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Toll- like receptor4 ( TLR-4)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22750437/the-protective-role-of-oxymatrine-on-neuronal-cell-apoptosis-in-the-hemorrhagic-rat-brain
#1
Man Huang, Yue-Yu Hu, Xiao-Qiao Dong, Qiu-Ping Xu, Wen-Hua Yu, Zu-Yong Zhang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Oxymatrine is extracted from the traditional Chinese herb Sophora flavescens Ait, possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-apoptotic properties, and has been used for the treatment of chronic viral hepatitis and many other diseases. AIMS OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to investigate the effects of oxymatrine on inflammatory response mediated by Toll-like receptor4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), oxidative injury induced by 12/15 lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX), phosphorylated p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (phosphor-p38 MAPK) and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), and neuronal cell apoptosis in rat brain with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)...
August 30, 2012: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21503675/involvement-of-the-tlr4-toll-like-receptor4-signaling-pathway-in-palmitate-induced-ins-1-beta-cell-death
#2
Sung-Mi Lee, Sung-E Choi, Ji-Hyun Lee, Jung-Jin Lee, Ik-Rak Jung, Soo-Jin Lee, Kwan-Woo Lee, Yup Kang
Fatty acid-induced cytotoxicity is believed to recapitulate lipotoxicity seen in obese type-2 diabetes, and, thus, contribute to beta cell loss in the disease. These studies were initiated to determine whether the Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway was involved in palmitate-induced beta cell death. Treatment of INS-1 beta cells with palmitate enhanced interaction between TLR and myeloid differentiation factor88 (MyD88). Concomitant with TLR/MyD88 interaction, the level of phospho-C-Jun N-terminal kinase (phospho-JNK) showed an increase; however, the level of inhibitory factor kappa B alpha (IκBα) showed a decrease...
August 2011: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/12115616/bacterial-cpg-dna-and-lipopolysaccharides-activate-toll-like-receptors-at-distinct-cellular-compartments
#3
Parviz Ahmad-Nejad, Hans Häcker, Mark Rutz, Stefan Bauer, Ramunas M Vabulas, Hermann Wagner
Recognition by innate immune cells of the pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMP) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from Gram-negative bacteria and bacterial CpG-DNA depends on Toll-like receptor4 (TLR4) and TLR9, respectively. To define differences in the response to these distinct PAMP we compared a key intracellular event, namely recruitment of myeloid differentiation marker 88 (MyD88) to the respective PAMP-initiated TLR signaling. Using MyD88-GFP fusion protein expressing macrophages we demonstrate that LPS and CpG-DNA trigger signaling from two different cellular locations: theformer at the cell membrane and the latter at the lysosomal compartment...
July 2002: European Journal of Immunology
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