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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634218/high-quality-statin-trials-support-the-2013-acc-aha-cholesterol-guidelines-after-hope-3-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#1
Martin B Mortensen, Matthew J Budoff, Dong Li, Khurram Nasir, Michael J Blaha, Veit Sandfort, Carlos J Rodriguez, Pamela Ouyang, Erling Falk
The 2013 American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA) guideline on cholesterol treatment to prevent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) has been criticized for lowering the risk thresholds for primary prevention with statin therapy. Although the ≥ 7.5% (class I) and ≥ 5% (class IIa) 10-year ASCVD risk thresholds were identified as new indications for treatment by extrapolating results obtained in randomized controlled trials (RCT) of statin therapy, results from population-based European cohorts indicate that >30% of individuals eligible for statin therapy by class I recommendations do not have RCT data supporting statin efficacy...
June 20, 2017: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634131/cost-effectiveness-of-pre-versus-post-liver-transplant-hepatitis-c-treatment-with-direct-acting-antivirals
#2
Sumeyye Samur, Brian Kues, Turgay Ayer, Mark S Roberts, Fasiha Kanwal, Chin Hur, Drew Michael S Donnell, Raymond T Chung, Jagpreet Chhatwal
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Oral direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment offer new hope to both pre- and post-liver transplant (LT) patients. However, whether to treat HCV patients pre- versus post-LT is not clear, as treatment can improve liver function but could reduce the chance of receiving a LT while on the waiting list. Our objective was to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of pre-LT versus post-LT HCV treatment with oral DAAs in decompensated cirrhotic patients on the LT waiting list...
June 17, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632282/consort-extension-for-chinese-herbal-medicine-formulas-2017-recommendations-explanation-and-elaboration
#3
Chung-Wah Cheng, Tai-Xiang Wu, Hong-Cai Shang, You-Ping Li, Douglas G Altman, David Moher, Zhao-Xiang Bian
Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) formulas are the major components of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) interventions. The general reporting quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CHM formulas is disappointing, although CONSORT (Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials) Statement extensions for herbal medicinal interventions and acupuncture interventions are available. A group of TCM clinical experts, methodologists, epidemiologists, and editors has developed this CONSORT Extension for CHM Formulas (CONSORT-CHM Formulas 2017) through a comprehensive process, including publication of the draft version, solicitation of comments, revision, and finalization...
June 27, 2017: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623957/developing-a-mathematical-model-for-the-evaluation-of-the-potential-impact-of-a-partially-efficacious-vaccine-on-the-transmission-dynamics-of-schistosoma-mansoni-in-human-communities
#4
Andria Stylianou, Christoforos Hadjichrysanthou, James E Truscott, Roy M Anderson
BACKGROUND: There is currently no vaccine available to protect humans against infection with the schistosome digenean parasites, although candidate formulations for Schistosoma mansoni are under trial in animal models, including rodents and primates. Current strategies for the control of infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) targeted at school-aged children of age 5 to 14 years. This approach is unlikely to eliminate exposure to infection except in settings with very low levels of transmission...
June 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623709/the-mechanism-of-neuroprotective-action-of-natural-compounds
#5
REVIEW
Agnieszka Wąsik, Lucyna Antkiewicz-Michaluk
Disturbance of cerebral redox homeostasis is the primary cause of human neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease or Alzheimer's disease. Well known experimental research demonstrates that oxidative stress is a main cause of cell death. A high concentration of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species leads to damage of a lot of proteins, lipids and also DNA. Synthetic compounds used for the treatment in the neurodegenerative diseases failed to meet the hopes they had raised and often exhibit a number of side effects...
April 30, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622912/clinical-approaches-to-the-development-of-a-neuroprotective-therapy-for-pd
#6
REVIEW
C W Olanow, K Kieburtz, R Katz
The development of a neuroprotective or disease-modifying therapy is the major unmet need in the management of Parkinson's Disease (PD) and the goal of much clinical and scientific research. However, despite enormous efforts and expense, no disease-modifying therapy for PD has been approved to date. Historically attempts to define such a therapy have been limited by confounding symptomatic/pharmacologic effects of the study intervention and the lack of a clear and well-defined regulatory and clinical development pathway that leads to a disease-modifying indication...
