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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774312/breast-cancer-prevention-current-approaches-and-future-directions
#1
REVIEW
Edward R Sauter
The topic of breast cancer prevention is very broad. All aspects of the topic, therefore, cannot be adequately covered in a single review. The objective of this review is to discuss strategies in current use to prevent breast cancer, as well as potential approaches that could be used in the future. This review does not discuss early detection strategies for breast cancer, including breast cancer screening. The breast is the most common site among women worldwide of noncutaneous cancer. Many clinical and genetic factors have been found to increase a woman's risk of developing the disease...
April 2018: European Journal of Breast Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774132/natural-products-a-hope-for-glioblastoma-patients
#2
REVIEW
Raghupathy Vengoji, Muzafar A Macha, Surinder K Batra, Nicole A Shonka
Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive malignant tumors with an overall dismal survival averaging one year despite multimodality therapeutic interventions including surgery, radiotherapy and concomitant and adjuvant chemotherapy. Few drugs are FDA approved for GBM, and the addition of temozolomide (TMZ) to standard therapy increases the median survival by only 2.5 months. Targeted therapy appeared promising in in vitro monolayer cultures, but disappointed in preclinical and clinical trials, partly due to the poor penetration of drugs through the blood brain barrier (BBB)...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774094/selumetinib-based-therapy-in-uveal-melanoma-patient-derived-xenografts
#3
Didier Decaudin, Rania El Botty, Béré Diallo, Gerald Massonnet, Justine Fleury, Adnan Naguez, Chloé Raymondie, Emma Davies, Aaron Smith, Joanne Wilson, Colin Howes, Paul D Smith, Nathalie Cassoux, Sophie Piperno-Neumann, Sergio Roman-Roman, Fariba Némati
The prognosis of metastatic uveal melanoma (UM) is among the worst of all human cancers. The identification of near-ubiquitous GNAQ/GNA11 mutations and the activation of MAPK signaling in UM have raised hopes of more effective, targeted therapies, based on MEK inhibition, for example. We evaluated the potential of drug combinations to increase the efficacy of the MEK inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886), in UM cell lines and Patient-Derived Xenografts. We first evaluated the combination of selumetinib and DTIC...
April 24, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774061/immunotherapy-in-non-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-can-the-benefits-of-stage-iv-therapy-be-translated-into-earlier-stages
#4
REVIEW
Griet Deslypere, Dorothée Gullentops, Els Wauters, Johan Vansteenkiste
Over the last decade, several steps forward in the treatment of patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NCSLC) were made. Examples are the use of pemetrexed, pemetrexed maintenance therapy, or bevacizumab for patients with nonsquamous NSCLC. A big leap forward was the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients selected on the basis of an activating oncogene, such as epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) activating mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK ) translocations. However, all of these achievements could not be translated into survival benefits when studied in randomized controlled trials in patients with nonmetastatic NSCLC...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773993/diabetic-cardiomyopathy-impact-of-biological-sex-on-disease-development-and-molecular-signatures
#5
REVIEW
Ryan Toedebusch, Anthony Belenchia, Lakshmi Pulakat
Diabetic cardiomyopathy refers to a unique set of heart-specific pathological variables induced by hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Given that cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the world, and type 2 diabetes incidence continues to rise, understanding the complex interplay between these two morbidities and developing novel therapeutic strategies is vital. Two hallmark characteristics specific to diabetic cardiomyopathy are diastolic dysfunction and cardiac structural mal-adaptations, arising from cardiac cellular responses to the complex toxicity induced by hyperglycemia with or without hyperinsulinemia...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773608/what-s-in-a-name-that-which-we-call-ipf-by-any-other-name-would-act-the-same
#6
Athol U Wells, Kevin K Brown, Kevin R Flaherty, Martin Kolb, Victor J Thannickal
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) remains a truly idiopathic fibrotic disease, with a modest genetic predilection and candidate triggers but no overall explanation for the development of disease in non-familial cases. Agreement on terminology has contributed to major clinical and translational advances since the millennium. It is likely that the entity currently captured by the term "IPF" will be radically reclassified over the next decade, either through "splitting" (into IPF subgroups responding selectively to individual disease-modifying agents) or through "lumping" of IPF with other forms of progressive fibrotic lung disease (with shared pathogenetic mechanisms and IPF-like disease behaviour)...
May 2018: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769238/strength-in-numbers-opportunities-for-enhancing-the-development-of-effective-treatments-for-type-1-diabetes-the-trialnet-experience
#7
Carla J Greenbaum, Cate Speake, Jeffrey Krischer, Jane Buckner, Peter A Gottlieb, Desmond A Schatz, Kevan C Herold, Mark A Atkinson
The early to mid-1980s were an inflection point in the history of type 1 diabetes research. Two landmark events occurred: the initiation of immune-based interventions seeking to prevent type 1 diabetes and the presentation of an innovative model describing the disorder's natural history. Both formed the basis for hundreds of subsequent studies designed to achieve a dramatic therapeutic goal-a means to prevent and/or reverse type 1 diabetes. However, the need to screen large numbers of individuals and prospectively monitor them using immunologic and metabolic tests for extended periods of time suggested such efforts would require a large collaborative network...
