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Acetyl carnitine AND AMPK

Sudeep H V, Venkatakrishna K, Dipak Patel, Shyamprasad K
BACKGROUND: Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) are involved in blood lipid metabolism as well as many health complications. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential role of chlorogenic acid complex from green coffee bean (CGA7) on FFA metabolism in high fat diet fed rats. METHODS: Hyperlipidemia was induced in Wistar rats using high-fat diet. The animals were given CGA7/orlistat concurrently for 42 days. The parameters analysed during the study include plasma and liver total cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG) and FFA...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Shigeo Shinohara, Yuanjun Gu, Ying Yang, Yasuo Furuta, Masahiko Tanaka, Xiaohua Yue, Weiqing Wang, Masaru Kitano, Hiroshi Kimura
Desi-type chickpeas, which have long been used as a natural treatment for diabetes, have been reported to lower visceral adiposity, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance induced by a chronic high-fat diet in rats. In this study, in order to examine the effects of chickpeas of this type in an in vitro system, we used the 3T3-L1 mouse cell line, a subclone of Swiss 3T3 cells, which can differentiate into cells with an adipocyte-like phenotype, and we used ethanol extracts of chickpeas (ECP) instead of chickpeas...
August 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Junqin Chen, Martin E Young, John C Chatham, David K Crossman, Louis J Dell'Italia, Anath Shalev
Myocardial fatty acid β-oxidation is critical for the maintenance of energy homeostasis and contractile function in the heart, but its regulation is still not fully understood. While thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) has recently been implicated in cardiac metabolism and mitochondrial function, its effects on β-oxidation have remained unexplored. Using a new cardiomyocyte-specific TXNIP knockout mouse and working heart perfusion studies, as well as loss- and gain-of-function experiments in rat H9C2 and human AC16 cardiomyocytes, we discovered that TXNIP deficiency promotes myocardial β-oxidation via signaling through a specific microRNA, miR-33a...
July 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Weiya Z Wysham, Dario R Roque, Jianjun Han, Lu Zhang, Hui Guo, Paola A Gehrig, Chunxiao Zhou, Victoria L Bae-Jump
OBJECTIVE: Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is a key lipogenic enzyme that is highly expressed in endometrial cancer. Orlistat is a weight loss medication that has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of FAS. The goal of this study was to evaluate the anti-tumorigenic potential of orlistat in endometrial cancer cell lines. METHODS: The endometrial cancer cell lines ECC-1 and KLE were used. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay after treatment with orlistat. Cell cycle progression was evaluated by Cellometer and apoptosis was assessed using the Annexin V assay...
May 18, 2016: Targeted Oncology
Jae Heon Choi, Jong Won Yun
OBJECTIVES: Many studies have to do with promising therapeutic phytochemicals such as flavonoids to treat obesity and related complications, and a number of dietary compounds have been proposed as tools for increasing energy expenditure and decreasing fat accumulation in mammals. Here, we show that the flavonoid chrysin induces browning of 3T3-L1 adipocytes via enhanced expression of brown fat-specific genes and proteins as well as enhances lipid metabolism. METHODS: Chrysin-induced fat browning was investigated by determining expression levels of brown fat-specific genes and proteins by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analysis, respectively...
September 2016: Nutrition
Can Wang, Jian-Dong Jiang, Wei Wu, Wei-Jia Kong
The mangiferin-berberine (MB) salt was synthesized by ionic bonding of mangiferin (M) and berberine (B) at an equal molecular ratio. This study aimed to investigate the activities of MB salt in modulating lipid and glucose metabolisms in HepG2 cells. After 24 h treatment of the studying compounds, cellular AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα)/acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) protein levels and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT) 1 activities, intracellular lipid contents, mRNA expression levels of target genes, glucose consumption, and glucose production amounts were determined...
2016: BioMed Research International
S Prastowo, A Amin, F Rings, E Held, D Salilew Wondim, A Gad, C Neuhoff, E Tholen, C Looft, K Schellander, D Tesfaye, M Hoelker
Low cryotolerance is considered as the major drawback of in vitro-produced bovine embryos and is frequently associated with a triad encompassing increased cytoplasmic lipid accumulation, enhanced levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial dysfunction. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway in the process resulting such phenotypes. Comparative analysis under different environmental conditions revealed downregulation of AMP-activated protein kinase cytalytic subunit 1alpha (AMPKA1), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1A) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) genes and upregulation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase α (ACC)...
