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Acetyl carnitine

Masatoshi Kubota, Reiko Watanabe, Miki Yamaguchi, Michihiro Hosojima, Akihiko Saito, Mikio Fujii, Shinobu Fujimura, Motoni Kadowaki
We previously reported that rice endosperm protein (REP) has renoprotective effects in Goto-Kakizaki rats, a non-obese diabetic model. However, whether these effects occur in obese diabetes remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the effects of REP on obese diabetes, especially on fatty liver and diabetic nephropathy, using the obese diabetic model Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. In total, 7-week-old male ZDF rats were fed diets containing 20 % REP or casein (C) for 8 weeks. Changes in fasting blood glucose levels and urinary markers were monitored during the experimental period...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Ruijun Li, Fengyu Li, Qiang Feng, Zhipeng Liu, Zhuye Jie, Bo Wen, Xun Xu, Shilong Zhong, Guanglei Li, Kunlun He
This study performed untargeted metabolomics for plasma samples from 40 coronary heart disease patients and 43 healthy controls by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry technology to find a set of effective biomarkers for CHD diagnosis and prognosis. The discriminating metabolites were extracted and analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis methods. We found five metabolites (1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, methylitaconate, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine 6-phosphate and l-carnitine) contributing to the separation of CHD patients from healthy controls, and a subset of two metabolites in these five were identified as potential plasma biomarkers for CHD diagnosis...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
C E Geisler, C Hepler, M R Higgins, B J Renquist
BACKGROUND: The increased incidence of obesity and associated metabolic diseases has driven research focused on genetically or pharmacologically alleviating metabolic dysfunction. These studies employ a range of fasting-refeeding models including 4-24 h fasts, "overnight" fasts, or meal feeding. Still, we lack literature that describes the physiologically relevant adaptations that accompany changes in the duration of fasting and re-feeding. Since the liver is central to whole body metabolic homeostasis, we investigated the timing of the fast-induced shift toward glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis and the meal-induced switch toward glycogenesis and away from ketogenesis...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
T G Demarest, R A Schuh, E L Waite, J Waddell, M C McKenna, Gary Fiskum
Males are more susceptible to brain mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction following neonatal cerebral hypoxic-ischemia (HI) than females. Mitochondrial biogenesis has been implicated in the cellular response to HI injury, but sex differences in biogenesis following HI have not been described. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial biogenesis or the expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) proteins are differentially stimulated in the brains of 8 day old male and female rats one day following HI, and promoted by treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Georgios Pissas, Maria Sounidaki, Konstantina Tsogka, Nikolaos Antoniadis, Georgia Antoniadi, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Ioannis Stefanidis
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is expressed in antigen-presenting cells and by degrading L-tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway suppresses CD4+ T-cell proliferation, induces apoptosis and promotes differentiation towards a regulatory as opposed to an effector phenotype. Recent findings revealed that the above effects may be mediated through alterations in T-cell metabolism. In this study, the effect of IDO on fatty acid β-oxidation in CD4+ T-cells was evaluated in human mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs) using the IDO inhibitor, 1-DL-methyl-tryptophan...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Benedetta Bigio, Carla Nasca, Bruce S McEwen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Davy G H A van Dam, Antoinetta J M Beijers, Gerard Vreugdenhil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2016: Acta Oncologica
E Matthew Morris, Grace M E Meers, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Justin A Fletcher, Xiaorong Fu, Kartik Shankar, Shawn C Burgess, Jamal A Ibdah, R Scott Rector, John P Thyfault
Rats selectively bred for high capacity running (HCR) or low capacity running (LCR) display divergence for intrinsic aerobic capacity and hepatic mitochondrial oxidative capacity, both factors associated with susceptibility for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Here, we tested if HCR and LCR rats display differences in susceptibility for hepatic steatosis after 16 wk of high-fat diets (HFD) with either 45% or 60% of kcals from fat. HCR rats were protected against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, whereas only the 60% HFD induced steatosis in LCR rats, as marked by a doubling of liver triglycerides...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Shengnan Wei, Ming Zhang, Yang Yu, Huan Xue, Xiaoxin Lan, Shuping Liu, Grant Hatch, Li Chen
Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-4α (HNF-4α) is a key nuclear receptor protein required for liver development. miR-122 is a predominant microRNA expressed in liver and is involved in the regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. HNF-4α is know to regulate expression of miR-122 in liver. We examined how HNF-4α regulated gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism through miR-122 in vivo and in vitro. Expression of miR-122, HNF-4α, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), sterol response elementary binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), fatty acid synthase-1 (FAS-1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) and acetyl Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha (ACCα) were determined in livers of Type 2 diabetic mice and in insulin resistant palmitate-treated HepG2 cells...
August 31, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Jianchang Qian, Yaqing Chen, Tao Meng, Lanping Ma, Lanfang Meng, Xin Wang, Ting Yu, Arie Zask, Jingkang Shen, Ker Yu
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a rational target for cancer treatment. While the mTORC1-selective rapalogs have shown significant benefits in the clinic, antitumor response may be further improved by inhibiting both mTORC1 and mTORC2. Herein, we established target profile of a novel mTOR kinase inhibitor (mTOR-KI) MTI-31 and employed it to study new therapeutic mechanism in breast cancer. MTI-31 demonstrated a potent mTOR binding affinity with >5000 fold selectivity over the related PI3K family isoforms...
