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Acetyl carnitine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548560/microalgal-oil-from-schizochytrium-sp-prevents-hfd-induced-abdominal-fat-accumulation-in-mice
#1
Jinhui Yu, Yong Ma, Jie Sun, Liyuan Ran, Youwei Li, Ning Wang, Tao Yu, Wenting Gao, Wenbin Jia, Rujiao Jiang, Meihua Guo, Yuping Bi, Yingjie Wu
OBJECTIVE: Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially eicosapentaenoic acids (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are proved to be effective in obesity reduction. Microalgal oil (MO) is an important alternative source of n-3 PUFAs that effectively alleviates obesity. The aim of the present study was to explore the anti-obesity effects of microalgal oil from Schizochytrium sp. (SMO) and to compare the effects of 2 SMOs (SMO1 and SMO2) with different levels of purity of n-3 PUFAs on high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity in male C57BL/6J mice...
May 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534301/effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-in-diabetic-neuropathy-and-other-geriatric-disorders
#2
REVIEW
G Sergi, S Pizzato, F Piovesan, C Trevisan, N Veronese, E Manzato
A long history of diabetes mellitus and increasing age are associated with the onset of diabetic neuropathy, a painful and highly disabling complication with a prevalence peaking at 50% among elderly diabetic patients. Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) is a molecule derived from the acetylation of carnitine in the mitochondria that has an essential role in energy production. It has recently been proposed as a therapy to improve the symptoms of diabetic neuropathy. ALC is widely distributed in mammalian tissues, including the brain, blood-brain barrier, brain neurons, and astrocytes...
May 22, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514835/genistein-has-beneficial-effects-on-hepatic-steatosis-in-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet-treated-rats
#3
Huanhuan Liu, Huijia Zhong, Yimin Yin, Zhuoqin Jiang
Genistein, a kind of phytoestrogen abundant in soybeans, is beneficial for alleviating non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), but the specific mechanism was not clearly understood. This study was designed to determine the effect of genistein on NAFLD and explore the possible mechanism. 36 male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group, high fat-high sucrose diet (HFS) group, HFS with 4mg/kg body weight genistein, and HFS with 8mg/kg body weight genistein. 12 weeks later, serum and hepatic lipid profiles, liver histopathological examination were characterized...
May 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508995/l-carnitine-and-acetyl-l-carnitine-roles-and-neuroprotection-in-developing-brain
#4
Gustavo C Ferreira, Mary C McKenna
L-Carnitine functions to transport long chain fatty acyl-CoAs into the mitochondria for degradation by β-oxidation. Treatment with L-carnitine can ameliorate metabolic imbalances in many inborn errors of metabolism. In recent years there has been considerable interest in the therapeutic potential of L-carnitine and its acetylated derivative acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) for neuroprotection in a number of disorders including hypoxia-ischemia, traumatic brain injury, Alzheimer's disease and in conditions leading to central or peripheral nervous system injury...
May 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500970/histopathological-changes-and-lipid-metabolism-in-the-liver-of-bufo-gargarizans-tadpoles-exposed-to-triclosan
#5
Lihong Chai, Aixia Chen, Pingping Luo, Hongfeng Zhao, Hongyuan Wang
In the current study, the adverse effects of TCS on liver health of B. gargarizans tadpoles were assessed. B. gargarizans larvae were exposed to TCS at 0, 10, 30, 60, and 150 μg L(-1) from Gosner stage 3 until metamorphic climax. The hepatosomatic index (HSI), hepatic histological and ultrastructural features, and transcript levels of genes associated with detoxification and oxidative stress as well as lipid metabolism in the livers were determined. Exposure to 150 μg L(-1) TCS resulted in increased HSI of tadpoles at metamorphic climax...
