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Acetyl carnitine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917474/germacrone-inhibits-adipogenesis-and-stimulates-lipolysis-via-the-amp-activated-protein-kinase-signalling-pathway-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#1
Yuan-Ri Guo, Se-Young Choung
OBJECTIVES: In a previous study, we reported that Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract (ASE) inhibited lipid accumulation and adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Of the components in ASE, germacrone (GM) was identified as a potent bioactive constituent. GM is known for its anticancer and antiviral activity. However, the effects of GM and the molecular mechanism by which GM regulates adipogenesis and lipolysis were not reported. Therefore, we investigated the effect of GM on adipogenesis and lipolysis and to elucidate its underlying molecular mechanism...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909554/high-maysin-corn-silk-extract-reduces-body-weight-and-fat-deposition-in-c57bl-6j-mice-fed-high-fat-diets
#2
Eun Young Lee, Sun Lim Kim, Hyeon Jung Kang, Myung Hwan Kim, Ae Wha Ha, Woo Kyoung Kim
BACKGROUNG/OBJECTIVES: The study was performed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high maysin corn silk extract on body weight and fat deposition in experimental animals. MATERIALS/METHODS: A total of 30 male C57BL/6J mice, 4-weeks-old, were purchased and divided into three groups by weight using a randomized block design. The normal-fat (NF) group received 7% fat (diet weight basis), the high-fat (HF) group received 25% fat and 0.5% cholesterol, and the high-fat corn silk (HFCS) group received high-fat diet and high maysin corn silk extract at 100 mg/kg body weight through daily oral administration...
December 2016: Nutrition Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895387/retention-of-acetylcarnitine-in-chronic-kidney-disease-causes-insulin-resistance-in-skeletal-muscle
#3
Yasunori Miyamoto, Teruo Miyazaki, Akira Honda, Homare Shimohata, Kouichi Hirayama, Masaki Kobayashi
Insulin resistance occurs frequently in patients with chronic kidney disease. However, the mechanisms of insulin resistance associated with chronic kidney disease are unclear. It is known that an increase in the mitochondrial acetyl-CoA (AcCoA)/CoA ratio causes insulin resistance in skeletal muscle, and this ratio is regulated by carnitine acetyltransferase that exchanges acetyl moiety between CoA and carnitine. Because excess acetyl moiety of AcCoA is excreted in urine as acetylcarnitine, we hypothesized that retention of acetylcarnitine might be a cause of insulin resistance in chronic kidney disease patients...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889747/alisol-a-24-acetate-prevents-hepatic-steatosis-and-metabolic-disorders-in-hepg2-cells
#4
Lu Zeng, WaiJiao Tang, JinJin Yin, LiJuan Feng, Yabing Li, Xiaorui Yao, BenJie Zhou
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is closely associated with metabolic disorders including hepatic lipid accumulation and inflammation. Alisol A 24-acetate, a triterpene from Alismatis rhizome, has multiple biologic activities such as hypolipidemic, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic. Thus we hypothesized that Alisol A 24 -acetate would have effect on NAFLD. The present study was conducted to investigate the therapeutic effects and potential mechanisms of Alisol A 24-acetate against hepatic steatosis in a free fatty acids (FFAs) induced NAFLD cell model...
November 25, 2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869661/an-exploratory-investigation-of-endotoxin-levels-in-novice-long-distance-triathletes-and-the-effects-of-a-multi-strain-probiotic-prebiotic-antioxidant-intervention
#5
Justin D Roberts, Craig A Suckling, Georgia Y Peedle, Joseph A Murphy, Tony G Dawkins, Michael G Roberts
Gastrointestinal (GI) ischemia during exercise is associated with luminal permeability and increased systemic lipopolysaccharides (LPS). This study aimed to assess the impact of a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant intervention on endotoxin unit levels and GI permeability in recreational athletes. Thirty healthy participants (25 males, 5 females) were randomly assigned either a multistrain pro/prebiotic/antioxidant (LAB⁴ANTI; 30 billion CFU·day(-1) containing 10 billion CFU·day(-1)Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL-60 (NCIMB 30157), 10 billion CFU·day(-1)Lactobacillus acidophillus CUL-21 (NCIMB 30156), 9...