May 16, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769084/resilience-trust-and-civic-engagement-in-the-post-ccsvi-era
#8
Shelly Benjaminy, Andrew Schepmyer, Judy Illes, Anthony Traboulsee
BACKGROUND: Scientific and financial investments in chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency (CCSVI) research have been made to address both the hope for and scepticism over this interventional strategy for MS. Despite limited evidence in support of the CCSVI hypothesis, the funding of clinical research was responsive to a demand by the public rarely seen in the history of medicine. We characterize patient perspectives about the CCSVI research trajectory, with particular attention to its impact on other non-pharmaceutical areas of MS research with a focus on stem cell interventions...
May 16, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768089/a-commentary-on-effects-of-regular-physical-activity-on-the-cognitive-performance-of-type-2-diabetic-patients-a-systematic-review-by-podolski-et-al-metab-syndr-relat-disord-2017-15-481-493
#9
Erin M Shellington, Sonja M Reichert, Robert J Petrella
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) imparts an increased risk for cognitive decline, specifically executive function, which is important to maintain for diabetes self-management. There is evidence to suggest that exercise improves cognition in healthy older adults; however, the literature in adults with T2DM is lacking. This commentary is in complement to Podolski et al.'s systematic review evaluating the effects of physical activity on cognitive function in adults with T2DM. We have included eight additional studies and further highlight their conclusions on the heterogeneity of the literature thus far...
May 16, 2018: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768017/the-signaling-network-resulting-in-ventilator-induced-diaphragm-dysfunction
#10
Huibin Tang, Joseph B Shrager
Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving measure for those incapable of adequately ventilating or oxygenating without assistance. Unfortunately, even brief periods of MV result in diaphragm weakness (i.e., "ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction" - VIDD) that may render it difficult to wean the ventilator. Prolonged MV is associated with cascading complications and is a strong risk factor for death. Thus, prevention of VIDD may have a dramatic impact on mortality rates. Here, we summarized the current understanding of the pathogenic events underlying VIDD...
May 16, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763888/hydrogen-therapy-in-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-diseases-from-bench-to-bedside
#11
Yaxing Zhang, Sihua Tan, Jingting Xu, Tinghuai Wang
Hydrogen (H2) is colorless, odorless, and the lightest of gas molecules. Studies in the past ten years have indicated that H2 is extremely important in regulating the homeostasis of the cardiovascular system and metabolic activity. Delivery of H2 by various strategies improves cardiometabolic diseases, including atherosclerosis, vascular injury, ischemic or hypertrophic ventricular remodeling, intermittent hypoxia- or heart transplantation-induced heart injury, obesity and diabetes in animal models or in clinical trials...
May 9, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762386/exposure-response-analysis-of-micafungin-in-neonatal-candidiasis-pooled-analysis-of-two-clinical-trials
#12
Laura L Kovanda, Thomas J Walsh, Daniel K Benjamin, Antonio Arrieta, David A Kaufman, P Brian Smith, Paolo Manzoni, Amit V Desai, Atsunori Kaibara, Peter L Bonate, William W Hope
BACKGROUND: Neonatal candidiasis causes significant morbidity and mortality in high risk infants. The micafungin dosage regimen of 10 mg/kg established for the treatment of neonatal candidiasis is based on a laboratory animal model of neonatal hematogenous Candida meningoencephalitis and pharmacokinetic (PK)-pharmacodynamic (PD) bridging studies. However, little is known about the how these PK-PD data translate clinically. METHODS: Micafungin plasma concentrations from infants were used to construct a population PK model using Pmetrics software...
June 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759063/discontinuation-of-the-pace-plus-trial-problems-in-patient-recruitment-in-general-practice
#13
M Schreijenberg, P A J Luijsterburg, Y D M Van Trier, D Rizopoulos, M A Koopmanschap, L Voogt, C G Maher, B W Koes
BACKGROUND: The PACE Plus trial was a multi-center, double-blinded, superiority randomized controlled trial (RCT) conducted in patients from Dutch general practice to investigate the efficacy of paracetamol and NSAIDs in acute non-specific low back pain (LBP). Because insufficient numbers of patients could be recruited (only four out of the required 800 patients could be recruited over a period of 6 months), the trial was prematurely terminated in February 2017, 6 months after the start of recruitment...
May 14, 2018: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756373/do-feeding-practices-during-transfusion-influence-the-risk-of-developing-necrotising-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants
#14
Cathie Hilditch, Amy Keir
Our evidence-based review set out to answer the clinical question 'In a preterm infant (patient) with anaemia of prematurity, do feeding practices (intervention) during blood transfusion reduce the risk of developing transfusion-associated necrotising enterocolitis (outcome)'? We found limited evidence that withholding feeding during red blood cell transfusion in preterm infants may reduce the risk of development of transfusion-associated necrotising enterocolitis. As clinical equipoise seemingly exists, it seems reasonable for individual units to make their own decisions regarding whether to withhold or continue enteral feeds during red blood cell transfusion until further evidence is available...
