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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092905/endocranial-morphology-of-the-extinct-north-american-lion-panthera-atrox
#1
Andrew R Cuff, Christopher Stockey, Anjali Goswami
The extinct North American lion (Panthera atrox) is one of the largest felids (Mammalia, Carnivora) to have ever lived, and it is known from a plethora of incredibly well-preserved remains. Despite this abundance of material, there has been little research into its endocranial anatomy. CT scans of a skull of P. atrox from the Pleistocene La Brea Tar pits were used to generate the first virtual endocranium for this species and to elucidate previously unknown details of its brain size and gross structure, cranial nerves, and inner-ear morphology...
January 17, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092853/operative-vaginal-delivery-and-invasive-procedures-in-pregnancy-among-women-living-with-hiv
#2
Helen Peters, Kate Francis, Kate Harding, Pat A Tookey, Claire Thorne
OBJECTIVES: To describe the use and outcomes of operative delivery and invasive procedures in pregnancy amongst women living with HIV. STUDY DESIGN: The National Study of HIV in Pregnancy and Childhood (NSHPC) is a comprehensive population-based surveillance study in the UK and Ireland. The NSHPC has collected data on operative delivery since 2008, and invasive procedures in pregnancy (amniocentesis, cordocentesis, chorionic villus sampling) from 2012. Descriptive analyses were conducted on 278 pregnancies expected to deliver from 1 January 2008 with outcome reported to the NSHPC by 31 March 2016...
December 24, 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092832/sampling-conformational-space-of-intrinsically-disordered-proteins-in-explicit-solvent-comparison-between-well-tempered-ensemble-approach-and-solute-tempering-method
#3
Mengzhi Han, Ji Xu, Ying Ren
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are a class of proteins that expected to be largely unstructured under physiological conditions. Due to their heterogeneous nature, experimental characterization of IDP is challenging. Temperature replica exchange molecular dynamics (T-REMD) is a widely used enhanced sampling method to probe structural characteristics of these proteins. However, its application has been hindered due to its tremendous computational cost, especially when simulating large systems in explicit solvent...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092820/pcr-screening-of-an-african-fermented-pearl-millet-porridge-metagenome-to-investigate-the-nutritional-potential-of-its-microbiota
#4
Fabien Saubade, Christèle Humblot, Youna M Hemery, Jean-Pierre Guyot
Cereals are staple foods in most African countries, and many African cereal-based foods are spontaneously fermented. The nutritional quality of cereal products can be enhanced through fermentation, and traditional cereal-based fermented foods (CBFFs) are possible sources of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with useful nutritional properties. The nutritional properties of LAB vary depending on the species and even on the strain, and the microbial composition of traditional CBFFs varies from one traditional production unit (TPU) to another...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092814/a-participatory-action-research-study-exploring-women-s-understandings-of-the-concept-of-informed-choice-during-pregnancy-and-childbirth-in-ireland
#5
Denise O'Brien, Michelle M Butler, Mary Casey
OBJECTIVE: to explore women's understandings and definitions of the concept of informed choice during pregnancy and childbirth. METHODS: a three-phase action research approach. In the first phase of the study (reported in this paper), fifteen women were interviewed to establish their understandings and experiences of informed choice. SETTING: Dublin, Ireland in a large maternity hospital. PARTICIPANTS: fifteen postnatal women who gave birth to a live healthy infant, women attended obstetric or midwifery-led care...
January 4, 2017: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092810/expectation-and-futurity-the-remarkable-success-of-genetic-determinism
#6
Maurizio Esposito
Genetic determinism is nowadays largely questioned and widely criticized. However, if we look at the history of biology in the last one hundred years, we realize that genetic determinism has always been controversial. Why, then, did it acquire such relevance in the past despite facing longstanding criticism? Through the analysis of some of the ambitious expectations of future scientific applications, this article explores the possibility that part of the historical success of genetic determinism lies in the powerful rhetorical strategies that have connected the germinal matter with alluring bio-technological visions...
January 13, 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092724/the-pediatric-rome-iv-criteria-what-s-new
#7
Ilan J N Koppen, Samuel Nurko, Miguel Saps, Carlo Di Lorenzo, Marc A Benninga
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common in children of all ages and comprise of a wide range of conditions related to the gastrointestinal tract that cannot be attributed to structural or biochemical abnormalities. FGIDs are diagnosed according to the symptom-based Rome criteria. Areas covered: In 2016, the revised pediatric Rome IV criteria were published, these revised criteria are discussed in this review article. For the youngest age group (neonates/toddlers), the criteria for infant colic have undergone the most notable revisions...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092723/pertuzumab-and-breast-cancer-another-piece-in-the-anti-her2-puzzle
#8
Dr Lorenzo Gerratana, Dr Marta Bonotto, Dr Claudia Bozza, Dr Elena Ongaro, Dr Valentina Fanotto, Dr Giacomo Pelizzari, Prof Fabio Puglisi
The mechanism of action of pertuzumab, a recombinant anti-HER2 humanized monoclonal antibody, is complementary to trastuzumab's. On June 8, 2012, the Food and Drug Administration approved the combination of pertuzumab with trastuzumab and docetaxel as first-line treatment of HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer. Furthermore, pertuzumab is the first drug to be approved in the neoadjuvant setting using a pathological complete response as an endpoint. Areas covered: The review provides insights into the main mechanisms of action of pertuzumab...