November 17, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864727/post-translational-modification-by-acetylation-regulates-the-mitochondrial-carnitine-acylcarnitine-transport-protein
#6
Nicola Giangregorio, Annamaria Tonazzi, Lara Console, Cesare Indiveri
The carnitine/acylcarnitine transporter (CACT; SLC25A20) mediates an antiport reaction allowing entry of acyl moieties in the form of acylcarnitines into the mitochondrial matrix and exit of free carnitine. The transport function of CACT is crucial for the β-oxidation pathway. In this work, it has been found that CACT is partially acetylated in rat liver mitochondria as demonstrated by anti-acetyl-lys antibody immunostaining. Acetylation was reversed by the deacetylase Sirtuin 3 in the presence of NAD(+). After treatment of the mitochondrial extract with the deacetylase, the CACT activity, assayed in proteoliposomes, increased...
November 18, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824080/lycium-barbarum-polysaccharide-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-by-up-regulating-sirt1-expression-and-deacetylase-activity
#7
Li Jia, Wang Li, Jianning Li, Yan Li, Hui Song, Yansong Luan, Hui Qi, Lirong Ma, Xiaohong Lu, Yi Yang
In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effects and underlying mechanism of Lycium barbarum polysaccharide (LBP) on high-fat-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Recently, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of hepatocellular lipid metabolism. Here, we demonstrated that LBP up-regulates SIRT1 deacetylase activity and protein expression by enhancing the NAD(+)/NADH ratio. Subsequently, LBP promoted LKB1 deacetylation and AMPK phosphorylation via SIRT1-dependent signalling...
November 8, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786574/examining-the-protective-effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-on-cisplatin-induced-uterine-tube-toxicity
#8
Gulistan Sanem Saribas, Deniz Erdogan, Guleser Goktas, Seda Nur Akyol, Ibrahim Murat Hirfanoglu, Seren Gulsen Gurgen, Neslihan Coskun, Candan Ozogul
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cisplatin and the protective role of acetyl l-carnitine against uterine tube toxicity. Twenty-four female Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups: control group was injected with saline (control); group 2 was injected with acetyl l-carnitine; group 3 was injected with cisplatin; and group 4 was pre-treated with acetyl l-carnitine before cisplatin intraperitoneal injection. According to our results, a significant weight loss was observed in rats from group 3...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771504/changes-in-the-levels-of-l-carnitine-acetyl-l-carnitine-and-propionyl-l-carnitine-are-involved-in-perfluorooctanoic-acid-induced-developmental-cardiotoxicity-in-chicken-embryo
#9
Qixiao Jiang, Chunbo Wang, Chan Xue, Lingfang Xue, Meiting Wang, Changhao Li, Ziwen Deng, Qian Wang
Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), a persistent organic pollutant, is associated with developmental toxicity. This study investigated the mechanism of PFOA-induced developmental cardiotoxicity in chicken embryo, focusing on the interactions between developmental exposure to PFOA and the levels of l-carnitine (LC), acetyl-l-carnitine (ALC) and propionyl-l-carnitine (PLC) in the heart. To evaluate the developmental cardiotoxicity, fertile chicken eggs were exposed to 0.1, 0.5, 1, 2 or 5mg/kg PFOA via air cell injection...
