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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929083/emerging-therapies-for-stage-iii-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-and-immunotherapy
#1
REVIEW
Sameera S Kumar, Kristin A Higgins, Ronald C McGarry
The current standard of care for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) includes radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery in certain individualized cases. In unresectable NSCLC, chemoradiation has been the standard of care for the past three decades. Local and distant failure remains high in this group of patients, so dose escalation has been studied in both single institution and national clinical trials. Though initial studies showed a benefit to dose escalation, phase III studies examining dose escalation using standard fractionation or hyperfractionation have failed to show a benefit...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926091/functional-role-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-chronic-neurodegenerative-diseases
#2
Debora Lo Furno, Giuliana Mannino, Rosario Giuffrida
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into not only cells of mesodermal lineages, but also into endodermal and ectodermal derived elements, including neurons and glial cells. For this reason, MSCs have been extensively investigated to develop cell-based therapeutic strategies, especially in pathologies whose pharmacological treatments give poor results, if any. As in the case of irreversible neurological disorders characterized by progressive neuronal death, in which behavioral and cognitive functions of patients inexorably decline as the disease progresses...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924872/-alzheimer-s-disease-from-auguste-deter-to-the-present-progress-disappointments-and-open-questions
#3
REVIEW
Johannes Pantel
AIM: The present article aims to provide a short overview of the discovery history, conceptual development, as well as on current neurobiological and pharmacological research questions in the field of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In view of the long hoped for but so far unachieved therapeutic breakthrough, this also includes a critical reflection of current research paradigms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Starting from the first case report described by Alois Alzheimer in 1906, the historical impact of his seminal discovery is reconstructed...
September 18, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923872/exposure-response-relationships-for-isavuconazole-in-patients-with-invasive-aspergillosis-and-other-filamentous-fungi
#4
Amit V Desai, Laura L Kovanda, William W Hope, David Andes, Johan W Mouton, Donna L Kowalski, Robert W Townsend, Salim Mujais, Peter L Bonate
Isavuconazole, the active moiety of the water-soluble prodrug isavuconazonium sulfate, is a triazole antifungal agent for the treatment of invasive fungal infections. The purpose of this analysis was to characterize the isavuconazole exposure-response relationship for measures of efficacy and safety in patients with invasive aspergillosis and other filamentous fungi from the SECURE trial. Two hundred and thirty one patients who received the clinical dosing regimen and had exposure parameters were included in this analysis...
September 18, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923179/drugs-and-hyperglycemia-a-practical-guide
#5
REVIEW
Vandana Jain, Ronak Kumar Patel, Zaureen Kapadia, Sneha Galiveeti, Maryann Banerji, Lisel Hope
Drug-induced diabetes is one of the factors contributing to the increasing incidence of diabetes worldwide. This review considers the frequency, pathogenesis and treatment of drug-induced diabetes. Drugs that induce diabetes include hormonal therapy, especially glucocorticoids and androgen blockers, cardiovascular drugs, especially statins, beta-blockers and diuretics, antipsychotics, especially clozapine, olanzapine and quetiapine, antiretrovirals (protease inhibitors and non-reverse transcriptase inhibitors - NRTIs) and other drugs (mechanistic target of rapamycin inhibitors -mTORs, post organ transplantation drugs, tyrosine kinase inhibitors and interferon-alpha)...
October 2017: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922449/needle-syringe-programmes-and-opioid-substitution-therapy-for-preventing-hepatitis-c-transmission-in-people-who-inject-drugs
#6
REVIEW
Lucy Platt, Silvia Minozzi, Jennifer Reed, Peter Vickerman, Holly Hagan, Clare French, Ashly Jordan, Louisa Degenhardt, Vivian Hope, Sharon Hutchinson, Lisa Maher, Norah Palmateer, Avril Taylor, Julie Bruneau, Matthew Hickman
BACKGROUND: Needle syringe programmes and opioid substitution therapy for preventing hepatitis C transmission in people who inject drugsNeedle syringe programmes (NSP) and opioid substitution therapy (OST) are the primary interventions to reduce hepatitis C (HCV) transmission in people who inject drugs. There is good evidence for the effectiveness of NSP and OST in reducing injecting risk behaviour and increasing evidence for the effectiveness of OST and NSP in reducing HIV acquisition risk, but the evidence on the effectiveness of NSP and OST for preventing HCV acquisition is weak...
