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B Antonioli, M Galuzzi
First clinical islet allotransplantation in patients affected by type 1 diabetes mellitus was performed about 30 years ago. Despite the progressive improvement of the success rate, the clinical indication to the islet allotransplantation remains limited to selected patients affected by brittle type 1 diabetes mellitus. The burden of the immunosuppression therapy still represents the main critical issue but other areas might be subject to further improvements, such as the islet production, islet engraftment and long-term function...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Jianchang Xu, Shuangqing Sun, Zhikun Wang, Shiyuan Peng, Songqing Hu, Lijuan Zhang
Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation is used to study the effect of pH on the morphological transition in micelles assembled from dirhamnolipids (diRLs), and analyze the pH-driven mechanism and influence factors of micellar surface patterns. At pH < 4.0, various multilayer structures with homogeneous surface patterns are observed, whereas diRLs can self-assemble into novel anisotropic morphologies with phase-separated surface patterns at pH > 7.4, such as patchy spherical micelles, rod-like micelles with helical surface patterns and a lamellar phase with anisotropic surface patterns...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Lingyu Chen, Youxing Su, Wenbin Luo, Xuemin Hong, Jianghong Shi
The deployment density and computational power of small base stations (BSs) are expected to increase significantly in the next generation mobile communication networks. These BSs form the mobile edge network, which is a pervasive and distributed infrastructure that can empower a variety of edge/fog computing applications. This paper proposes a novel edge-computing application called explicit caching, which stores selective contents at BSs and exposes such contents to local users for interactive browsing and download...
March 22, 2018: Sensors
D S V Bandara, Jumpei Arata, Kazuo Kiguchi
Robotic prostheses are expected to allow amputees greater freedom and mobility. However, available options to control transhumeral prostheses are reduced with increasing amputation level. In addition, for electromyography-based control of prostheses, the residual muscles alone cannot generate sufficiently different signals for accurate distal arm function. Thus, controlling a multi-degree of freedom (DoF) transhumeral prosthesis is challenging with currently available techniques. In this paper, an electroencephalogram (EEG)-based hierarchical two-stage approach is proposed to achieve multi-DoF control of a transhumeral prosthesis...
March 22, 2018: Bioengineering
(no author information available yet)
In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper deals with the future perspectives of PRM in Europe according to the actual vision of the European Bodies. All Chapters stress the big changes that Europe is facing in terms of demography, life expectancy, survival rates, disability burden, increasing prevalence of long-term health conditions, progress in technology, but also health costs and society changes in terms of requirements of wellness and quality of life together with health...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Gill Datta, Pádraig T Kitterick, Jayne Ramirez-Inscoe
OBJECTIVES: Clinicians face considerable challenges in setting appropriate auditory goals for babies and young children who receive cochlear implants. This paper describes the rationale, organization, implementation, and validation of the Nottingham Auditory Milestones profile that was developed to address these challenges. METHODS: The use of the profile has been fully integrated into the postoperative pathway at the Nottingham Auditory Implant Programme since 2009...
March 22, 2018: Cochlear Implants International
David Cameron, Jasper Ubels, Fredrik Norström
BACKGROUND: The amount a government should be willing to invest in adopting new medical treatments has long been under debate. With many countries using formal cost-effectiveness (C/E) thresholds when examining potential new treatments and ever-growing medical costs, accurately setting the level of a C/E threshold can be essential for an efficient healthcare system. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review is to describe the prominent approaches to setting a C/E threshold, compile available national-level C/E threshold data and willingness-to-pay (WTP) data, and to discern whether associations exist between these values, gross domestic product (GDP) and health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE)...
2018: Global Health Action
Jindřich Polívka
Palliative care is focused on enhancing quality of life for seriously ill. Hospice care is a comprehensive care provided by an interdisciplinary team for patients whose diseases cannot be cured and are approaching the end of life. To be eligible for admission to hospice care is required to be terminally ill with a life expectancy of 6 months or less. Currently, hospices are the main providers of specialized palliative care in the Czech Republic. This article is focused on the current state of palliative care and specifically on hospice care in the Czech Republic...
2018: Casopís Lékar̆ů C̆eských
Manoj Kumar, Jie Zhong, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Joseph S Francisco
. The role of aqueous surfaces in promoting atmospheric chemistry is increasingly being recognized. However, the bimolecular chemistries of Criegee intermediates, which influence the tropospheric budget of OH radicals, organic acids, hydroperoxides, nitrates, sulfates and particulate material, remain less explored on an aqueous surface. Herein we have employed Born Oppenheimer molecular dynamics simulations and two-layer ONIOM(QM:MM) in electronic embedding scheme to study the reaction and the spectroscopic signal of anti-CH3CHOO with nitric acid (HNO3) at the air-water interface, which is expected to be an important reaction in the polluted urban environments...
March 22, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jia-Li Liu, Zhi-Ling Tang, Jia-Qi Zhang, Yaqin Chai, Ying Zhuo, Ruo Yuan
The electrochemiluminescence (ECL) properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are excellent on account of the high photoluminescence quantum yield. However, the poor solubility and radical instability of PAHs in the aqueous solution severely restricted the further biological application. Here, 9,10 - diphenylanthracene (DPA) nano blocks (NBs) with good dispersibility and stability in aqueous solution were prepared according to morphology-controlled technology employing water-soluble polymers as a protectant...
March 22, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Yen-Chun Lin, Lian-Hua Huang
Self-supporting care is an emerging concept in the geriatric care system of Taiwan. The traditional care model tends to prioritize aspects such as "safety" and "convenient and effective". For older adult patients, this situation has led to excessive restrictions, enforced bedrest, and the use of adult diapers, which seriously deteriorate quality of life. The present article introduces the development and current status of self-supporting care and international empirical research results from the perspective of holistic care for older adults as well as describes the intervention strategies that are currently used in Taiwan...
