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Acetyl carnitine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454998/a-cell-death-assay-for-assessing-the-mitochondrial-targeting-of-proteins
#1
Daniel Camara Teixeira, Elizabeth L Cordonier, Subhashinee S K Wijeratne, Patricia Huebbe, Augusta Jamin, Sarah Jarecke, Matthew Wiebe, Janos Zempleni
The mitochondrial proteome comprises 1000 to 1500 proteins, in addition to proteins for which the mitochondrial localization is uncertain. About 800 diseases have been linked with mutations in mitochondrial proteins. We devised a cell survival assay for assessing the mitochondrial localization in a high-throughput format. This protocol allows us to assess the mitochondrial localization of proteins and their mutants, and to identify drugs and nutrients that modulate the mitochondrial targeting of proteins. The assay works equally well for proteins directed to the outer mitochondrial membrane, inner mitochondrial membrane mitochondrial and mitochondrial matrix, as demonstrated by assessing the mitochondrial targeting of the following proteins: carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (consensus sequence and R123C mutant), acetyl-CoA carboxylase 2, uncoupling protein 1 and holocarboxylase synthetase...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450546/a-plasma-metabolomic-signature-of-the-exfoliation-syndrome-involves-amino-acids-acylcarnitines-and-polyamines
#2
Stéphanie Leruez, Thomas Bresson, Juan M Chao de la Barca, Alexandre Marill, Grégoire de Saint Martin, Adrien Buisset, Jeanne Muller, Lydie Tessier, Cédric Gadras, Christophe Verny, Patrizia Amati-Bonneau, Guy Lenaers, Philippe Gohier, Dominique Bonneau, Gilles Simard, Dan Milea, Vincent Procaccio, Pascal Reynier
Purpose: To determine the plasma metabolomic signature of the exfoliative syndrome (XFS), the most common cause worldwide of secondary open-angle glaucoma. Methods: We performed a targeted metabolomic study, using the standardized p180 Biocrates Absolute IDQ p180 kit with a QTRAP 5500 mass spectrometer, to compare the metabolomic profiles of plasma from individuals with XFS (n = 16), and an age- and sex-matched control group with cataract (n = 18). Results: A total of 151 metabolites were detected correctly, 16 of which allowed for construction of an OPLS-DA model with a good predictive capability (Q2cum = 0...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444428/agrp-neurons-require-carnitine-acetyltransferase-to-regulate-metabolic-flexibility-and-peripheral-nutrient-partitioning
#3
Alex Reichenbach, Romana Stark, Mathieu Mequinion, Raphael R G Denis, Jeferson F Goularte, Rachel E Clarke, Sarah H Lockie, Moyra B Lemus, Greg M Kowalski, Clinton R Bruce, Cheng Huang, Ralf B Schittenhelm, Randall L Mynatt, Brian J Oldfield, Matthew J Watt, Serge Luquet, Zane B Andrews
AgRP neurons control peripheral substrate utilization and nutrient partitioning during conditions of energy deficit and nutrient replenishment, although the molecular mechanism is unknown. We examined whether carnitine acetyltransferase (Crat) in AgRP neurons affects peripheral nutrient partitioning. Crat deletion in AgRP neurons reduced food intake and feeding behavior and increased glycerol supply to the liver during fasting, as a gluconeogenic substrate, which was mediated by changes to sympathetic output and peripheral fatty acid metabolism in the liver...
February 13, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441455/author-correction-to-l-acetyl-carnitine-in-patients-with-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-effects-on-nerve-protection-hand-function-and-pain
#4
Giorgio Cruccu, G Di Stefano, F Fattapposta, S Jann, L Padua, A Schenone, A Truini
In the original publication the name of third author was incorrectly published.
February 13, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438325/untargeted-metabolomics-profiling-of-an-80-5-km-simulated-treadmill-ultramarathon
#5
Christopher C F Howe, Ahmed Alshehri, David Muggeridge, Alexander B Mullen, Marie Boyd, Owen Spendiff, Hannah J Moir, David G Watson
Metabolomic profiling of nine trained ultramarathon runners completing an 80.5 km self-paced treadmill-based time trial was carried out. Plasma samples were obtained from venous whole blood, collected at rest and on completion of the distance (post-80.5 km). The samples were analyzed by using high-resolution mass spectrometry in combination with both hydrophilic interaction (HILIC) and reversed phase (RP) chromatography. The extracted putatively identified features were modeled using Simca P 14.1 software (Umetrics, Umea, Sweden)...