September 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917619/a-chlorhexidine-solution-reduces-aerobic-organism-growth-in-operative-splash-basins-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Kevin E Lindgren, Christopher E Pelt, Mike B Anderson, Christopher L Peters, Emily S Spivak, Jeremy M Gililland
BACKGROUND: Despite recommendations against the use of splash basins, due to the potential of bacterial contamination, our observation has been that they continue to be used in operating theaters. In hopes of decontaminating the splash basin, we sought to determine if the addition of chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) would eliminate aerobic bacterial growth within the splash basin. METHODS: After Institutional Review Board approval, we began enrollment in a randomized controlled trial comparing 2 splash basin solutions...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917258/stereotactic-body-radiotherapy-for-early-stage-lung-cancer-historical-developments-and-future-strategies
#8
Kevin L M Chua, Iris Sin, Kam W Fong, Melvin L K Chua, Hiroshi Onishi
The application of radiosurgery dose escalation extra-cranially in a moving target, surrounded by critical normal tissue, presents unique dosimetric and clinical challenges. Building on a strong foundation of robust technological advancements and well-planned clinical studies, lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has firmly established its place in the management of early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Nevertheless, favourable outcomes and long-term survival still evade a substantial proportion of patients, especially for central and larger peripheral lung tumours...
September 2017: Chinese Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915702/targeted-therapies-for-gastric-cancer-failures-and-hopes-from-clinical-trials
#9
REVIEW
Maria Apicella, Simona Corso, Silvia Giordano
Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. As surgery is the only curative treatment strategy and conventional chemotherapy has shown limited efficacy -with a median overall survival of 10 months- new treatments are urgently needed. Trastuzumab and Ramucirumab (targeting HER2 and VEGFR2, respectively) are the only targeted therapies approved so far. Indeed, most Phase III clinical trials evaluating molecular drugs in gastric cancer failed. This review will retrace the relevant clinical trials with molecular therapies performed in gastric cancer patients, discussing the possible reasons for their failure and indicating new perspective for a real improvement of the treatment of this disease...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914557/an-analysis-of-the-types-of-recently-published-research-in-the-field-of-cachexia
#10
Louise G Shewan
Introduction Cachexia is a common complication of many and varied chronic disease processes, yet it has received very little attention as an area of clinical research effort until recently. We sought to survey the contemporary literature on published research into cachexia to define where it is being published and the proportion of output classified into the main types of research output. Methods I searched the PubMed listings under the topic research term "cachexia" and related terms for articles published in the calendar years of 2015 and 2016, regardless of language...
January 1, 2017: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914208/a-systematic-review-of-clinical-studies-investigating-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-fracture-non-union-and-bone-defects
#11
Kieran Killington, Reza Mafi, Pouya Mafi, Wasim Khan
Fracture non-union is a significant problem with a wide demographic and massive socioeconomic elements, as well as the clinical difficulties it presents. Conventional treatments with autograft and allograft bone grafting pose serious difficulties, thus, it is necessary to develop novel techniques with our ever increasing knowledge of bioengineering using natural materials. Papers were searched from a variety of sources, not limited to English-language studies or only published papers. Papers had to meet the definition of fracture non-union or bone defect and had to be clinical trials, using human MSCs...
September 15, 2017: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910526/genetic-rodent-models-of-brain-disorders-perspectives-on-experimental-approaches-and-therapeutic-strategies
#12
Christopher M McGraw, Christopher S Ward, Rodney C Samaco
Neurobehavioral disorders comprised of neurodegenerative, neurodevelopmental, and psychiatric disorders together represent leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Despite significant academic research and industry efforts to elucidate the disease mechanisms operative in these disorders and to develop mechanism-based therapies, our understanding remains incomplete and our access to tractable therapeutic interventions severely limited. The magnitude of these short-comings can be measured by the growing list of disappointing clinical trials based on initially promising compounds identified in genetic animal models...
September 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part C, Seminars in Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910326/sex-differences-in-the-herding-styles-of-working-sheepdogs-and-their-handlers
#13
Erin Kydd, Paul McGreevy
Working sheepdog trials test the attributes of dogs as well as the dogmanship and stockmanship skills of handlers. They generally include standard elements such as outrun, lift, fetch, drive, shed, pen and single to test all facets of the work that dogs perform on a farm. While both male and female handlers participate, these trials are traditionally dominated by male handlers. Both male and female dogs compete on equal terms within the same events. Drawing data from files (n = 60) downloaded from YouTube, the current study explores whether behaviours of dogs and their handlers during sheepdog trials differ between handler gender and dog sex at different levels of competition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900984/-targeted-therapy-combined-with-immunotherapy-in-gastrointestinal-stromal-tumor-a-new-era-of-hope-and-challenges
#14
Wenyi Zhao, Hui Cao
New immunotherapy represented by immune checkpoint inhibitor therapy and chimeric antigen receptor T-Cell immunotherapy (CAR-T) has already become hot trend in the treatment of malignant tumors. In gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), with notable tumor-infiltrating immune cells existing in GIST tissues and immunological effects reported in imatinib mesylate (IM) treatment, the clinicians and researchers started to realize the possibilities of immunotherapy in GIST. Recent studies reported that PD-1/PD-L1 or CTLA-4 blockade may enhance the T-cell activity and anti-tumor effect of targeted therapy, which can be applied in advanced GIST, and anti-KIT CAR T-cells indicated a new immunotherapeutic targeted strategy for GIST patients with TKI resistance...
