death process that displays features of necroptosis along with the release of immunogenic cell death molecules and unleashes an antitumor immune response mediated by natural killer cells, neutrophils as well as CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes.
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811904/concurrence-of-nivolumab-induced-interstitial-lung-disease-and-cancer-invasion
#2
Osamu Kanai, Koichi Nakatani, Kohei Fujita, Misato Okamura, Tadashi Mio
Nivolumab improves overall survival rates of patients with advanced or recurrent non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Among immune-related adverse events caused by nivolumab, interstitial lung disease (ILD) is a clinically serious and potentially life-threatening toxicity, for which appropriate treatment is needed immediately. However, ILD is sometimes difficult to distinguish from invasive lung adenocarcinoma using only computed tomography (CT) findings. A 71-year-old man was diagnosed with advanced lung adenocarcinoma...
November 2017: Respirology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810596/expression-of-kruppel-like-factor-8-and-ki67-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-and-prognosis
#3
Yifei Liu, Xiufang Yao, Qing Zhang, Li Qian, Jia Feng, Tingting Bian, Jianguo Zhang, Ye Tian
Kruppel-like factor 8 (KLF8) belongs to the KLF family and has various roles in the regulation of the cell cycle, proliferation and tumor genesis. KLF8 is overexpressed in gastric, ovarian, breast and renal cancer. Additionally, KLF8 may affect invasion and metastasis of tumors. However, whether KLF8 also acts as an ontogeny in lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between KLF8 expression and various clinical and pathological parameters. Western blot assays and immune histochemistry analyses revealed that KLF8 level in LAC tissues was higher than that in the normal lung tissues and KLF8 expression was significantly associated with clinical variables (P<0...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803721/conditioning-neoadjuvant-therapies-for-improved-immunotherapy-of-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Zachary Benson, Saeed H Manjili, Mehran Habibi, Georgi Guruli, Amir A Toor, Kyle K Payne, Masoud H Manjili
Recent advances in the treatment of melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by combining conventional therapies with anti-PD1/PD-L1 immunotherapies, have renewed interests in immunotherapy of cancer. The emerging concept of conventional cancer therapies combined with immunotherapy differs from the classical concept in that it is not simply taking advantage of their additive anti-tumor effects, but it is to use certain therapeutic regimens to condition the tumor microenvironment for optimal response to immunotherapy...
August 10, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798073/the-human-papillomavirus-replication-cycle-and-its-links-to-cancer-progression-a-comprehensive-review
#5
REVIEW
Sheila V Graham
HPVs (human papillomaviruses) infect epithelial cells and their replication cycle is intimately linked to epithelial differentiation. There are over 200 different HPV genotypes identified to date and each displays a strict tissue specificity for infection. HPV infection can result in a range of benign lesions, for example verrucas on the feet, common warts on the hands, or genital warts. HPV infects dividing basal epithelial cells where its dsDNA episomal genome enters the nuclei. Upon basal cell division, an infected daughter cell begins the process of keratinocyte differentiation that triggers a tightly orchestrated pattern of viral gene expression to accomplish a productive infection...
September 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790359/nijmegen-breakage-syndrome-fibroblasts-and-ipscs-cellular-models-for-uncovering-disease-associated-signaling-pathways-and-establishing-a-screening-platform-for-anti-oxidants
#6
Barbara Mlody, Wasco Wruck, Soraia Martins, Karl Sperling, James Adjaye
Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) is associated with cancer predisposition, premature aging, immune deficiency, microcephaly and is caused by mutations in the gene coding for NIBRIN (NBN) which is involved in DNA damage repair. Dermal-derived fibroblasts from NBS patients were reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) in order to bypass premature senescence. The influence of antioxidants on intracellular levels of ROS and DNA damage were screened and it was found that EDHB-an activator of the hypoxia pathway, decreased DNA damage in the presence of high oxidative stress...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780632/hsp90-a-promising-broad-spectrum-antiviral-drug-target
#7
REVIEW
Yiliang Wang, Fujun Jin, Rongze Wang, Feng Li, Yanting Wu, Kaio Kitazato, Yifei Wang
The emergence of antiviral drug-resistant mutants is the most important issue in current antiviral therapy. As obligate parasites, viruses require host factors for efficient replication. An ideal therapeutic target to prevent drug-resistance development is represented by host factors that are crucial for the viral life cycle. Recent studies have indicated that heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a crucial host factor that is required by many viruses for multiple phases of their life cycle including viral entry, nuclear import, transcription, and replication...