February 13, 2018: Metabolites
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438065/cytosolic-carnitine-acetyltransferase-as-a-source-of-cytosolic-acetyl-coa-a-possible-mechanism-for-regulation-of-cardiac-energy-metabolism
#6
Tariq R Altamimi, Panakkezhum D Thomas, Ahmed M Darwesh, Natasha Fillmore, Mohammad U Mahmoud, Liyan Zhang, Abhishek Gupta, Rami Al Batran, John M Seubert, Gary Lopaschuk
The role of carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT) in regulating cardiac energy metabolism is poorly understood. CrAT modulates mitochondrial acetyl-CoA/CoA ratios, thus regulating pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and glucose oxidation. Here we propose that cardiac CrAT also provides cytosolic acetyl-CoA for the production of malonyl-CoA, a potent inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation. We show that murine heart cytosol has higher reverse CrAT activity (RCrAT, producing acetyl-CoA from acetylcarnitine) compared to liver, which primarily uses ATP-citrate lyase to produce cytosolic acetyl-CoA for lipogenesis...
February 7, 2018: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429925/a-metabolic-basis-for-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition
#7
Jianhua Xiong, Hiroyuki Kawagishi, Ye Yan, Jie Liu, Quinn S Wells, Lia R Edmunds, Maria M Fergusson, Zu-Xi Yu, Ilsa I Rovira, Evan L Brittain, Michael J Wolfgang, Michael J Jurczak, Joshua P Fessel, Toren Finkel
Endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndoMT) is a cellular process often initiated by the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family of ligands. Although required for normal heart valve development, deregulated EndoMT is linked to a wide range of pathological conditions. Here, we demonstrate that endothelial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) is a critical in vitro and in vivo regulator of EndoMT. We further show that this FAO-dependent metabolic regulation of EndoMT occurs through alterations in intracellular acetyl-CoA levels...
February 7, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428597/possible-involvement-of-tetrahydrobiopterin-in-the-disturbance-of-redox-homeostasis-in-sepsis-induced-brain-dysfunction
#8
Maha Gamal, Jackline Moawad, Laila Rashid, Mary Attia Morcos, Nivin Sharawy
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential co-factor that regulates nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by nitric oxidesynthases (NOS). In this study, we evaluated the effects of sepsis on BH 4 level and redox status in the brain by using the rat model of sepsis- induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) and examined whether BH4 and/or acetyl-L-carnitine(ALC) could prevent the neuronal apoptosis and neurological changes induced by sepsis...
February 8, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423831/targeted-versus-untargeted-omics-the-cafsa-story
#9
Maria Del Mar Amador, Benoit Colsch, Foudil Lamari, Claude Jardel, Farid Ichou, Agnès Rastetter, Frédéric Sedel, Fabien Jourdan, Clément Frainay, Ronald A Wevers, Emmanuel Roze, Christel Depienne, Christophe Junot, Fanny Mochel
BACKGROUND: In 2009, untargeted metabolomics led to the delineation of a new clinico-biological entity called cerebellar ataxia with elevated cerebrospinal free sialic acid, or CAFSA. In order to elucidate CAFSA, we applied sequentially targeted and untargeted omic approaches. METHODS AND RESULTS: First, we studied five of the six CAFSA patients initially described. Besides increased CSF free sialic acid concentrations, three patients presented with markedly decreased 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) CSF concentrations...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409330/bifidobacteria-and-its-rice-fermented-products-on-diet-induced-obese-mice-analysis-of-physical-status-serum-profile-and-gene-expressions
#10
M Ray, P K Hor, D Ojha, J P Soren, S N Singh, K C Mondal
Obesity is highly correlated with the dysbiosis of intestinal microbiota, and bifidobacteria are one of the soft targets of this metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of Bifidobacterium sp. MKK4 and rice-based fermented foods on physical, haematological, gut microbiota and lypogenic-lypolytic marker genes in diet-induced obese mice. Adult male mice (21±0.7 g) were randomly divided into four groups (n=10) according to the type of diet: normal diet (ND), high fat diet (HFD), HFD supplemented with Bifidobacterium sp...