June 13, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622392/therapeutic-efficacy-of-aav8-mediated-intrastriatal-delivery-of-human-cerebral-dopamine-neurotrophic-factor-in-6-ohda-induced-parkinsonian-rat-models-with-different-disease-progression
#7
Lizheng Wang, Zixuan Wang, Rui Zhu, Jinpeng Bi, Xinyao Feng, Wenmo Liu, Jiaxin Wu, Haihong Zhang, Hui Wu, Wei Kong, Bin Yu, Xianghui Yu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive and age-associated neurodegenerative disorder. Patients at different stages of the disease course have distinguished features, mainly in the number of dopaminergic neurons. Cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor (CDNF) is a recently discovered neurotrophic factor, being deemed as a hopeful candidate for PD treatment. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of CDNF in protecting dopaminergic function using the 6-OHDA-induced PD rat model suffering from different levels of neuronal loss and the recombinant adeno-associated virus 8 (AAV8) as a carrier for the CDNF gene...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622159/weeding-out-the-justification-for-marijuana-treatment-in-patients-with-developmental-and-behavioral-conditions
#8
Theodora Nelson, Yi Hui Liu, Kara S Bagot, Martin T Stein
Alex is a 13-year-old adolescent with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-combined type, anxiety, and depression. He has been resistant to engaging in therapy and treatment with various medications has been unsuccessful. Alex's parents are concerned about his anxiety, isolation, oppositional behaviors, academic underachievement, truancy, and substance use. A recent altercation with his stepfather led to a police intervention and a brief removal of Alex from the home...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620884/kinetic-pharmacodynamic-model-of-chemotherapy-induced-peripheral-neuropathy-in-patients-with-metastatic-breast-cancer-treated-with-paclitaxel-nab-paclitaxel-or-ixabepilone-calgb-40502-alliance
#9
Shailly Mehrotra, Manish R Sharma, Elizabeth Gray, Kehua Wu, William T Barry, Clifford Hudis, Eric P Winer, Alan P Lyss, Deborah L Toppmeyer, Alvaro Moreno-Aspitia, Thomas E Lad, Mario Valasco, Beth Overmoyer, Hope Rugo, Mark J Ratain, Jogarao V Gobburu
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a dose-limiting toxicity caused by several chemotherapeutic agents. Currently, CIPN is managed by empirical dose modifications at the discretion of the treating physician. The goal of this research is to quantitate the dose-CIPN relationship to inform the optimal strategies for dose modification. Data were obtained from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 40502 trial, a randomized phase III trial of paclitaxel vs. nab-paclitaxel vs. ixabepilone as first-line chemotherapy for locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer...
June 15, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616291/intensive-blood-pressure-control-in-patients-with-acute-type-b-aortic-dissection-raid-study-protocol-for-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
REVIEW
Jian-Cang Zhou, Nan Zhang, Zhong-Heng Zhang, Ting-Ting Wang, Yue-Feng Zhu, Hui Kang, Wei-Min Zhang, Dong-Lin Li, Wei-Dong Li, Zhen-Jie Liu, Xi-Min Qian, Ming-You Zhang, Jue Wang, Mi Zhou, Zhi-Tao Yang, Yun-Xian Yu, Hang-Yang Li, Jian Zhang, Yong-Gang Wang, Jian-Ping Gao, Lin Ling, Kong-Han Pan
BACKGROUND: Blood pressure control is an essential therapy for patients with acute type B aortic dissection (ABAD) and should be maintained throughout the entire treatment. Thus, vast majority current guidelines recommend control the blood pressure to lower than 140/90 mmHg. Theoretically, a much lower target may further decrease the risk of propagation of dissection. However, some argued that too lower blood pressure would compromise the organ perfusion. Thus, there is no unanimous optimal target for blood pressure in patients with ABAD so far...