December 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724997/rice-endosperm-protein-slows-progression-of-fatty-liver-and-diabetic-nephropathy-in-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#10
Masatoshi Kubota, Reiko Watanabe, Miki Yamaguchi, Michihiro Hosojima, Akihiko Saito, Mikio Fujii, Shinobu Fujimura, Motoni Kadowaki
We previously reported that rice endosperm protein (REP) has renoprotective effects in Goto-Kakizaki rats, a non-obese diabetic model. However, whether these effects occur in obese diabetes remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the effects of REP on obese diabetes, especially on fatty liver and diabetic nephropathy, using the obese diabetic model Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. In total, 7-week-old male ZDF rats were fed diets containing 20 % REP or casein (C) for 8 weeks. Changes in fasting blood glucose levels and urinary markers were monitored during the experimental period...
October 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713999/an-lc-ms-based-untargeted-metabolomics-study-identified-novel-biomarkers-for-coronary-heart-disease
#11
Ruijun Li, Fengyu Li, Qiang Feng, Zhipeng Liu, Zhuye Jie, Bo Wen, Xun Xu, Shilong Zhong, Guanglei Li, Kunlun He
This study performed untargeted metabolomics for plasma samples from 40 coronary heart disease patients and 43 healthy controls by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry technology to find a set of effective biomarkers for CHD diagnosis and prognosis. The discriminating metabolites were extracted and analyzed by univariate and multivariate analysis methods. We found five metabolites (1-naphthol, 2-naphthol, methylitaconate, N-acetyl-d-glucosamine 6-phosphate and l-carnitine) contributing to the separation of CHD patients from healthy controls, and a subset of two metabolites in these five were identified as potential plasma biomarkers for CHD diagnosis...
October 18, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708682/hepatic-adaptations-to-maintain-metabolic-homeostasis-in-response-to-fasting-and-refeeding-in-mice
#12
C E Geisler, C Hepler, M R Higgins, B J Renquist
BACKGROUND: The increased incidence of obesity and associated metabolic diseases has driven research focused on genetically or pharmacologically alleviating metabolic dysfunction. These studies employ a range of fasting-refeeding models including 4-24 h fasts, "overnight" fasts, or meal feeding. Still, we lack literature that describes the physiologically relevant adaptations that accompany changes in the duration of fasting and re-feeding. Since the liver is central to whole body metabolic homeostasis, we investigated the timing of the fast-induced shift toward glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and ketogenesis and the meal-induced switch toward glycogenesis and away from ketogenesis...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27683241/sex-dependent-alterations-in-mitochondrial-electron-transport-chain-proteins-following-neonatal-rat-cerebral-hypoxic-ischemia
#13
T G Demarest, R A Schuh, E L Waite, J Waddell, M C McKenna, Gary Fiskum
Males are more susceptible to brain mitochondrial bioenergetic dysfunction following neonatal cerebral hypoxic-ischemia (HI) than females. Mitochondrial biogenesis has been implicated in the cellular response to HI injury, but sex differences in biogenesis following HI have not been described. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial biogenesis or the expression of mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) proteins are differentially stimulated in the brains of 8 day old male and female rats one day following HI, and promoted by treatment with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667153/indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-by-degrading-l-tryptophan-enhances-carnitine-palmitoyltransferase%C3%A2-i-activity-and-fatty-acid-oxidation-and-exerts-fatty-acid-dependent-effects-in-human-alloreactive-cd4-t-cells
#14
Theodoros Eleftheriadis, Georgios Pissas, Maria Sounidaki, Konstantina Tsogka, Nikolaos Antoniadis, Georgia Antoniadi, Vassilios Liakopoulos, Ioannis Stefanidis
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is expressed in antigen-presenting cells and by degrading L-tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway suppresses CD4+ T-cell proliferation, induces apoptosis and promotes differentiation towards a regulatory as opposed to an effector phenotype. Recent findings revealed that the above effects may be mediated through alterations in T-cell metabolism. In this study, the effect of IDO on fatty acid β-oxidation in CD4+ T-cells was evaluated in human mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs) using the IDO inhibitor, 1-DL-methyl-tryptophan...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621429/reply-to-arduini-et-al-acetyl-l-carnitine-and-the-brain-epigenetics-energetics-and-stress