February 7, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385880/the-effect-of-antioxidants-on-angiogenesis-in-uterine-transplantation
#11
Tugba Ugurlu, Candan Ozogul, Gulistan Sanem Saribas, Seren Gulsen Gurgen, Seda Nur Akyol, Bahar Kartal
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of antioxidants on angiogenesis in uterine transplantation. We used 24 female rats equally divided into four groups: Group 1 had the uterus stored in HTK (Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate) solution at 4 °C cold storage for 4 h. Group 2 had the uterine tissue stored in HTK solution combined with acetyl L-carnitine (10-8 M) for 4 h at +4 °C. The same procedures with Group 1 and 2 were repeated for 24 h for Groups 3 and 4, respectively. Histological investigation and immunohistochemical analysis were performed...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378828/import-of-tat-conjugated-propionyl-coa-carboxylase-using-models-of-propionic-acidemia
#12
Renata Collard, Tomas Majtan, Insun Park, Jan P Kraus
Propionic acidemia is caused by a deficiency of the enzyme propionyl-CoA carboxylase (PCC) located in the mitochondrial matrix. Cell-penetrating peptides, including TAT, offer a potential to deliver a cargo into the mitochondrion. Here, we investigated the delivery of an α6β6 PCC enzyme into mitochondria using HIV transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide at several levels: into isolated mitochondria, patient fibroblast cells and a mouse model. Western blotting of mitochondria as well as enzyme activity confirmed the import of a fusion TAT-PCC into mitochondria as well as into patient cells and the mitochondrial localization was confirmed additionally by confocal imaging...
January 29, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373970/role-of-l-carnitine-in-female-infertility
#13
REVIEW
Ashok Agarwal, Pallav Sengupta, Damayanthi Durairajanayagam
BACKGROUND: L-carnitine (LC), and its acetylated form, acetyl L-carnitine (ALC), have immense functional capabilities to regulate the oxidative and metabolic status of the female reproductive system. The vulnerability of this system to free radicals demand for advanced strategies to combat them. For this purpose, the 'quasi vitamins' LC and ALC can be used either individually, or in combination with each other or with other antioxidants. MAIN BODY: This review (a) summarizes the effects of carnitines on female fertility along with the findings from various in vivo and in vitro studies involving human, animal and assisted reproductive technology, and (b) proposes their mechanism of actions in improving female fertility through their integrated actions on reducing cellular stress, maintaining hormonal balance and enhancing energy production...
January 26, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367176/the-morphological-changes-and-molecular-biomarker-responses-in-the-liver-of-fluoride-exposed-bufo-gargarizans-larvae
#14
Xiaoxue Bo, Danyang Mu, Minyao Wu, Hui Xiao, Hongyuan Wang
The goal of the current study was to evaluate the negative influences of fluoride on liver of Bufo gargarizans larvae. B. gargarizans larvae were treated with 42.4mgF-/L for 0, 24, 48 and 72h at Gosner stage 37. The morphological changes and responses of molecular biomarkers involved in lipid metabolism, oxidative stress and apoptosis were examined in liver. Disappearance of cell boundaries, degeneration of hepatic parenchyma cells and significant increase in the number of melanomacrophage centres and the quantity of lipid droplets were found in the liver treated with 42...