May 2018: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756119/customization-of-therapy-for-gastroesophageal-adenocarcinoma-patients
#15
Dilsa Mizrak Kaya, Kazuto Harada, Fatemeh G Amlashi, Maria Vasilakopoulou, Jaffer A Ajani
Gastroesophageal adenocarcinomas (GEACs) remain a global health problem. These are most often diagnosed at advanced stage and the estimated 5-year relative survival rate is about 5%. Although cure is not possible for patients with advanced GEAC, systemic therapy (chemotherapy or biochemotherapy) can palliate symptoms, improve survival and provide a better quality of life. One of the most promising options for some patients with advanced stage GEAC is immunotherapy, which can result in durable responses. Numerous phase III trials evaluating targeted therapies in different lines are ongoing and it is hoped that better biomarkers will emerge to identify patients who can benefit from targeted agents and immunotherapy in the future...
March 2018: Chronic Diseases and Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748498/single-viruses-on-the-fluorescence-microscope-imaging-molecular-mobility-interactions-and-structure-sheds-new-light-on-viral-replication
#16
REVIEW
Nagma Parveen, Doortje Borrenberghs, Susana Rocha, Jelle Hendrix
Viruses are simple agents exhibiting complex reproductive mechanisms. Decades of research have provided crucial basic insights, antiviral medication and moderately successful gene therapy trials. The most infectious viral particle is, however, not always the most abundant one in a population, questioning the utility of classic ensemble-averaging virology. Indeed, viral replication is often not particularly efficient, prone to errors or containing parallel routes. Here, we review different single-molecule sensitive fluorescence methods that we employ routinely to investigate viruses...
May 10, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746401/progressive-supranuclear-palsy-and-multiple-system-atrophy-clinicopathological-concepts-and-therapeutic-challenges
#17
Gesine Respondek, Johannes Levin, Günter U Höglinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This update discusses novel aspects on clinicopathological concepts and therapeutic challenges in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and multiple system atrophy (MSA), arising from publications of the last 1.5 years. RECENT FINDINGS: The clinical criteria for diagnosis of PSP have been revised. Clinical variability of pathologically defined PSP and MSA makes the development of mature biomarkers for early diagnosis and biomarker-based trial design indispensable...
May 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746232/an-online-peer-educational-campaign-to-reduce-stigma-and-improve-help-seeking-in-veterans-with-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#18
Jessica L Hamblen, Anouk L Grubaugh, Tatiana M Davidson, April L Borkman, Brian E Bunnell, Kenneth J Ruggiero
BACKGROUND: Although at least 1 in 10 veterans meet criteria for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) related to their military service, treatment seeking is strikingly low due to perceived stigma and other barriers. The National Center for PTSD produced AboutFace, * a web-based video gallery of veterans with PTSD who share their personal stories about PTSD and how treatment has turned their lives around. INTRODUCTION: We conducted a two-stage evaluation of AboutFace, which included (1) a usability testing phase and (2) a randomized, controlled trial phase to explore the feasibility of incorporating AboutFace into a specialized outpatient clinic for PTSD...
May 10, 2018: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744995/what-difference-do-brain-images-make-in-us-criminal-trials
#19
Valerie Gray Hardcastle, Edward Lamb
One of the early concerns regarding the use of neuroscience data in criminal trials is that even if the brain images are ambiguous or inconclusive, they still might influence a jury in virtue of the fact that they appear easy to understand. By appearing visually simple, even though they are really statistically constructed maps with a host of assumptions built into them, a lay jury or a judge might take brain scans to be more reliable or relevant than they actually are. Should courts exclude brain scans for being more prejudicial than probative? Herein, we rehearse a brief history of brain scans admitted into criminal trials in the United States, then describe the results of a recent analysis of appellate court decisions that referenced 1 or more brain scans in the judicial decision...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743060/antrodia-cinnamomea-extract-inhibits-the-proliferation-of-tamoxifen-resistant-breast-cancer-cells-through-apoptosis-and-skp2-micrornas-pathway
#20
Yu-Shih Lin, Yin-Yin Lin, Yao-Hsu Yang, Chun-Liang Lin, Feng-Che Kuan, Cheng-Nan Lu, Geng-He Chang, Ming-Shao Tsai, Cheng-Ming Hsu, Reming-Albert Yeh, Pei-Rung Yang, I-Yun Lee, Li-Hsin Shu, Yu-Ching Cheng, Hung-Te Liu, Kuan-Der Lee, De-Ching Chang, Ching-Yuan Wu
BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and affects 1.38 million women worldwide per year. Antiestrogens such as tamoxifen, a selective estrogen receptor (ER) modulator, are widely used in clinics to treat ER-positive breast tumors. However, remissions of breast cancer are often followed by resistance to tamoxifen and disease relapse. Despite the increasing understanding of the resistance mechanisms, effective regimens for treating tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer are limited...
May 9, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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