January 16, 2017: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092695/absorption-distribution-and-excretion-of-the-anti-tuberculosis-drug-delamanid-in-rats-extensive-tissue-distribution-suggests-potential-therapeutic-value-for-extrapulmonary-tuberculosis
#9
Masakazu Shibata, Yoshihiko Shimokawa, Katsunori Sasahara, Noriaki Yoda, Hiroyuki Sasabe, Mitsunari Suzuki, Ken Umehara
Delamanid (OPC-67683, Deltyba(TM) , nitro-dihydro-imidazooxazoles derivative) is approved for the treatment of adult pulmonary multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. The absorption, distribution, and excretion of delamanid-derived radioactivity were investigated after a single oral administration of (14) C-delamanid at 3 mg/kg to rats. In both male and female rats, radioactivity in blood and all tissues reached peak levels by 8 or 24 hours postdose, and thereafter decreased slowly. Radioactivity levels were 3- to 5-fold higher in lung tissue at time to maximum concentration compared with plasma...
January 16, 2017: Biopharmaceutics & Drug Disposition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092682/limited-heterogeneity-of-known-driver-gene-mutations-among-the-metastases-of-individual-patients-with-pancreatic-cancer
#10
Alvin P Makohon-Moore, Ming Zhang, Johannes G Reiter, Ivana Bozic, Benjamin Allen, Deepanjan Kundu, Krishnendu Chatterjee, Fay Wong, Yuchen Jiao, Zachary A Kohutek, Jungeui Hong, Marc Attiyeh, Breanna Javier, Laura D Wood, Ralph H Hruban, Martin A Nowak, Nickolas Papadopoulos, Kenneth W Kinzler, Bert Vogelstein, Christine A Iacobuzio-Donahue
The extent of heterogeneity among driver gene mutations present in naturally occurring metastases-that is, treatment-naive metastatic disease-is largely unknown. To address this issue, we carried out 60× whole-genome sequencing of 26 metastases from four patients with pancreatic cancer. We found that identical mutations in known driver genes were present in every metastatic lesion for each patient studied. Passenger gene mutations, which do not have known or predicted functional consequences, accounted for all intratumoral heterogeneity...
January 16, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092637/non-invasive-classification-of-breast-microcalcifications-using-x-ray-coherent-scatter-computed-tomography
#11
Bahaa Ghammraoui, Lucretiu M Popescu
We investigate the use of energy dispersive x-ray coherent scatter computed tomography (ED-CSCT) as a non-invasive diagnostic method to differentiate between type I and type II breast calcifications. This approach is sensitive to the differences of composition and internal crystal structure of different types of microcalcifications. The study is carried out by simulating a CSCT system with a scanning pencil beam, considering a polychromatic x-ray source and an energy-resolving photon counting detector. In a first step, the multidimensional angle and energy distributed CSCT data is reduced to the projection-space distributions of only a few components, corresponding to the expected target composition: adipose, glandular tissue, weddellite (calcium oxalate) for type I calcifications, and hydroxyapatite for type II calcifications...
February 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092632/the-tilt-dependent-potential-of-mean-force-of-a-pair-of-dna-oligomers-from-all-atom-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#12
Ruggero Cortini, Xiaolin Cheng, Jeremy C Smith
Electrostatic interactions between DNA molecules have been extensively studied experimentally and theoretically, but several aspects (e.g. its role in determining the pitch of the cholesteric DNA phase) still remain unclear. Here, we performed large-scale all-atom molecular dynamics simulations in explicit water and 150 mM sodium chloride, to reconstruct the potential of mean force (PMF) of two DNA oligomers 24 base pairs long as a function of their interaxial angle and intermolecular distance. We find that the potential of mean force is dominated by total DNA charge, and not by the helical geometry of its charged groups...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092593/robust-estimation-of-arx-models-with-time-varying-time-delays-using-variational-bayesian-approach
#13
Yujia Zhao, Alireza Fatehi, Biao Huang
This paper is concerned with robust identification of processes with time-varying time delays. In reality, the delay values do not simply change randomly, but there is a correlation between consecutive delays. In this paper, the correlation of time delay is modeled by the transition probability of a Markov chain. Furthermore, the measured data are often contaminated by outliers, and therefore, t-distribution is adopted to model the measurement noise. The variational Bayesian (VB) approach is applied to estimate the model parameters along with time delays...
January 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092531/a-200-1380-khz-quadrifrequency-focused-ultrasound-transducer-for-neurostimulation-in-rodents-and-primates-transcranial-in-vitro-calibration-and-numerical-study-of-the-influence-of-skull-cavity
#14
Charlotte Constans, Thomas Deffieux, Pierre Pouget, Mickael Tanter, Jean-Francois Aubry
Low intensity transcranial focused ultrasound has been demonstrated to produce neuromodulation in both animals and humans. Primarily for technical reasons, frequency is one of the most poorly investigated critical wave parameters. We propose the use of a quadri-band transducer capable of operating at 200, 320, 850 and 1380 kHz for further investigation of the frequency dependence of neuromodulation efficacy while keeping the position of the transducer fixed with respect to the subject's head. This paper presents the results of the transducer calibration in water, in vitro transmission measurements through a monkey skull flap, 3D simulations based on both a μCT-scan of a rat and on CT-scans of 2 macaques...