January 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364680/exploration-of-the-faecal-microbiota-and-biomarker-discovery-in-equine-grass-sickness
#15
Joy Leng, Chris Proudman, Alistair Darby, Frances Blow, Neil Townsend, Andrew Miller, Jonathan Swann
Equine grass sickness (EGS) is a frequently fatal disease of horses, responsible for the death of 1-2% of the UK horse population annually. The etiology of this disease is currently uncharacterized although there is evidence it is associated with Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin in the gut. Prevention is currently not possible and ileal biopsy diagnosis is invasive. The aim of this study was to characterize the fecal microbiota and biofluid metabolic profiles of EGS horses, to further understand the mechanisms underlying this disease and identify metabolic biomarkers to aid in diagnosis...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361042/two-year-trends-of-taxane-induced-neuropathy-in-women-enrolled-in-a-randomized-trial-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-swog-s0715
#16
Dawn L Hershman, Joseph M Unger, Katherine D Crew, Cathee Till, Heather Greenlee, Lori M Minasian, Carol M Moinpour, Danika L Lew, Louis Fehrenbacher, James L Wade, Siu-Fun Wong, Michael J Fisch, N Lynn Henry, Kathy S Albain
Background: Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a common and disabling side effect of taxanes. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) was unexpectedly found to increase CIPN in a randomized trial. We investigated the long-term patterns of CIPN among patients in this trial. Methods: S0715 was a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial comparing ALC (1000 mg three times a day) with placebo for 24 weeks in women undergoing adjuvant taxane-based chemotherapy for breast cancer...
January 18, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359025/cardiac-autonomic-neuropathy-risk-factors-diagnosis-and-treatment
#17
REVIEW
Victoria A Serhiyenko, Alexandr A Serhiyenko
Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a serious complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) that is strongly associated with approximately five-fold increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. CAN manifests in a spectrum of things, ranging from resting tachycardia and fixed heart rate (HR) to development of "silent" myocardial infarction. Clinical correlates or risk markers for CAN are age, DM duration, glycemic control, hypertension, and dyslipidemia (DLP), development of other microvascular complications...
January 15, 2018: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329013/antiobesity-effect-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-263-associated-with-energy-metabolism-remodeling-of-white-adipose-tissue-in-high-energy-diet-fed-rats
#18
Li-Han Chen, Yi-Hsing Chen, Kuan-Chen Cheng, Ting-Yi Chien, Ching-Hung Chan, Shu-Ping Tsao, Hui-Yu Huang
Obesity is a serious and costly issue to the medical welfare worldwide. Probiotics have been suggested as one of the candidates to resolve the obesity-associated problems, but how they combat obesity is not fully understood. Herein, we investigated the effects of Lactobacillus reuteri 263 (L. reuteri 263) on antiobesity using four groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10/group), namely, C (normal diet with vehicle treatment), HE [high-energy diet (HED) with vehicle treatment], 1X (HED with 2.1×109 CFU/kg/day of L...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325058/serum-carnitine-metabolites-and-incident-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-patients-with-suspected-stable-angina-pectoris
#19
Elin Strand, Eirik W Rebnord, Malin R Flygel, Vegard Lysne, Gard F T Svingen, Grethe S Tell, Kjetil H Løland, Rolf K Berge, Asbjørn Svardal, Ottar Nygård, Eva R Pedersen
Context: Carnitine and its metabolites are centrally involved in fatty acid metabolism. While elevated circulating concentrations have been observed in obesity and insulin resistance, prospective studies examining whether these metabolites are associated with incident type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) are sparse. Objective: We performed a comprehensive evaluation of metabolites along the carnitine pathway in relation to incident T2D. Design: A total of 2519 patients (73...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315686/effect-of-metabolic-and-antioxidant-supplementation-on-sperm-parameters-in-oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia-with-and-without-varicocele-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study
#20
G M Busetto, A Agarwal, A Virmani, G Antonini, G Ragonesi, F Del Giudice, S Micic, V Gentile, E De Berardinis
Since sperm require high energy levels to perform their specialised function, it is vital that essential nutrients are available for spermatozoa when they develop, capacitate and acquire motility. However, they are vulnerable to a lack of energy and excess amounts of reactive oxygen species, which can impair sperm function, lead to immotility, acrosomal reaction impairment, DNA fragmentation and cell death. This monocentric, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial investigated the effect of 6 months of supplementation with l-carnitine, acetyl-l-carnitine and other micronutrients on sperm quality in 104 subjects with oligo- and/or astheno- and/or teratozoospermia with or without varicocele...
January 7, 2018: Andrologia
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