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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229410/therapeutic-application-of-placental-mesenchymal-stem-cells-reprogrammed-neurospheres-in-spinal-cord-injury-of-scid
#1
Vikram Sabapathy, Franklin Jebaraj Herbert, Sanjay Kumar
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have stimulated much interest in the scientific community and hopes among the general public since their discovery in 1966 due to a variety of potential applications it has in the field of regenerative medicine. Copious amount of literature, as well as long-term animal and human clinical trials, indicates that MSCs can be successfully used for therapeutic purpose without any extreme adversities. MSCs have been isolated from adult and fetal tissues...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223856/uncertainties-around-incretin-based-therapies-a-literature-review
#2
REVIEW
Bader Al Tulaihi, Samia Alhabib
Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic debilitating and non-communicable disease. It has several long-term outcomes that are associated with various end organ damage, mainly the heart, blood vessels, eyes, nerves, and kidneys. There are different modalities of treatment of diabetes. The recent incretin-based therapies provided an innovative class of drugs including GLP-1 receptor agonists and DPP-4 inhibitors. This review aims to summarize the available evidence of their effectiveness. Method: This is a narrative review...
January 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220799/impact-of-genetic-background-and-experimental-reproducibility-on-identifying-chemical-compounds-with-robust-longevity-effects
#3
Mark Lucanic, W Todd Plummer, Esteban Chen, Jailynn Harke, Anna C Foulger, Brian Onken, Anna L Coleman-Hulbert, Kathleen J Dumas, Suzhen Guo, Erik Johnson, Dipa Bhaumik, Jian Xue, Anna B Crist, Michael P Presley, Girish Harinath, Christine A Sedore, Manish Chamoli, Shaunak Kamat, Michelle K Chen, Suzanne Angeli, Christina Chang, John H Willis, Daniel Edgar, Mary Anne Royal, Elizabeth A Chao, Shobhna Patel, Theo Garrett, Carolina Ibanez-Ventoso, June Hope, Jason L Kish, Max Guo, Gordon J Lithgow, Monica Driscoll, Patrick C Phillips
Limiting the debilitating consequences of ageing is a major medical challenge of our time. Robust pharmacological interventions that promote healthy ageing across diverse genetic backgrounds may engage conserved longevity pathways. Here we report results from the Caenorhabditis Intervention Testing Program in assessing longevity variation across 22 Caenorhabditis strains spanning 3 species, using multiple replicates collected across three independent laboratories. Reproducibility between test sites is high, whereas individual trial reproducibility is relatively low...
February 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217765/personalized-medicine-enrichment-design-for-dha-supplementation-clinical-trial
#4
Yang Lei, Matthew S Mayo, Susan E Carlson, Byron J Gajewski
Personalized medicine aims to match patient subpopulation to the most beneficial treatment. The purpose of this study is to design a prospective clinical trial in which we hope to achieve the highest level of confirmation in identifying and making treatment recommendations for subgroups, when the risk levels in the control arm can be ordered. This study was motivated by our goal to identify subgroups in a DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) supplementation trial to reduce preterm birth (gestational age<37 weeks) rate...
March 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217527/vascular-legacy-hope-advances-to-empa-reg-and-leader-a-surprising-similarity
#5
Sanjay Kalra, Rakesh Sahay
Recently reported cardiovascular outcome studies on empagliflozin (EMPA-REG) and liraglutide (LEADER) have spurred interest in this field of diabetology. This commentary compares and contrasts these studies with two equally important outcome trials conducted using blood pressure lowering agents. A comparison with MICROHOPE (using ramipril) and ADVANCE (using perindopril + indapamide) blood pressure arms throws up interesting facts. The degree of blood pressure lowering, dissociation between cardiovascular and cerebrovascular benefits, and discordance between renal and retinal outcomes are surprisingly similar in these trials, conducted using disparate molecules...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215430/a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-resilience-based-intervention-on-psychosocial-well-being-of-children-affected-by-hiv-aids-effects-at-6-and-12-month-follow-up
#6
Xiaoming Li, Sayward E Harrison, Amanda J Fairchild, Peilian Chi, Junfeng Zhao, Guoxiang Zhao
BACKGROUND: Global literature suggests that resilience-based interventions may yield improvements in psychosocial well-being for vulnerable children, but limited data are available regarding the efficacy of such interventions among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate initial efficacy of a multi-level resilience-based intervention among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS in China in improving children's psychosocial well-being and resilience-related outcomes...
February 13, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212363/vegf-inhibitors-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#7
Pankit Vachhani, Saby George
The arrival of targeted therapies-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway inhibitors and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors-and programmed death 1 (PD-1) inhibitors has transformed the management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Once considered fatal, with a median survival of approximately 1 year, these agents have nearly tripled overall survival and have raised hopes of a possible cure for advanced RCC. This review begins with a brief discussion of the seminal von Hippel-Lindau/hypoxia-inducible factor axis in RCC...