May 7, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489334/diagnosis-of-copan-by-whole-exome-sequencing-waking-up-a-sleeping-tiger-s-eye
#6
Christina Evers, Angelika Seitz, Birgit Assmann, Thomas Opladen, Stephanie Karch, Katrin Hinderhofer, Martin Granzow, Nagarajan Paramasivam, Roland Eils, Nicolle Diessl, Claus R Bartram, Ute Moog
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) is a group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by iron accumulation in the basal ganglia. Recently, mutations in CoA synthase (COASY) have been identified as a cause of a novel NBIA subtype (COASY Protein-Associated Neurodegeneration, CoPAN) in two patients with dystonic paraparesis, parkinsonian features, cognitive impairment, behavior abnormalities, and axonal neuropathy. COASY encodes an enzyme required for Coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis. Using whole exome sequencing (WES) we identified compound heterozygous COASY mutations in two siblings with intellectual disability, ataxic gait, progressive spasticity, and obsessive-compulsive behavior...
May 10, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472298/adiponectin-stimulates-lipid-metabolism-via-ampk-in-rabbit-blastocysts
#7
Maria Schindler, Mareike Pendzialek, Katarzyna Joanna Grybel, Tom Seeling, Jacqueline Gürke, Bernd Fischer, Anne Navarrete Santos
STUDY QUESTION: How does a maternal diabetic hyperadiponectineamia affect signal transduction and lipid metabolism in rabbit preimplantation blastocysts? SUMMARY ANSWER: In a diabetic pregnancy increased levels of adiponectin led to a switch in embryonic metabolism towards a fatty acid-dependent energy metabolism, mainly affecting genes that are responsible for fatty acid uptake and turnover. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although studies in cell culture experiments have shown that adiponectin is able to regulate lipid metabolism via 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), data on the effects of adiponectin on embryonic lipid metabolism are not available...
May 4, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458350/therapeutic-effect-of-gypenosides-on-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-via-regulating-hepatic-lipogenesis-and-fatty-acid-oxidation
#8
Hongshan Li, Hao Ying, Airong Hu, Yaoren Hu, Dezhou Li
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the most frequent cause of liver dysfunction and a common global problem. Gypenosides can decrease pathological modifications of high-fat diet-induced rat atherosclerosis; however, its effect and mechanism on NASH remain unclear. In this study, rats were randomly divided into normal control and model groups. Model rats were fed with a high-fat diet and treated with gypenosides, rosiglitazone, or water for 6 weeks. We found that liver tissues showed significant hepatic steatosis and vacuolar degeneration with significantly higher triglyceride (TG), free fatty acid (FFA) and malonyl CoA, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities in model group versus normal control group (p<0...
2017: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445364/n-acetylcysteine-prevents-retrograde-motor-neuron-death-after-neonatal-peripheral-nerve-injury
#9
Joseph Catapano, Jennifer Zhang, David Scholl, Cameron Chiang, Tessa Gordon, Gregory H Borschel
BACKGROUND: Neuronal death may be an overlooked and unaddressed component of disability following neonatal nerve injuries, such as obstetric brachial plexus injury. N-acetylcysteine and acetyl-L-carnitine improve survival of neurons after adult nerve injury, but it is unknown whether they improve survival after neonatal injury, when neurons are most susceptible to retrograde neuronal death. The authors' objective was to examine whether N-acetylcysteine or acetyl-L-carnitine treatment improves survival of neonatal motor or sensory neurons in a rat model of neonatal nerve injury...
