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Community health, determinants of health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731836/mortality-rate-and-antibiotic-resistance-in-complicated-diverticulitis-report-of-272-consecutive-patients-worldwide-a-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Federico Coccolini, Mattia Trevisan, Giulia Montori, Massimo Sartelli, Fausto Catena, Marco Ceresoli, Antonio Costanzo, Arianna Heyer, Luca Ansaloni
BACKGROUND: Complicated diverticulitis (CD) is a common problem for surgeons. In treating it, as a general principle, every verified source of infection should be controlled. Supplementary antimicrobial management involves a delicate balance of optimizing empirical therapy while reducing unnecessary antibiotic use. The necessity to know the most frequent infecting pathogens and their spectra of resistance is becoming pivotal. The aim of this study was to determine the microbiologic profile of complicated intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) secondary to CD, to analyze the role of empirical antimicrobial therapy, and to describe the clinical aspects of CD worldwide...
July 21, 2017: Surgical Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731431/association-between-cholesterol-exposure-and-neuropathological-findings-the-act-study
#2
Brianne M Bettcher, M Colin Ard, Bruce R Reed, Andreana Benitez, Amanda Simmons, Eric B Larson, Josh A Sonnen, Thomas J Montine, Ge Li, C Dirk Keene, Paul K Crane, Dan Mungas
We characterized the relationship between late life cholesterol exposure and neuropathological outcomes in a community-based, older adult cohort. Adult Changes in Thought (ACT) is a cohort study that enrolls consenting, randomly selected, non-demented people aged ≥65 from a healthcare delivery system. We used late life HDL and total cholesterol lab values from Group Health computerized records, and calculated HDL and non-HDL levels. We evaluated neuropathological outcomes of Alzheimer's disease, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, vascular brain injury, and Lewy body disease...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730068/stroke-survivors-levels-of-community-reintegration-quality-of-life-satisfaction-with-the-physiotherapy-services-and-the-level-of-caregiver-strain-at-community-health-centres-within-the-johannesburg-area
#3
Adrian Kusambiza-Kiingi, Douglas Maleka, Veronica Ntsiea
BACKGROUND: Stroke survivors are discharged home before they are functionally independent and return home with activity limitations that would not be manageable without a caregiver. AIM: To determine stroke survivors' levels of community reintegration, quality of life (QOL), satisfaction with the physiotherapy services and the level of caregiver strain at community health centres within the Johannesburg area. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional study using the following outcome measures: Maleka Stroke Community Reintegration Measure, Stroke-specific quality of life scale, Caregiver strain index and Physical therapy patient satisfaction questionnaire...
2017: Afr J Disabil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728893/-%C3%A2-2015-revised-utstein-style-recommended-guidelines-for-uniform-reporting-of-data-from-drowning-related-resuscitation-an-ilcor-advisory-statement
#4
Ahamed H Idris, Joost J L M Bierens, Gavin D Perkins, Volker Wenzel, Vinay Nadkarni, Peter Morley, David S Warner, Alexis Topjian, Allart M Venema, Christine M Branche, David Szpilman, Luiz Morizot-Leite, Masahiko Nitta, Bo Løfgren, Jonathon Webber, Jan-Thorsten Gräsner, Stephen B Beerman, Chun Song Youn, Ulrich Jost, Linda Quan, Cameron Dezfulian, Anthony J Handley, Mary Fran Hazinski
BACKGROUND: Utstein-style guidelines use an established consensus process, endorsed by the international resuscitation community, to facilitate and structure resuscitation research and publication. The first "Guidelines for Uniform Reporting of Data From Drowning" were published over a decade ago. During the intervening years, resuscitation science has advanced considerably, thus making revision of the guidelines timely. In particular, measurement of cardiopulmonary resuscitation elements and neurological outcomes reporting have advanced substantially...
June 23, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728617/self-reported-sleep-quality-duration-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-older-chinese-evidence-from-a-rural-town-in-suzhou-china
#5
Chen-Wei Pan, Xiaoling Cong, Hui-Jun Zhou, Jing Li, Hong-Peng Sun, Yong Xu, Pei Wang
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the associations of self-reported sleep quality and duration with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in older Chinese. METHODS: We analyzed community-based cross-sectional data of 5,539 individuals aged 60 years and older in the Weitang Geriatric Disease Study. Information of sleep quality and duration were self-reported through participants' responses to predefined questions; HRQOL data were collected by using the European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D)...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728139/a-longitudinal-analysis-of-the-influence-of-the-neighborhood-environment-on-recreational-walking-within-the-neighborhood-results-from-reside
#6
Hayley Christian, Matthew Knuiman, Mark Divitini, Sarah Foster, Paula Hooper, Bryan Boruff, Fiona Bull, Billie Giles-Corti
BACKGROUND: There is limited longitudinal evidence confirming the role of neighborhood environment attributes in encouraging people to walk more or if active people simply choose to live in activity-friendly neighborhoods. Natural experiments of policy changes to create more walkable communities provide stronger evidence for a causal effect of neighborhood environments on residents' walking. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate longitudinal associations between objective and perceived neighborhood environment measures and neighborhood recreational walking...