December 2016: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209472/role-of-antioxidants-in-horse-serum-mediated-vasculitis-in-swine-potential-relevance-to-early-treatment-in-mitigation-of-coronary-arteritis-in-kawasaki-disease
#8
Saji Philip, Wen-Chuan Lee, Kotturathu Mammen Cherian, Mei-Hwan Wu, Hung-Chi Lue
BACKGROUND: Horse serum-induced immune complex coronary vasculitis in swine is the first experimental model to mimic most of the pictures of Kawasaki disease. Immune complex mechanism has been implicated as one of the possible mechanisms in the pathogenesis of vasculitis in Kawasaki disease. Antioxidants have a significant role in the reduction of cardiovascular diseases in both human and animal studies. We tried giving vitamins A, E, and C to treat immune complex vasculitis, in the hope of mitigating coronary vasculitis in Kawasaki disease...
December 18, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208174/feasibility-assessment-of-patient-reporting-of-symptomatic-adverse-events-in-multicenter-cancer-clinical-trials
#9
Ethan Basch, Amylou C Dueck, Lauren J Rogak, Lori M Minasian, William Kevin Kelly, Ann M O'Mara, Andrea M Denicoff, Drew Seisler, Pamela J Atherton, Electra Paskett, Lisa Carey, Maura Dickler, Rebecca S Heist, Andrew Himelstein, Hope S Rugo, William M Sikov, Mark A Socinski, Alan P Venook, Douglas J Weckstein, Diana E Lake, David D Biggs, Rachel A Freedman, Charles Kuzma, Jeffrey J Kirshner, Deborah Schrag
Importance: In cancer clinical trials, symptomatic adverse events (AEs), such as nausea, are reported by investigators rather than by patients. There is increasing interest to collect symptomatic AE data via patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires, but it is unclear whether it is feasible to implement this approach in multicenter trials. Objective: To examine whether patients are willing and able to report their symptomatic AEs in multicenter trials. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 361 consecutive patients enrolled in any 1 of 9 US multicenter cancer treatment trials were invited to self-report 13 common symptomatic AEs using a PRO adaptation of the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (CTCAE) via tablet computers at 5 successive clinic visits...
February 16, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207630/clinical-trials-for-immunosuppression-in-transplantation-the-case-for-reform-and-change-in-direction
#10
Philip J O'Connell, Dirk Kuypers, Roslyn R Mannon, Michael Abecassis, Stephen Chadban, John S Gill, Barbara Murphy, Peter W Nickerson, Jesse D Schold, Peter Stock, Daniel Seron, Rita Alloway, Jonathan Bromberg, Klemens Budde, Stanley Jordan, Christophe Legendre, Carmen Lefaucheur, Minnie Sarwall, Dorry Segev, Mark D Stegall, Stefan G Tullius, Germaine Wong, E Steve Woodle, Nancy Ascher, Randall E Morris
Currently trials of immunosuppression in transplantation are in decline because their objectives remain focused on improving acute rejection rates and graft survival in the first 12 months. With 1 year renal graft survival rates of greater than 90% the best that can be hoped for is noninferiority trial outcomes compared to current standard of care. Current trial design is not leading to novel therapies improving long term outcomes and safety, and hence important unmet clinical needs in transplantation remain unanswered...
February 15, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207602/spreading-depolarization-monitoring-in-neurocritical-care-of-acute-brain-injury
#11
Jed A Hartings
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Spreading depolarizations are unique in being discrete pathologic entities that are well characterized experimentally and also occur commonly in patients with substantial acute brain injury. Here, we review essential concepts in depolarization monitoring, highlighting its clinical significance, interpretation, and future potential. RECENT FINDINGS: Cortical lesion development in diverse animal models is mediated by tissue waves of mass spreading depolarization that cause the toxic loss of ion homeostasis and limit energy substrate supply through associated vasoconstriction...
February 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198726/community-acquired-pneumonia-requiring-hospitalization-rational-decision-making-and-interpretation-of-guidelines
#12
Douwe F Postma, Cornelis H van Werkhoven, Jan Jelrik Oosterheert
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review focuses on the evidence base for guideline recommendations on the diagnosis, the optimal choice, timing and duration of empirical antibiotic therapy, and the use of microbiological tests for patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): issues for which guidelines are frequently used as a quick reference. Furthermore, we will discuss possibilities for future research in these topics. RECENT FINDINGS: Many national and international guideline recommendations, even on critical elements of CAP management, are based on low-to-moderate quality evidence...
February 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191530/contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-a-promising-method-for-renal-microvascular-perfusion-evaluation
#13
REVIEW
Ling Wang, Chandra Mohan
This article reviews the application of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in gauging renal microvascular perfusion in diverse renal diseases. The unique nature of the contrast agents used in CEUS provides real-time and quantitative imaging of the vasculature. In addition to the traditional use of CEUS for evaluation of kidney masses, it also emerges as a safe and effective imaging approach to assess microvascular perfusion in diffuse renal lesions, non-invasively. Although the precise CEUS parameters that may best predict disease still warrant systematic evaluation, animal models and limited clinical trials in humans raise hopes that CEUS could outcompete competing modalities as a first-line tool for assessing renal perfusion non-invasively, even in ailments such as acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Translational Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186459/bioactivity-of-carotenoids-chasms-of-knowledge
#14
Torsten Bohn
Carotenoid dietary intake, especially within fruits/vegetables and their plasma levels have been associated in many epidemiological studies with a reduced risk of several chronic diseases, including type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, several types of cancer, and agerelated macular degeneration. However, intervention trials with isolated carotenoids (as supplements) have fallen short of fulfi lling the hopes that were placed in these lipophilic pigments, often producing no positive or even adverse effects, such as increased lung cancer rate or total mortality...