#15
Benedetta Bigio, Carla Nasca, Bruce S McEwen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27606940/acetyl-l-carnitine-undervalued-in-the-treatment-of-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy
#16
Davy G H A van Dam, Antoinetta J M Beijers, Gerard Vreugdenhil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2016: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600823/aerobic-capacity-and-hepatic-mitochondrial-lipid-oxidation-alters-susceptibility-for-chronic-high-fat-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis
#17
E Matthew Morris, Grace M E Meers, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, Justin A Fletcher, Xiaorong Fu, Kartik Shankar, Shawn C Burgess, Jamal A Ibdah, R Scott Rector, John P Thyfault
Rats selectively bred for high capacity running (HCR) or low capacity running (LCR) display divergence for intrinsic aerobic capacity and hepatic mitochondrial oxidative capacity, both factors associated with susceptibility for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Here, we tested if HCR and LCR rats display differences in susceptibility for hepatic steatosis after 16 wk of high-fat diets (HFD) with either 45% or 60% of kcals from fat. HCR rats were protected against HFD-induced hepatic steatosis, whereas only the 60% HFD induced steatosis in LCR rats, as marked by a doubling of liver triglycerides...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592052/hnf-4%C3%AE-regulated-mir-122-contributes-to-development-of-gluconeogenesis-and-lipid-metabolism-disorders-in-type-2-diabetic-mice-and-in-palmitate-treated-hepg2-cells
#18
Shengnan Wei, Ming Zhang, Yang Yu, Huan Xue, Xiaoxin Lan, Shuping Liu, Grant Hatch, Li Chen
Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor-4α (HNF-4α) is a key nuclear receptor protein required for liver development. miR-122 is a predominant microRNA expressed in liver and is involved in the regulation of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. HNF-4α is know to regulate expression of miR-122 in liver. We examined how HNF-4α regulated gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism through miR-122 in vivo and in vitro. Expression of miR-122, HNF-4α, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase), sterol response elementary binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), fatty acid synthase-1 (FAS-1), carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) and acetyl Coenzyme A carboxylase alpha (ACCα) were determined in livers of Type 2 diabetic mice and in insulin resistant palmitate-treated HepG2 cells...
August 31, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563814/molecular-regulation-of-apoptotic-machinery-and-lipid-metabolism-by-mtorc1-mtorc2-dual-inhibitors-in-preclinical-models-of-her2-pik3camut-breast-cancer
#19
Jianchang Qian, Yaqing Chen, Tao Meng, Lanping Ma, Lanfang Meng, Xin Wang, Ting Yu, Arie Zask, Jingkang Shen, Ker Yu
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a rational target for cancer treatment. While the mTORC1-selective rapalogs have shown significant benefits in the clinic, antitumor response may be further improved by inhibiting both mTORC1 and mTORC2. Herein, we established target profile of a novel mTOR kinase inhibitor (mTOR-KI) MTI-31 and employed it to study new therapeutic mechanism in breast cancer. MTI-31 demonstrated a potent mTOR binding affinity with >5000 fold selectivity over the related PI3K family isoforms...
August 22, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27562416/fluorescent-derivatization-combined-with-aqueous-solvent-based-dispersive-liquid-liquid-microextraction-for-determination-of-butyrobetaine-l-carnitine-and-acetyl-l-carnitine-in-human-plasma
#20
Yi-Ching Chen, Chia-Ju Tsai, Chia-Hsien Feng
A novel aqueous solvent-based dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (AS-DLLME) method was combined with narrow-bore liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection for the determination of hydrophilic compounds. A remover (non-polar solvent) and extractant (aqueous solution) were introduced into the derivatization system (acetonitrile) to obtain a water-in-oil emulsion state that increased the mass transfer of analytes. As a proof of concept, three quaternary ammonium substances, including butyrobetaine, l-carnitine and acetyl-l-carnitine, were also used as analytes and determined in pharmaceuticals, personal care products, food and human plasma...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
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