May 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614992/preimplantation-genetic-screening
#11
Joyce C Harper
Preimplantation genetic diagnosis was first successfully performed in 1989 as an alternative to prenatal diagnosis for couples at risk of transmitting a genetic or chromosomal abnormality, such as cystic fibrosis, to their child. From embryos generated in vitro, biopsied cells are genetically tested. From the mid-1990s, this technology has been employed as an embryo selection tool for patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation, screening as many chromosomes as possible, in the hope that selecting chromosomally normal embryos will lead to higher implantation and decreased miscarriage rates...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612225/prolonged-survival-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-and-a-history-of-brain-metastases-results-of-a-preplanned-subgroup-analysis-from-the-randomized-phase-iii-beacon-trial
#12
Javier Cortés, Hope S Rugo, Ahmad Awada, Chris Twelves, Edith A Perez, Seock-Ah Im, Patricia Gómez-Pardo, Lee S Schwartzberg, Veronique Diéras, Denise A Yardley, David A Potter, Audrey Mailliez, Alvaro Moreno-Aspitia, Jin-Seok Ahn, Carol Zhao, Ute Hoch, Mary Tagliaferri, Alison L Hannah, Joyce O'Shaughnessy
PURPOSE: Conventional chemotherapy has limited activity in patients with breast cancer and brain metastases (BCBM). Etirinotecan pegol (EP), a novel long-acting topoisomerase-1 inhibitor, was designed using advanced polymer technology to preferentially accumulate in tumor tissue including brain metastases, providing sustained cytotoxic SN38 levels. METHODS: The phase 3 BEACON trial enrolled 852 women with heavily pretreated locally recurrent or metastatic breast cancer between 2011 and 2013...
June 13, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611944/pre-operative-lugol-s-iodine-treatment-in-the-management-of-patients-undergoing-thyroidectomy-for-graves-disease-a-review-of-the-literature
#13
REVIEW
Nicholas Hope, Andrew Kelly
OBJECTIVE: To undertake a review of the relevant English literature published on the pre-operative use of Lugol's iodine in the management of patients undergoing thyroidectomy for Graves' disease. SEARCH STRATEGY: We reviewed all relevant papers found through Ovid Medline, PubMed, EMBASE and the American Thyroid Association website. Searches were limited to the English language only. EVALUATION METHOD: The critical appraisal tool CASP was used to help analyse the papers...
February 2017: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608729/accelerating-tuberculosis-vaccine-trials-with-diagnostic-and-prognostic-biomarkers
#14
Stefan H E Kaufmann, January Weiner, Jeroen Maertzdorf
The most recent estimates on tuberculosis (TB) morbidity and mortality reveal that the global disease burden is even higher than previously assumed. Better drugs, diagnostics and vaccines are major requirements to control the ongoing TB pandemic. The high complexity of the infectious process and the underlying pathology, however, challenge elucidation of protective immune mechanisms at the various stages towards active TB disease, which need to be understood for rational design of novel intervention measures...
June 19, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608637/regulatory-t-cell-therapy-in-liver-transplantation
#15
REVIEW
Gavin P Whitehouse, Andrew Hope, Alberto Sanchez-Fueyo
Modern immunosuppression drug regimens have produced excellent short term survival after liver transplantation but it is generally accepted that the side effects of these medications remain a significant contributing factor for less satisfactory long term outcomes. The liver has unique tolerogenic properties as evidenced by the higher rates of operational tolerance seen in liver transplant recipients compared to other solid organ transplants and therefore liver transplantation offers an attractive setting in which to study tolerising therapies...
June 13, 2017: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605179/component-matters-paving-the-roadmap-toward-enhanced-electrocatalytic-performance-of-graphitic-c3n4-based-catalysts-via-atomic-tuning
#16
Zengxia Pei, Jingxing Gu, Yukun Wang, Zijie Tang, Zhuoxin Liu, Yan Huang, Yang Huang, Jingxiang Zhao, Zhongfang Chen, Chunyi Zhi
Atomically precise understanding of componential influences is crucial for looking into the reaction mechanism and controlled synthesis of efficient electrocatalysts. Herein, by means of comprehensive experimental and theoretical studies, we carefully examine the effects of component dopants on the catalytic performance of graphitic C3N4 (g-C3N4)-based electrocatalysts. The g-C3N4 monoliths with three types of dopant elements (B, P, and S) embedded in different sites (either C or N) of the C-N skeleton are rationally designed and synthesized...