August 5, 2017: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776423/immunomodulatory-effects-of-current-cancer-treatment-and-the-consequences-for-follow-up-immunotherapeutics
#8
Meghan J Mooradian, Ryan J Sullivan
Recent advances in the use of immunotherapy have led to historic advancements in the field of oncology. Checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated significant effectiveness against a broadening range of cancers. However, despite the success of antibodies against the immune regulators, CTLA4 and PD-L1/PD-1, only a subset of patients will have a durable response to these therapies, which implies that a broader view of cancer immunity is required. It is becoming increasingly apparent that combination therapy to target multiple events in the cancer-immunity cycle is needed and could potentially extend the benefit of immunotherapy to a larger population...
August 4, 2017: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765323/tumor-treating-fields-a-fourth-modality-in-cancer-treatment
#9
Elijah J Mun, Hani M Babiker, Uri Weinberg, Eilon D Kirson, Daniel D Von Hoff
Despite major advances in therapy, cancer continues to be a leading cause of mortality. Additionally, toxicities of traditional therapies pose a significant challenge to tolerability and adherence. TTFields, a noninvasive anticancer treatment modality, utilizes alternating electric fields at specific frequencies and intensities to selectively disrupt mitosis in cancerous cells. TTFields target proteins crucial to the cell cycle, leading to mitotic arrest and apoptosis. TTFields also facilitate an antitumor immune response...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759889/mitotic-progression-following-dna-damage-enables-pattern-recognition-within-micronuclei
#10
Shane M Harding, Joseph L Benci, Jerome Irianto, Dennis E Discher, Andy J Minn, Roger A Greenberg
Inflammatory gene expression following genotoxic cancer therapy is well documented, yet the events underlying its induction remain poorly understood. Inflammatory cytokines modify the tumour microenvironment by recruiting immune cells and are critical for both local and systemic (abscopal) tumour responses to radiotherapy. A poorly understood feature of these responses is the delayed onset (days), in contrast to the acute DNA-damage responses that occur in minutes to hours. Such dichotomous kinetics implicate additional rate-limiting steps that are essential for DNA-damage-induced inflammation...
July 31, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751665/multidimensional-integrative-analysis-uncovers-driver-candidates-and-biomarkers-in-penile-carcinoma
#11
Fabio Albuquerque Marchi, David Correa Martins, Mateus Camargo Barros-Filho, Hellen Kuasne, Ariane Fidelis Busso Lopes, Helena Brentani, Jose Carlos Souza Trindade Filho, Gustavo Cardoso Guimarães, Eliney F Faria, Cristovam Scapulatempo-Neto, Ademar Lopes, Silvia Regina Rogatto
Molecular data generation and their combination in penile carcinomas (PeCa), a significant public health problem in poor and underdeveloped countries, remain virtually unexplored. An integrativemethodology combin ing genome-wide copy number alteration, DNA methylation, miRNA and mRNA expression analysis was performed in a set of 20 usual PeCa. The well-ranked 16 driver candidates harboring genomic alterations and regulated by a set of miRNAs, including hsa-miR-31, hsa-miR-34a and hsa-miR-130b, were significantly associated with over-represented pathways in cancer, such as immune-inflammatory system, apoptosis and cell cycle...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746835/genetic-ataxia-telangiectasia-porcine-model-phenocopies-the-multisystemic-features-of-the-human-disease
#12
Rosanna Beraldi, David K Meyerholz, Alexei Savinov, Attila D Kovács, Jill M Weimer, Jordan A Dykstra, Ryan D Geraets, David A Pearce
Ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is a progressive multisystem autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the AT-mutated (ATM) gene. Early onset AT in children is characterized by cerebellar degeneration, leading to motor impairment. Lung disease and cancer are the two most common causes of death in AT patients. Accelerated thymic involution may contribute to the cancer, and recurrent and/or chronic respiratory infections may be a contributing factor to lung disease in AT. AT patients have fertility issues, are highly sensitive to ionizing radiation and they present oculocutaneous telangiectasia...