May 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440456/tetrahydropalmatine-inhibits-lipid-accumulation-through-ampk-signaling-pathway-in-3t3%C3%A2-l1-adipocytes
#10
Guang-Chun Piao, Guan-Cheng Liu, Xue-Jun Jin, Dan Jin, Hai-Dan Yuan
Tetrahydropalmatine (THP), one of the active components of Rhizoma corydalis, has been reported to exert several pharmacological effects, including anti‑inflammatory, anti‑tumor and analgesic activities. However, its effect on obesity and the underlying molecular mechanisms that may be involved have not yet been elucidated. In the present study, the inhibitory effects of THP on the adipogenesis in 3T3‑L1 adipocytes was examined using hstology, western blotting and RT‑qPCR. THP was identified to significantly suppress lipid accumulation in 3T3‑L1 cells and it inhibited pre‑adipocyte differentiation in a concentration‑dependent manner, as evidenced by the reduced formation of lipid droplets and decreased triglyceride levels and glycerol‑3‑phosphate dehydrogenase activity...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436999/clinical-practice-guidelines-on-the-evidence-based-use-of-integrative-therapies-during-and-after-breast-cancer-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Heather Greenlee, Melissa J DuPont-Reyes, Lynda G Balneaves, Linda E Carlson, Misha R Cohen, Gary Deng, Jillian A Johnson, Matthew Mumber, Dugald Seely, Suzanna M Zick, Lindsay M Boyce, Debu Tripathy
Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Patients with breast cancer commonly use complementary and integrative therapies as supportive care during cancer treatment and to manage treatment-related side effects. However, evidence supporting the use of such therapies in the oncology setting is limited. This report provides updated clinical practice guidelines from the Society for Integrative Oncology on the use of integrative therapies for specific clinical indications during and after breast cancer treatment, including anxiety/stress, depression/mood disorders, fatigue, quality of life/physical functioning, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, lymphedema, chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy, pain, and sleep disturbance...
April 24, 2017: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430821/dietary-dha-epa-ratio-affected-tissue-fatty-acid-profiles-antioxidant-capacity-hematological-characteristics-and-expression-of-lipid-related-genes-but-not-growth-in-juvenile-black-seabream-acanthopagrus-schlegelii
#12
Min Jin, Óscar Monroig, You Lu, Ye Yuan, Yi Li, Liyun Ding, Douglas R Tocher, Qicun Zhou
An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary docosahexaenoic to eicosapentaenoic acid ratio (DHA/EPA) on growth performance, fatty acid profiles, antioxidant capacity, hematological characteristics and expression of some lipid metabolism related genes of juvenile black seabream (Acanthopagrus schlegelii) of initial weight 9.47 ± 0.03 g. Five isonitrogenous and isolipidic diets (45% crude protein and 14% crude lipid) were formulated to contain graded DHA/EPA ratios of 0.65, 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393192/cyclosporine-a-attenuates-cardiac-dysfunction-induced-by-sepsis-via-inhibiting-calcineurin-and-activating-ampk-signaling
#13
Jingmiao Liu, Da Chen, Xiaowei Liu, Zhi Liu
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether cyclosporine A (CSA) improved cardiac dysfunction at an early stage of sepsis. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following three groups: the sham‑operated control group, the cecal ligation puncture (CLP) procedure‑induced sepsis group and the CSA intervention group. Cecal ligation was performed to generate a sepsis model. At different time points (2, 6, 12, 24 and 72 h) following sepsis induction, blood pressure, cardiac function, and non‑esterified free fatty acid (NEFA) levels in the plasma and myocardia were measured, and the expression levels of components associated with the AMP‑activated protein kinase (AMPK)‑acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC)‑carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT1) signaling pathway were compared among the three groups...
June 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380531/effect-of-abomasal-butyrate-infusion-on-gene-expression-in-the-duodenum-of-lambs
#14
A P Foote, C M Zarek, L A Kuehn, H C Cunningham, K M Cammack, H C Freetly, A K Lindholm-Perry
A previous study infusing butyrate into the abomasum of sheep produced increased oxygen, glucose, glutamate, and glutamine uptake by the portal-drained viscera. These changes were thought to be partially due to increases in glycolysis and cell proliferation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the duodenum transcriptome of control and butyrate-treated lambs to determine whether genes involved in these pathways were altered. Polled Dorset lambs ( = 9) received a pulse dose of either butyrate (10 mg/kg BW) or an equal volume of a buffered saline solution (1 mL/kg BW) daily at the time of feeding...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369834/an-examination-of-biochemical-parameters-and-their-association-with-response-to-ketogenic-dietary-therapies
#15
Natasha E Schoeler, Gail Bell, Alan Yuen, Adam D Kapelner, Simon J R Heales, J Helen Cross, Sanjay Sisodiya
OBJECTIVE: In the absence of specific metabolic disorders, accurate predictors of response to ketogenic dietary therapies (KDTs) for treating epilepsy are largely unknown. We hypothesized that specific biochemical parameters would be associated with the effectiveness of KDT in humans with epilepsy. The parameters tested were β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate, nonesterified fatty acids, free and acylcarnitine profile, glucose, and glucose-ketone index (GKI). METHODS: Biochemical results from routine blood tests conducted at baseline prior to initiation of KDT and at 3-month follow-up were obtained from 13 adults and 215 children with KDT response data from participating centers...