February 10, 2017: International Journal for Vitamin and Nutrition Research. Journal International de Vitaminologie et de Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183256/current-and-emerging-treatments-for-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#15
Carla Cavaliere, Carmine D Aniello, Chiara Della Pepa, Salvatore Pisconti, Massimiliano Berretta, Gaetano Facchini
In the last decades the treatment of mRCC, metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma, has become more and more complex due to the approval of a great number of effective systemic treatments that have significantly improved the prognosis of patients suffering from such disease. An increasing knowledge of the genetic aberrations and the molecular pathways alterations that underlie RCC, has promoted the development of several novel agents, known as target therapies (TTs). Even though TTs are not curative and all patients eventually progressed, an adequate sequencing of these drugs can provide a significant benefit in terms of PFS, Progression Free Survival, and hopefully OS, Overall Survival...
February 8, 2017: Current Cancer Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177918/caspase-9-structure-mechanisms-and-clinical-application
#16
Ping Li, Libin Zhou, Ting Zhao, Xiongxiong Liu, Pengcheng Zhang, Yan Liu, Xiaogang Zheng, Qiang Li
As the most intensively studied initiator caspase, caspase-9 is a key player in the intrinsic or mitochondrial pathway which is involved in various stimuli, including chemotherapies, stress agents and radiation. Caspase-9 is activated on the apoptosome complex to remain catalytic status and is thought of involving homo-dimerization monomeric zymogens. Failing to activate caspase-9 has profound physiological and pathophysiological outcomes, leading to degenerative and developmental disorders even cancer. To govern the apoptotic commitment process appropriately, plenty of proteins and small molecules involved in regulating caspase-9...
February 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169231/palbociclib-a-new-hope-in-the-treatment-of-breast-cancer
#17
REVIEW
R Priyadharsini Palanisamy
Breast cancer being one of the common cancers has high morbidity and mortality. Despite the conventional treatment, the burden of the disease increases year after year. There is a need for newer drugs that target the different mechanisms in the pathogenesis. The interaction of cyclins with cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) plays a major role in the abnormal cell cycle in cancer and it is considered to be an important target. Palbociclib is a CDK inhibitor currently approved for the treatment of breast cancer...
October 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167879/early-revision-surgery-for-tibial-plateau-non-union-and-mal-union
#18
Dominic L Van Nielen, Christopher S Smith, David L Helfet, Peter Kloen
BACKGROUND: Although relatively rare, non-unions and mal-unions of tibial plateau fractures present significant challenges for the orthopedic surgeon. With careful pre-operative planning, tibial plateau mal-union or non-union revision surgery with intra-articular and varus opening osteotomies can provides good functional results when performed early (within 1 year) after primary surgical procedure. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We present our treatment algorithm for approaching and treating non-union or mal-union of tibial plateau fractures...
February 2017: HSS Journal: the Musculoskeletal Journal of Hospital for Special Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166816/the-achru-cpp-versus-usual-care-for-older-adults-with-type-2-diabetes-and-multiple-chronic-conditions-and-their-family-caregivers-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#19
Maureen Markle-Reid, Jenny Ploeg, Kimberly D Fraser, Kathryn Ann Fisher, Noori Akhtar-Danesh, Amy Bartholomew, Amiram Gafni, Andrea Gruneir, Sandra P Hirst, Sharon Kaasalainen, Caralyn Kelly Stradiotto, John Miklavcic, Carlos Rojas-Fernandez, Cheryl A Sadowski, Lehana Thabane, Jean A C Triscott, Ross Upshur
BACKGROUND: Many community-based self-management programs have been developed for older adults with type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), bolstered by evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that T2DM can be prevented and managed through lifestyle modifications. However, the evidence for their effectiveness is contradictory and weakened by reliance on single-group designs and/or small samples. Additionally, older adults with multiple chronic conditions (MCC) are often excluded because of recruiting and retention challenges...
February 6, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164759/neoadjuvant-therapy-for-her2-positive-breast-cancer
#20
Rachel Wuerstlein, Nadia Harbeck
In HER2-positive early breast cancer, neoadjuvant treatment with a combination of sequential chemotherapy and HER2-targeted therapy is currently the standard of care. This is followed by breast surgery, radiotherapy (if indicated), completion of 12 months of HER2-directed therapy, and -depending on the tumor biology - endocrine adjuvant therapy, and ultimately follow up. 10-year survival rates in the HER2-positive subgroup of breast cancer do reach now more than 75% with the introduction of first adjvuant and later neoadjuvant HER2-targeted therapies over the last 15 years...
February 2, 2017: Reviews on Recent Clinical Trials
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