July 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746020/pembrolizumab-induced-pancytopenia-a-case-report
#13
Dinesh Atwal, Krishna P Joshi, Rahul Ravilla, Fade Mahmoud
INTRODUCTION: Programmed death receptor-1 blockade with pembrolizumab is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration to treat patients with metastatic melanoma. Activating T cells to fight cancer may cause immune-mediated adverse events. Pembrolizumab-induced pancytopenia has not been previously reported in the medical literature, to our knowledge. CASE PRESENTATION: A 52-year-old Caucasian woman with a diagnosis of metastatic melanoma of the rectum experienced multiple adverse events along her course of therapy with pembrolizumab, ranging from colitis, hepatitis, gastritis, and vitiligo after the fifth cycle of pembrolizumab; to knee synovitis after the 14th cycle; and to severe pancytopenia after the 18th cycle of pembrolizumab...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738804/oncogenic-long-noncoding-rna-landscape-in-breast-cancer
#14
Shouping Xu, Dejia Kong, Qianlin Chen, Yanyan Ping, Da Pang
BACKGROUND: Few long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) that act as oncogenic genes in breast cancer have been identified. METHODS: Oncogenic lncRNAs associated with tumourigenesis and worse survival outcomes were examined and validated in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), respectively. Then, the potential biological functions and expression regulation of these lncRNAs were studied via bioinformatics and genome data analysis. Moreover, progressive breast cancer subtype-specific lncRNAs were investigated via high-throughput sequencing in our cohort and TCGA validation...
July 24, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738408/cgas-surveillance-of-micronuclei-links-genome-instability-to-innate-immunity
#15
Karen J Mackenzie, Paula Carroll, Carol-Anne Martin, Olga Murina, Adeline Fluteau, Daniel J Simpson, Nelly Olova, Hannah Sutcliffe, Jacqueline K Rainger, Andrea Leitch, Ruby T Osborn, Ann P Wheeler, Marcin Nowotny, Nick Gilbert, Tamir Chandra, Martin A M Reijns, Andrew P Jackson
DNA is strictly compartmentalized within the nucleus to prevent autoimmunity; despite this, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), a cytosolic sensor of double-stranded DNA, is activated in autoinflammatory disorders and by DNA damage. Precisely how cellular DNA gains access to the cytoplasm remains to be determined. Here, we report that cGAS localizes to micronuclei arising from genome instability in a mouse model of monogenic autoinflammation, after exogenous DNA damage and spontaneously in human cancer cells. Such micronuclei occur after mis-segregation of DNA during cell division and consist of chromatin surrounded by its own nuclear membrane...