January 11, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092512/a-hidden-markov-model-for-seismocardiography
#15
Johan Wahlstrom, Isaac Skog, Peter Handel, Farzad Khosrow-Khavar, Kouhyar Tavakolian, Phyllis K Stein, Arye Nehorai
We propose a hidden Markov model approach for processing seismocardiograms. The seismocardiogram morphology is learned using the expectation-maximization algorithm, and the state of the heart at a given time instant is estimated by the Viterbi algorithm. From the obtained Viterbi sequence, it is then straightforward to estimate instantaneous heart rate, heart rate variability measures, and cardiac time intervals (the latter requiring a small number of manual annotations). As is shown in the conducted experimental study, the presented algorithm outperforms the state-of-the-art in seismocardiogrambased heart rate and heart rate variability estimation Moreover, the isovolumic contraction time and the left ventricular ejection time are estimated with mean absolute errors of about 5 [ms] and 9 [ms], respectively...
January 9, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092511/the-concept-of-effective-inflow-application-to-interictal-localization-of-the-epileptogenic-focus-from-ieeg
#16
Ioannis Vlachos, Balu Krishnan, David Treiman, Konstantinos Tsakalis, Dimitris Kugiumtzis, Leon D Iasemidis
GOAL: Accurate determination of the epileptogenic focus is of paramount diagnostic and therapeutic importance in epilepsy. The current gold standard for focus localization is from ictal (seizure) onset and thus requires the occurrence and recording of multiple typical seizures of a patient. Localization of the focus from seizure-free (interictal) periods remains a challenging problem, especially in the absence of interictal epileptiform activity. METHODS: By exploring the concept of effective inflow, we developed a focus localization algorithm (FLA) based on directed connectivity between brain sites...
November 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092473/changing-the-culture-of-academic-medicine-critical-mass-or-critical-actors
#17
Deborah L Helitzer, Sharon L Newbill, Gina Cardinali, Page S Morahan, Shine Chang, Diane Magrane
PURPOSE: By 2006, women constituted 34% of academic medical faculty, reaching a critical mass. Theoretically, with critical mass, culture and policy supportive of gender equity should be evident. We explore whether having a critical mass of women transforms institutional culture and organizational change. METHODS: Career development program participants were interviewed to elucidate their experiences in academic health centers (AHCs). Focus group discussions were held with institutional leaders to explore their perceptions about contemporary challenges related to gender and leadership...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092464/expectations-for-treatment-in-pediatric-weight-management-and-relationship-to-attrition
#18
Erinn T Rhodes, Richard E Boles, Kimberly Chin, Amy Christison, Elizabeth Getzoff Testa, Kimberly Guion, Mary Jane Hawkins, Carter R Petty, Bethany Sallinen Gaffka, Melissa Santos, Laura Shaffer, Jared Tucker, Sarah E Hampl
BACKGROUND: Attrition in pediatric weight management negatively impacts treatment outcomes. A potentially modifiable contributor to attrition is unmet family expectations. This study aimed to evaluate the association between adolescent and parent/guardian treatment expectations and attrition. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective, nonrandomized, uncontrolled, single-arm pilot trial was conducted among 12 pediatric weight management programs in the Children's Hospital Association's FOCUS on a Fitter Future collaborative...
January 16, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092413/disruption-of-right-posterior-parietal-cortex-by-ctbs-alters-the-control-of-body-balance-in-quiet-stance
#19
David Kaulmann, Joachim Hermsdörfer, Leif Johannsen
Control of body balance relies on the integration of multiple sensory modalities. Lightly touching an earth-fixed reference augments the control of body sway. We aimed to advance the understanding of cortical integration of an afferent signal from light fingertip contact (LT) for the stabilisation of standing body balance. Assuming that right-hemisphere Posterior Parietal Cortex (rPPC) is involved in the integration and processing of touch for postural control, we expected that disrupting rPPC would attenuate any effects of light touch...
January 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092409/quantification-of-brown-and-white-adipose-tissue-based-on-gaussian-mixture-model-using-water-fat-and-t2-mri-in-adolescents
#20
Steve C N Hui, Jacky K L Ko, Teng Zhang, Lin Shi, David K W Yeung, Defeng Wang, Queenie Chan, Winnie C W Chu
PURPOSE: To develop a technique for the separation and quantification of brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT) using fat fraction and T2* intensity based on the Gaussian mixture model (GMM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chemical-shift water-fat and T2* images were acquired at the neck, supraclavicular, interscapular, and paravertebral regions in 24 volunteers (Obese: n = 12, female/male = 6/6, body mass index [BMI] = 31.3 ± 2.3 kg/m(2) , age = 16...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
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