August 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Yi-Ching Chen, Chia-Ju Tsai, Chia-Hsien Feng
A novel aqueous solvent-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (AS-DLLME) method was combined with narrow-bore liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection for the determination of hydrophilic compounds. A remover (non-polar solvent) and extractant (aqueous solution) were introduced into the derivatization system (acetonitrile) to obtain a water-in-oil emulsion state that increased the mass transfer of analytes. As a proof of concept, three quaternary ammonium substances, including butyrobetaine, l-carnitine and acetyl-l-carnitine, were also used as analytes and determined in pharmaceuticals, personal care products, food and human plasma...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
Chunyang Du, Ming Wu, Huan Liu, Yunzhuo Ren, Yunxia Du, Haijiang Wu, Jinying Wei, Chuxin Liu, Fang Yao, Hui Wang, Yan Zhu, Huijun Duan, Yonghong Shi
Abnormal lipid metabolism contributes to the renal lipid accumulation, which is associated with diabetic kidney disease, but its precise mechanism remains unclear. The growing evidence demonstrates that thioredoxin-interacting protein is involved in regulating cellular glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we investigated the effects of thioredoxin-interacting protein on lipid accumulation in diabetic kidney disease. In contrast to the diabetic wild-type mice, the physical and biochemical parameters were improved in the diabetic thioredoxin-interacting protein knockout mice...
October 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Sudeep H V, Venkatakrishna K, Dipak Patel, Shyamprasad K
BACKGROUND: Plasma free fatty acids (FFA) are involved in blood lipid metabolism as well as many health complications. The present study was conducted to evaluate the potential role of chlorogenic acid complex from green coffee bean (CGA7) on FFA metabolism in high fat diet fed rats. METHODS: Hyperlipidemia was induced in Wistar rats using high-fat diet. The animals were given CGA7/orlistat concurrently for 42 days. The parameters analysed during the study include plasma and liver total cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG) and FFA...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Matthew J Snyder, Lawrence M Gibbs, Tammy J Lindsay
Painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy occurs in approximately 25% of patients with diabetes mellitus who are treated in the office setting and significantly affects quality of life. It typically causes burning pain, paresthesias, and numbness in a stocking-glove pattern that progresses proximally from the feet and hands. Clinicians should carefully consider the patient's goals and functional status and potential adverse effects of medication when choosing a treatment for painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy...
August 1, 2016: American Family Physician
Osvaldo J M Nascimento, Bruno L Pessoa, Marco Orsini, Pedro Ribeiro, Eduardo Davidovich, Camila Pupe, Pedro Moreira Filho, Ricardo Menezes Dornas, Lucas Masiero, Juliana Bittencourt, Victor Hugo Bastos
Neuropathic pain (NP) is the result of a series of conditions caused by diseases or lesions to the somatosensory system. Due to the better understanding of NP pathophysiology previously unexplored therapies have been used with encouraging results. In this group, acetyl-L-carnitine, alpha-lipoic-acid, cannabinoids, clonidine, EMA401, botulinum toxin type A and new voltage-gated sodium channel blockers, can be included. Besides, changing paradigms may occur with the advent of optogenetics and a better understanding of epigenetic regulation...
June 15, 2016: Neurology International
Rajiv Sainath, Andrea Ketschek, Leah Grandi, Gianluca Gallo
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) inhibit the formation of axon collateral branches. The regulation of the axonal cytoskeleton and mitochondria are important components of the mechanism of branching. Actin-dependent axonal plasticity, reflected in the dynamics of axonal actin patches and filopodia, is greatest along segments of the axon populated by mitochondria. We report that CSPGs partially depolarize the membrane potential of axonal mitochondria, which impairs the dynamics of the axonal actin cytoskeleton and decreases the formation and duration of axonal filopodia, the first steps in the mechanism of branching...
July 18, 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
Jae-Heung An, Jin-Hwan Yoon, Min-Hwa Suk, Yun-A Shin
The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of lipogenesis- and lipolysis-related genes and proteins in skeletal muscles after 12 weeks of resistance training. Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12) were randomly divided into control (resting) and resistance training groups. A tower-climbing exercise, in which rats climbed to the top of their cage with a weight applied to their tails, used for resistance training. After 12 weeks, rats from the resistance training group had lower body weights (411.66±14...
June 2016: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Geraldine Goodison, Kathie Overeem, Veronica de Monte, Dan Siskind
OBJECTIVE: Complementary medicines are readily available and becoming increasingly popular. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is widely recognised as a safe dietary supplement to aid weight loss. We present the case of a patient who had a relapse of mania in the context of ALC use for weight loss over a two week period, on the background of bipolar I disorder previously in remission. The patient's symptoms resolved a few days after ALC was ceased. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high rates of obesity among people with mental illness, it is possible ALC may be utilised in the hope of aiding weight loss...
July 12, 2016: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Antonio Bruno, Gianluca Pandolfo, Manuela Crucitti, Simona Lorusso, Rocco Antonio Zoccali, Maria Rosaria Anna Muscatello
OBJECTIVES: This was the first 12-week, open-label, uncontrolled trial aimed at exploring the efficacy of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC) add-on pharmacotherapy on clinical symptoms and cognitive functioning in 15 schizophrenia patients with suboptimal clinical response despite receiving clozapine (CLZ) monotherapy at the highest tolerated dosage. METHODS: After clinical (Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale [PANSS]) and neuropsychological (Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Stroop Color-Word Test, Verbal Fluency Test) assessments, patients received 1 g/d of ALC for 12 weeks...
July 12, 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Kitti Kocsis, Rita Frank, József Szabó, Levente Knapp, Zsolt Kis, Tamás Farkas, László Vécsei, József Toldi
Hypoxic circumstances result in functional and structural impairments of the brain. Oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) on hippocampal slices is a technique widely used to investigate the consequences of ischemic stroke and the potential neuroprotective effects of different drugs. Acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) is a naturally occurring substance in the body, and it can therefore be administered safely even in relatively high doses. In previous experiments, ALC pretreatment proved to be effective against global hypoperfusion...
September 22, 2016: Neuroscience
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