February 24, 2016: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Haidan Yuan, Sunghyun Chung, Qianqian Ma, L I Ye, Guangchun Piao
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effects of a combination of deep sea water (DSW) and Sesamum indicum leaf extract (SIE) against high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and investigate its molecular mechanisms in adipose tissue. ICR mice were randomly divided into three groups: HFD control (HFC), DSW and DSW + 125 mg/kg SIE (DSS) groups. The mice in the HFC group had free access to drinking water while those in the DSW and DSS groups had free access to DSW. The mice in the DSS group were treated with SIE once per day for 8 weeks...
January 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Meirong Gong, Chen Cao, Fengli Chen, Qian Li, Xiaolin Bi, Yinong Sun, Zhen Zhan
BACKGROUND: Electroacupuncture (EA) may offer an effective alternative approach for the treatment of obesity. EA mobilizes energy stores, but its effect on hepatic lipid metabolism is unknown, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of EA on hepatic lipid accumulation in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats, and to explore potential underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a normal diet (control group, n=10) or a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce obesity...
June 2016: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
Mi Young Song, Seok Yong Kang, Tae Woo Oh, Rethineswaran Vinoth Kumar, Hyo Won Jung, Yong-Ki Park
The root of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidzumi (Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba, ARA) is a Traditional Korean Medicine and has been commonly used for weight control. Mitochondrial dysfunction appears to be a key contributor to insulin resistance, and therefore mitochondrial targeting drugs represent an important potential strategy for the treatment of insulin resistance and obesity. In this study, the authors investigated the regulatory effects of ARA on mitochondrial function with respect to the stimulation of glucose and lipid metabolism in C2C12 myotubes...
2015: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Phuong Nguyen, Elizabeth Greene, Peter Ishola, Geraldine Huff, Annie Donoghue, Walter Bottje, Sami Dridi
BACKGROUND: Low environmental temperatures are among the most challenging stressors in poultry industries. Although landmark studies using acute severe cold exposure have been conducted, still the molecular mechanisms underlying cold-stress responses in birds are not completely defined. In the present study we determine the effect of chronic mild cold conditioning (CMCC) on growth performances and on the expression of key metabolic-related genes in three metabolically important tissues: brain (main site for feed intake control), liver (main site for lipogenesis) and muscle (main site for thermogenesis)...
2015: PloS One
Seok-Yeong Yu, Jin-Ha Lee, MyoungLae Cho, Jong Seok Lee, Hee-Do Hong, Young-Chul Lee, Young-Chan Kim, Chang-Won Cho, Kyung-Tack Kim, Ok-Hwan Lee
Korean red ginseng (KRG), a highly valuable medicinal herb in oriental societies, has biological activity similar to that of Panax ginseng. Recently, it has been discovered that the biological activities of red ginseng can vary according to heating and steaming processes under different conditions that change the principal components of KRG and result in changes in biological activity. This study evaluated and compared the effects of high temperature- and high pressure-treated red ginseng (HRG) and commercial red ginseng (RG) on β-oxidation in C2C12 myotubes...
January 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
Yan Huang, Zengyan Zhu, Meilin Xie, Jie Xue
A high-fat diet may result in changes in hepatic clock gene expression, but potential mechanisms are not yet elucidated. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recognized as a key regulator of energy metabolism and certain clock genes. Therefore, we hypothesized that AMPK may be involved in the alteration of hepatic clock gene expression under a high-fat environment. This study aimed to examine the effects of timed high-fat evening diet on the activity of hepatic AMPK, clock genes, and lipogenic genes...
September 2015: Nutrition Research
Hayley M O'Neill, James S Lally, Sandra Galic, Thomas Pulinilkunnil, Rebecca J Ford, Jason R B Dyck, Bryce J van Denderen, Bruce E Kemp, Gregory R Steinberg
During submaximal exercise fatty acids are a predominant energy source for muscle contractions. An important regulator of fatty acid oxidation is acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which exists as two isoforms (ACC1 and ACC2) with ACC2 predominating in skeletal muscle. Both ACC isoforms regulate malonyl-CoA production, an allosteric inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT-1); the primary enzyme controlling fatty acyl-CoA flux into mitochondria for oxidation. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a sensor of cellular energy status that is activated during exercise or by pharmacological agents such as metformin and AICAR...