April 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Shwu-Feng Tsay, Shih-Chung Chen, Shu-Jen Lu, Li-Ting Liu
Taiwan is projected to become an aged society in 2018. In addition to establishing a comprehensive, long-term care system that is able to deal with the expected impacts of population aging, it is imperative that the government focus on improving the prevention of aging-related conditions. This article introduces the innovative preventive care policy promoted by Taiwan's Ministry of Health and Welfare and its preliminary results. Furthermore, the foundational ideas behind this policy and how it is being executed are explained...
April 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Anne G Pereira, Michael Kim, Marcus Seywerd, Brooke Nesbitt, Michael B Pitt
BACKGROUND: Use of the electronic health record (EHR) is widespread in academic medical centers, and hands-on EHR experience in medical school is essential for new residents to be able to meaningfully contribute to patient care. As system-specific EHR training is not portable across institutions-even when the same EHR platform is used-students rotating across health systems are often required to spend time away from clinical training to complete each system's, often duplicative, EHR training regardless of their competency within the EHR...
January 2018: Applied Clinical Informatics
Shang Wang, Irina V Larina
The oviduct (or fallopian tube) serves as the site where a number of major reproductive events occur for the start of a new life in mammals. Understanding the oviduct physiology is essential to uncover hidden mechanisms of the human reproduction and its disorders, yet the current analysis of the oviduct that is largely limited to in vitro imaging is a significant technical hurdle. To overcome this barrier, we have recently developed in vivo approaches based on optical coherence tomography for structural and functional imaging of the mouse oviduct...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Tobias Bexelius, Antti Sohlberg
OBJECTIVE: Statistical SPECT reconstruction can be very time-consuming especially when compensations for collimator and detector response, attenuation, and scatter are included in the reconstruction. This work proposes an accelerated SPECT reconstruction algorithm based on graphics processing unit (GPU) processing. METHODS: Ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) algorithm with CT-based attenuation modelling, depth-dependent Gaussian convolution-based collimator-detector response modelling, and Monte Carlo-based scatter compensation was implemented using OpenCL...
March 21, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Ander Regueiro, Ignacio Cruz-Gonzalez, Armando Bethencourt, Luis Nombela-Franco, Jean Champagne, Luis Asmarats, Pilar Jiménez-Quevedo, Tania Rodriguez-Gabella, Juan Carlos Rama-Merchan, Rishi Puri, Gilles O'Hara, Josep Rodés-Cabau
PURPOSE: We aimed to evaluate the late clinical outcomes of percutaneous LAA closure in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and contraindication to oral anticoagulation. METHODS: Consecutive AF patients with contraindications to oral anticoagulation who underwent successful LAA closure between December 2008 and March 2013 at four centers were included. RESULTS: A total of 101 patients (median age 76 [IQR 69-80] years, 48% women, mean CHA2 DS2 -VASc 5 ± 2; HAS-BLED 4 ± 1) were included...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Interventional Cardiac Electrophysiology: An International Journal of Arrhythmias and Pacing
Jannick Brennum, Christina M Engelmann, Johanne Asperud Thomsen, Jane Skjøth-Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: Balancing survival versus risk of inducing functional deficits is a challenge when resecting gliomas in or near eloquent areas. Our objectives were to assess deficits prior to and at 6 and 12 months after awake craniotomies with cortical and subcortical mapping in patients with suspected grade 2 gliomas in eloquent areas. We analyzed whether pre- and intraoperative factors were linked to an increased risk of postoperative deficits. METHOD: Retrospective study of 92 consecutive patients operated between January 2010 and June 2014...
March 22, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Antonis Targoutzidis
The cost of lost output is a major component of the total cost of illness estimates, especially those for the cost of workplace accidents and diseases. The two main methods for estimating this output, namely the human capital and the friction cost method, lead to very different results, particularly for cases of long-term absence, which makes the choice of method a critical dilemma. Two hidden assumptions, one for each method, are identified in this paper: for human capital method, the assumption that had the accident not happened the individual would remain alive, healthy and employed until retirement, and for friction cost method, the assumption that any created vacancy is covered by an unemployed person...
March 21, 2018: European Journal of Health Economics: HEPAC: Health Economics in Prevention and Care
Eleni Fegaras, Arthur Forer
A "precocious" cleavage furrow develops and ingresses during early prometaphase in Mesostoma ehrenbergii spermatocytes (Forer and Pickett-Heaps Eur J Cell Biol 89:607-618, 2010). In response to chromosome movements which regularly occur during prometaphase and that alter the balance of chromosomes in the two half-spindles, the precocious furrow shifts its position along the cell, moving 2-3 μm towards the half cell with fewer chromosomes (Ferraro-Gideon et al. Cell Biol Int 37:892-898, 2013). This process continues until proper segregation is achieved and the cell enters anaphase with the cleavage furrow again in the middle of the cell...
March 21, 2018: Protoplasma
Yubo Lang, Fei Guo, Qingshan Niu
StatsX (Statistics for X-STR) v2.0 is developed to facilitate the workflow for analysis of population data on X-chromosomal short tandem repeat (X-STR) marker. The interactive graphical and installable software can estimate allele/haplotype frequencies from female, male, and pooled samples and calculate forensic parameters by importing a single file. In addition, it is able to filter out the invalid raw data and export a series of pre-formatted Arlequin input files that are directly used for testing the significance of the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), linkage disequilibrium (LD), and gender differentiation...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Legal Medicine
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