September 25, 2017: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899104/therapeutic-vaccine-against-hiv-viral-variability-ctl-epitopes-and-genetics-of-patients
#15
Herve J Fleury, Camille Tumiotto, Pantxika Bellecave, Patricia Recordon-Pinson
The scientific and medical community is seeking to cure HIV. Several pathways have been or are being explored including therapeutic vaccination. Viro-immunological studies on primary infection as well as on elite controllers have demonstrated the importance of the cytotoxic CD8 response and have mainly oriented research on vaccine constructs towards this type of response. The results of these trials are clearly not commensurate with the hope placed in them. Might there be one or more uncontrolled variables? The genetics of patients need to be taken into consideration, especially their HLA alleles...
September 13, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893288/potential-contribution-of-gut-microbiota-and-systemic-inflammation-on-hiv-vaccine-effectiveness-and-vaccine-design
#16
REVIEW
Jean-Pierre Routy, Vikram Mehraj
The quest for an effective HIV-1 vaccine began as soon as the virus causing AIDS was identified. After several disappointing attempts, results of the Phase-III RV144 trial in Thailand were a beacon of hope for the field demonstrating correlation between protection and immunological markers. In order to optimize vaccine response, we underline results from yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines, where protective responses were predicted by the pre-vaccination level of immune activation in healthy individuals. Such findings support the assessment and reduction of pre-vaccine immune activation in order to optimize vaccine response...
September 12, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890409/the-strocss-statement-strengthening-the-reporting-of-cohort-studies-in-surgery
#17
Riaz Ahmed Agha, Mimi R Borrelli, Martinique Vella-Baldacchino, Rachel Thavayogan, Dennis P Orgill
INTRODUCTION: The development of reporting guidelines over the past 20 years represents a major advance in scholarly publishing with recent evidence showing positive impacts. Whilst over 350 reporting guidelines exist there are few that are specific to surgery. Here we describe the development of the STROCSS guideline (Strengthening the Reporting of Cohort Studies in Surgery). METHODS: and analysis: We published our protocol apriori. Current guidelines for case series (PROCESS), cohort studies (STROBE) and randomised controlled trials (CONSORT) were analysed to compile items which were used as baseline material for developing a list of suitable items for surgical cohort guidelines...
September 7, 2017: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888101/what-s-new-in-sclc-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Bryan Oronsky, Tony R Reid, Arnold Oronsky, Corey A Carter
A few years ago the answer to the question in the title of this review would have been, "unfortunately not much" or even "nothing", likely eliciting knowing nods of agreement from oncologists. For the last 3 decades, SCLC has been notorious for its lack of progress, as drug after drug, over 60 of them, in fact, including inhibitors of VEGF, IGFR, mTOR, EGFR and HGF has failed and fallen by the wayside due to little or no impact on PFS or OS, while SCLC's cousin, NSCLC, has notched success after success with a spate of targeted treatment and immunotherapy regulatory approvals...
September 6, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884461/erratum-to-prolonged-survival-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-and-a-history-of-brain-metastases-results-of-a-preplanned-subgroup-analysis-from-the-randomized-phase-iii-beacon-trial
#19
Javier Cortés, Hope S Rugo, Ahmad Awada, Chris Twelves, Edith A Perez, Seock-Ah Im, Patricia Gómez-Pardo, Lee S Schwartzberg, Veronique Diéras, Denise A Yardley, David A Potter, Audrey Mailliez, Alvaro Moreno-Aspitia, Jin-Seok Ahn, Carol Zhao, Ute Hoch, Mary Tagliaferri, Alison L Hannah, Joyce O'Shaughnessy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883976/prospecting-for-an-hiv-vaccine
#20
REVIEW
D M Brett-Major, T A Crowell, N L Michael
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) sets several challenges for the development of a preventative HIV vaccine. Predictable, protective natural immunity against HIV does not occur and so unlike most other diseases for which vaccines exist, there are few guideposts from natural infection. Nonetheless, six vaccine efficacy trials have occurred. One in particular, the Thai trial called RV144, showed partial protective efficacy and potential ways ahead to a better vaccine approach. This coupled with other lessons from studies of acute infections as well as an increasingly complex knowledge of HIV-related vaccine immunology bring hope that a vaccine solution might be reached for this pervasive and deadly pandemic...
2017: Tropical Diseases, Travel Medicine and Vaccines
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