July 2015: Physiological Reports
Andreas Mæchel Fritzen, Anne-Marie Lundsgaard, Andreas Børsting Jordy, Sanne Kellebjerg Poulsen, Steen Stender, Henriette Pilegaard, Arne Astrup, Thomas Meinert Larsen, Jørgen F P Wojtaszewski, Erik A Richter, Bente Kiens
CONTEXT: The molecular mechanisms behind diet-induced metabolic improvements remain to be studied. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate whether expression of proteins in skeletal muscle or adipose tissue could explain improvements in glucose and lipid homeostasis after weight loss. DESIGN: Volunteers consumed a New Nordic Diet (NND) or an Average Danish Diet for 26 weeks in a controlled, free-living setting. SUBJECTS: Sixty four moderately obese women and men (44 ± 2 y; body mass index, 31 ± 1 kg/m(2))...
September 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Suhyun Kim, Youri Jin, Yongsoon Park
The n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), EPA and DHA, as well as estrogen have been shown to decrease circulating levels of triglyceride (TG), but their underlying mode of action is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of n-3 PUFA consumption and estrogen injection on TG metabolism. Rats (n = 48) were fed a modified AIN-93G diet with 0, 1, or 2 % EPA + DHA relative to the total energy intake during 12 weeks. At 8 weeks, rats were ovariectomized (OVX), and after a 1-week recovery, rats were injected with either 17β-estradiol-3-benzoate (E2) or corn oil for the last 3 weeks...
July 2015: Genes & Nutrition
Marilyne Labrie, Simon Lalonde, Ouafa Najyb, Maxime Thiery, Caroline Daneault, Chrisitne Des Rosiers, Eric Rassart, Catherine Mounier
Transgenic mice (Tg) overexpressing human apolipoprotein D (H-apoD) in the brain are resistant to neurodegeneration. Despite the use of a neuron-specific promoter to generate the Tg mice, they expressed significant levels of H-apoD in both plasma and liver and they slowly develop hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. We show here that hepatic PPARγ expression in Tg mice is increased by 2-fold compared to wild type (WT) mice. Consequently, PPARγ target genes Plin2 and Cide A/C are overexpressed, leading to increased lipid droplets formation...
2015: PloS One
Margarita Vida, Ana Luisa Gavito, Francisco Javier Pavón, Dolores Bautista, Antonia Serrano, Juan Suarez, Sergio Arrabal, Juan Decara, Miguel Romero-Cuevas, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Elena Baixeras
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) has emerged as an important mediator of fatty acid metabolism with paradoxical effects in the liver. Administration of IL-6 has been reported to confer protection against steatosis, but plasma and tissue IL-6 concentrations are elevated in chronic liver diseases, including fatty liver diseases associated with obesity and alcoholic ingestion. In this study, we further investigated the role of IL-6 on steatosis induced through a high-fat diet (HFD) in wild-type (WT) and IL-6-deficient (IL-6(-/-)) mice...
July 1, 2015: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Xihong Zhou, Weiche Wu, Jingqing Chen, Xinxia Wang, Yizhen Wang
BACKGROUND: n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC PUFA) increases β-oxidation and limits lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The current study was conducted to determine whether their precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) could also exert the above effects and how AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was involved. METHODS: AMPKα1(-/-), AMPKα2(-/-) mice and wild-type (WT) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or HFD with ALA. Body weight was recorded weekly and serum was collected...
2015: Nutrition & Metabolism
Zhenxing He, Yong Peng, Wentao Duan, Yunhong Tian, Jian Zhang, Tao Hu, Yu Cai, Yuan Feng, Guangming Li
Aspirin has been reported to regulate lipid metabolism. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation is not clear. We presently investigated aspirin's promotion of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway activation in human hepatoma HepG2 cells by examining AMPK expression, the promotion of AMPK activation. Then we investigated the influence of aspirin-promoted AMPK signaling on fatty acid oxidation in HepG2 cells. The results demonstrated that aspirin treatment did not regulate the expression of AMPK and its downstream target, Acetyl-Coenzyme A Carboxylase (ACC), but activated the AMPK signaling pathway by promoting the phosphorylation of AMPK and ACC...
February 2015: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
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