June 15, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604015/one-size-doesn-t-fit-all-a-trial-of-individually-tailored-skills-training
#17
Sarah I Pratt, Kim T Mueser, Rosemarie Wolfe, Meghan M Santos, Stephen J Bartels
OBJECTIVES: This article describes a pilot test of an individually tailored program to improve community living and health self-management skills in older adults with serious mental illness. METHOD: This study provided the Helping Older People Experience Success-Individually Tailored (HOPES-I) intervention, an adaptation of an empirically supported, manualized, group-based skills training program shown to improve community functioning, psychiatric symptoms, self-efficacy, and receipt of preventive health...
June 12, 2017: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599638/development-of-a-consensus-operational-definition-of-child-assent-for-research
#18
Alan R Tait, Michael E Geisser
BACKGROUND: There is currently no consensus from the relevant stakeholders regarding the operational and construct definitions of child assent for research. As such, the requirements for assent are often construed in different ways, institutionally disparate, and often conflated with those of parental consent. Development of a standardized operational definition of assent would thus be important to ensure that investigators, institutional review boards, and policy makers consider the assent process in the same way...
June 9, 2017: BMC Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598227/integration-of-a-palliative-care-intervention-into-community-practice-for-lung-cancer-a-study-protocol-and-lessons-learned-with-implementation
#19
Huong Q Nguyen, Thomas Cuyegkeng, Tieu O Phung, Karisa Jahn, Tami Borneman, Mayra Macias, Nora Ruel, Betty Ferrell
BACKGROUND: A notable gap in the evidence base for outpatient palliative care (PC) for cancer is that most trials were conducted in specialized oncology or academic centers with limited translation and further evaluation in "real-world" settings. Health systems are desperate for guidance regarding the most effective and sustainable PC service models. OBJECTIVE: Describe the study protocol to evaluate the dissemination of a previously tested nurse-led PC intervention (PCI) for patients with lung cancer and their family caregiver in community-based settings, lessons learned in adapting and implementing the PCI, and implications for future dissemination-translational efforts Design: Two-group, prospective sequential, quasi-experimental design with Phase 1 (Usual care) followed by Phase 2 (Intervention) setting/subjects...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597909/diagnostic-and-therapeutic-guidelines-for-gastro-entero-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-neoplasms-recommended-by-the-polish-network-of-neuroendocrine-tumours
#20
Beata Kos-Kudła, Jolanta Blicharz-Dorniak, Janusz Strzelczyk, Agata Bałdys-Waligórska, Tomasz Bednarczuk, Marek Bolanowski, Agnieszka Boratyn-Nowicka, Małgorzata Borowska, Andrzej Cichocki, Jarosław B Ćwikła, Massimo Falconi, Wanda Foltyn, Daria Handkiewicz-Junak, Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk, Barbara Jarząb, Roman Junik, Dariusz Kajdaniuk, Grzegorz Kamiński, Agnieszka Kolasińska-Ćwikła, Aldona Kowalska, Robert Król, Leszek Królicki, Maciej Krzakowski, Jolanta Kunikowska, Katarzyna Kuśnierz, Paweł Lampe, Dariusz Lange, Anna Lewczuk-Myślicka, Andrzej Lewiński, Michał Lipiński, Magdalena Londzin-Olesik, Bogdan Marek, Anna Nasierowska-Guttmejer, Sergiusz Nawrocki, Ewa Nowakowska-Duława, Joanna Pilch-Kowalczyk, Violetta Rosiek, Marek Ruchała, Lucyna Siemińska, Anna Sowa-Staszczak, Teresa Starzyńska, Katarzyna Steinhof-Radwańska, Krzysztof Sworczak, Anhelli Syrenicz, Andrzej Szawłowski, Marek Szczepkowski, Ewa Wachuła, Wojciech Zajęcki, Anna Zemczak, Wojciech Zgliczyński, Krzysztof Zieniewicz
Progress in the diagnostics and therapy of gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) neuroendocrine neoplasms (NEN), the published results of new randomised clinical trials, and the new guidelines issued by the European Neuroendocrine Tumour Society (ENETS) have led the Polish Network of Neuroendocrine Tumours to update the 2013 guidelines regarding management of these neoplasms. We present the general recommendations for the management of NENs, developed by experts during the Third Round Table Conference - Diagnostics and therapy of gastro-entero-pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms: Polish recommendations in view of current European recommenda-tions, which took place in December 2016 in Żelechów near Warsaw...
2017: Endokrynologia Polska
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