July 24, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725430/acute-interstitial-nephritis-after-sequential-ipilumumab-nivolumab-therapy-of-metastatic-melanoma
#16
Lea Bottlaender, Anne-Laure Breton, Louis de Laforcade, Frederique Dijoud, Luc Thomas, Stephane Dalle
BACKGROUND: The anti-Programmed Death receptor 1 (anti-PD-1) antibodies nivolumab and pembrolizumab are new treatments in metastatic melanoma. Immunotherapies are best known to be responsible for thrombotic microangiopathy. However, immune interstitial nephritis has been described in a patient treated by nivolumab and ipilimumab concomitantly, and three cases of granulomatous interstitial nephritis have been reported with ipilimumab monotherapy. We report herein a case of acute interstitial immune nephritis in a patient treated with nivolumab after ipilimumab for pulmonary metastatic melanoma...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724427/curcumin-the-spicy-modulator-of-breast-carcinogenesis
#17
REVIEW
Urmila Banik, Subramani Parasuraman, Arun Kumar Adhikary, Nor Hayati Othman
Worldwide breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. For many years clinicians and the researchers are examining and exploring various therapeutic modalities for breast cancer. Yet the disease has remained unconquered and the quest for cure is still going on. Present-day strategy of breast cancer therapy and prevention is either combination of a number of drugs or a drug that modulates multiple targets. In this regard natural products are now becoming significant options. Curcumin exemplifies a promising natural anticancer agent for this purpose...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724328/smart-tetrazole-based-antibacterial-nanoparticles-as-multifunctional-drug-carriers-for-cancer-combination-therapy
#18
Elham Zakerzadeh, Roya Salehi, Mehrdad Mahkam
Due to multidrug resistance of cancer tissues and immune-suppression of cancerous patients during chemotherapy in one hand and the use of tetrazole derivatives in medicine because of its anticancer, antifungal and antiviral properties, on the other, we were encouraged to design novel smart antibacterial nanocomposites-based polymer of tetrazole as dual anticancer drug delivery systems. The structures of nanocomposites characterized by FTIR, (1)H NMR, FESEM-EDX and TGA analyses and antibacterial activity of smart carriers were evaluated by determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against some bacteria and fungi...
July 20, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721449/role-of-regulatory-t-cells-in-acute-myeloid-leukemia-patients-undergoing-relapse-preventive-immunotherapy
#19
Frida Ewald Sander, Malin Nilsson, Anna Rydström, Johan Aurelius, Rebecca E Riise, Charlotta Movitz, Elin Bernson, Roberta Kiffin, Anders Ståhlberg, Mats Brune, Robin Foà, Kristoffer Hellstrand, Fredrik B Thorén, Anna Martner
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been proposed to dampen functions of anti-neoplastic immune cells and thus promote cancer progression. In a phase IV trial (Re:Mission Trial, NCT01347996, http://www.clinicaltrials.gov ) 84 patients (age 18-79) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first complete remission (CR) received ten consecutive 3-week cycles of immunotherapy with histamine dihydrochloride (HDC) and low-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) to prevent relapse of leukemia in the post-consolidation phase. This study aimed at defining the features, function and dynamics of Foxp3(+)CD25(high)CD4(+) Tregs during immunotherapy and to determine the potential impact of Tregs on relapse risk and survival...
July 18, 2017: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716899/hdac1-upregulation-by-nanog-promotes-multidrug-resistance-and-a-stem-like-phenotype-in-immune-edited-tumor-cells
#20
Kwon-Ho Song, Chel Hun Choi, Hyo-Jung Lee, Se Jin Oh, Seon Rang Woo, Soon-Oh Hong, Kyung Hee Noh, Hanbyoul Cho, Eun Joo Chung, Jae-Hoon Kim, Joon-Yong Chung, Stephen M Hewitt, Seungki Baek, Kyung-Mi Lee, Cassian Yee, Minjoo Son, Chih-Ping Mao, T-C Wu, Tae Woo Kim
Cancer immunoediting drives the adaptation of tumor cells to host immune surveillance. Immunoediting driven by antigen (Ag)-specific T cells enriches NANOG expression in tumor cells, resulting in a stem-like phenotype and immune resistance. Here we identify HDAC1 as a key mediator of the NANOG-associated phenotype. NANOG upregulated HDAC1 through promoter occupancy, thereby decreasing histone H3 acetylation on K14 and K27. NANOG-dependent, HDAC1-driven epigenetic silencing of cell cycle inhibitor CDKN2D and CDKN1B induced stem-like features...
July 17, 2017: Cancer Research
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