April 3, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349514/l-carnitine-for-cognitive-enhancement-in-people-without-cognitive-impairment
#16
REVIEW
Ning Chen, Mi Yang, Muke Zhou, Jing Xiao, Jian Guo, Li He
BACKGROUND: Safe interventions to enhance cognitive function in cognitively healthy people would be very valuable for several reasons, including a better quality of life and professional success. While L-carnitine has been reported to enhance cognitive function in some conditions, its efficacy is disputed. The evidence of its efficacy for cognitively healthy people has not previously been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of L-carnitine for the enhancement of cognitive function in people without cognitive impairment...
March 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346814/nicotinamide-riboside-a-form-of-vitamin-b3-and-nad-precursor-relieves-the-nociceptive-and-aversive-dimensions-of-paclitaxel-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-in-female-rats
#17
Marta V Hamity, Stephanie R White, Roxanne Y Walder, Mark S Schmidt, Charles Brenner, Donna L Hammond
Injury to sensory afferents may contribute to the peripheral neuropathies that develop after administration of chemotherapeutic agents. Manipulations that increase levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) can protect against neuronal injury. This study examined whether nicotinamide riboside (NR), a third form of vitamin B3 and precursor of NAD, diminishes tactile hypersensitivity and place escape-avoidance behaviors in a rodent model of paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy. Female Sprague-Dawley rats received 3 intravenous injections of 6...
May 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345160/increasing-skeletal-muscle-carnitine-availability-does-not-alter-the-adaptations-to-high-intensity-interval-training
#18
Christopher E Shannon, Reza Ghasemi, Paul L Greenhaff, Francis B Stephens
Increasing skeletal muscle carnitine availability alters muscle metabolism during steady-state exercise in healthy humans. We investigated whether elevating muscle carnitine, and thereby the acetyl-group buffering capacity, altered the metabolic and physiological adaptations to 24 weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) at 100% maximal exercise capacity (Wattmax ). Twenty-one healthy male volunteers (age 23±2 years; BMI 24.2±1.1 kg/m(2) ) performed 2 × 3 minute bouts of cycling exercise at 100% Wattmax , separated by 5 minutes of rest...
March 27, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339712/effect-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-treatment-on-plasma-lipid-profile-and-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-hetian-broiler
#19
Z Xie, J Zhang, S Ma, X Huang, Y Huang
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether adding a Chinese herbal hedicine (CHM, including astragalus membranaceus, codonopsis pilosula, poria cocos, bighead atractylodes rhizome, fructus crataegi, folium epimedii, radix saposhnikoviae, and pericarpium citri reticulatae) diet has effects on lipid metabolism in the liver of the broiler. Six-hundred-thirty Hetian broilers were divided into 3 groups including base diet (control), 0.3%, or 1% CHM diets, for 130 days. The results showed that CHM treatment significantly increased the slaughter performance...
February 21, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335388/a-combination-of-flaxseed-oil-and-astaxanthin-improves-hepatic-lipid-accumulation-and-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#20
Jiqu Xu, Shuang Rong, Hui Gao, Chang Chen, Wei Yang, Qianchun Deng, Qingde Huang, Lingyun Xiao, Fenghong Huang
Hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress are crucial pathophysiological mechanisms for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Thus, we examined the effect of a combination of flaxseed oil (FO) and astaxanthin (ASX) on hepatic lipid accumulation and oxidative stress in rats fed a high-fat diet. ASX was dissolved in flaxseed oil (1 g/kg; FO + ASX). Animals were fed diets containing 20% fat, where the source was lard, or 75% lard and 25% FO + ASX, or 50% lard and 50% FO + ASX, or FO + ASX, for 10 weeks...
March 13, 2017: Nutrients
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