July 12, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727993/how-do-nurse-practitioners-work-in-primary-health-care-settings-a-scoping-review
#7
REVIEW
Julian Grant, Lauren Lines, Philip Darbyshire, Yvonne Parry
OBJECTIVES: This scoping review explores the work of nurse practitioners in primary health care settings in developed countries and critiques their contribution to improved health outcomes. DESIGN: A scoping review design was employed and included development of a research question, identification of potentially relevant studies, selection of relevant studies, charting data, collating, summarising and reporting findings. An additional step was added to evaluate the methodological rigor of each study...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727991/how-accurate-are-self-reported-height-and-weight-in-the-seriously-mentally-ill
#8
Elton K Zhou, Urska Kosir, Suat Kucukgoncu, Erin L Reutenauer Sullivan, Cenk Tek
(1) Determine the accuracy of self-reported height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) calculated from those values in a population suffering from both serious mental illness (SMI) and overweight/obesity; (2) identify any associations that may predict error in self-reported measurements. Data were collected from screening appointments for two clinical trials for adult patients with SMI and overweight/obesity (BMI > 28) who gained weight while on antipsychotic medications. Both studies were conducted at the same urban community mental health center...
July 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727674/the-community-balance-and-mobility-scale-a-valid-assessment-tool-of-balance-in-cardiac-rehabilitation-patients
#9
Luke Martelli, Dave Saraswat, Gail Dechman, Nicholas B Giacomantonio, Scott A Grandy
PURPOSE: Many patients participating in cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programs have decreased balance. This is a concern, as it may affect their ability to optimally perform physical exercise in CR and thus decrease CR efficacy. Despite this concern, balance is typically not assessed as part of CR intake. This may be attributable to the fact that a suitable balance assessment tool has not been identified for higher-functioning CR patients. A potential solution to this issue is using the Community Balance and Mobility Scale (CBMS), which has been used to assess balance in higher-functioning clinical populations; however, its use in a CR population has never been investigated...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727502/triage-in-psychiatric-emergency-services-in-copenhagen-results-from-a-descriptive-1-year-evaluation-study
#10
Ditte Sæbye, Erica Bernt Høegh, Joachim Knop
Inspired by the Australasian triage system, a regional psychiatric triage system was introduced in the psychiatric emergency units (PEUs) in Copenhagen in 2011. Our aim of the study is to determine the characteristics of the patient according to the defined triage criteria and check if this is in accordance with recommendations. A random 10% data sample was obtained throughout 2012 in three PEUs of Copenhagen. Triage category, demographic, social and clinically relevant variables were collected. A total of 929 contacts were registered...
July 20, 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727240/development-and-dissemination-of-the-el-centro-health-disparities-measures-library
#11
Victoria Behar Mitrani, Joanne E O'Day, Timothy B Norris, Oluwamuyiwa Winifred Adebayo
PURPOSE: This report describes the development and dissemination of a library of English measures, with Spanish translations, on constructs relevant to social determinants of health and behavioral health outcomes. The El Centro Measures Library is a product of the Center of Excellence for Health Disparities Research: El Centro, a program funded by the National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities of the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The library is aimed at enhancing capacity for minority health and health disparities research, particularly for Hispanics living in the United States and abroad...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727105/analysis-of-the-gut-bacterial-communities-in-beef-cattle-and-their-association-with-feed-intake-growth-and-efficiency
#12
P R Myer, H C Freetly, J E Wells, T P L Smith, L A Kuehn
The impetus behind the global food security challenge is direct, with the necessity to feed almost 10 billion people by 2050. Developing a food-secure world, where people have access to a safe and sustainable food supply, is the principal goal of this challenge. To achieve this end, beef production enterprises must develop methods to produce more pounds of animal protein with less. Selection for feed-efficient beef cattle using genetic improvement technologies has helped to understand and improve the stayability and longevity of such traits within the herd...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726176/quality-assessment-and-public-health-status-of-harvested-rainwater-in-a-peri-urban-community-in-edo-state-of-nigeria
#13
Isoken H Igbinosa, Isoken T Aighewi
The harvested rainwater is an alternative water source in communities where there is limited or scarcity of water distribution system. However, contamination of roof-harvested rainwater is of immense concern to the general public health. Therefore, this study was initiated to assess the levels of physicochemical quality and heavy metal concentrations in the harvested rainwater from Oluku communities in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. The roof-harvested rainwater samples were collected from 20 independent different residential households in Oluku communities, between April 2015 and September 2015...
August 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726015/community-perceptions-of-hospitals-and-shared-physical-space-a-qualitative-study
#14
Daniel Skinner, Berkeley Franz, Kelly Kelleher, Robert Penfold
In addition to providing critical medical services to communities, hospitals are also forces of broader change when seen from the perspective of neighborhood development. Over the past few decades the obligation on the part of U.S. nonprofit hospitals to positively impact the communities in which they are located has become entrenched in both U.S. tax law and the practices of many hospitals. This article presents findings from a grounded theory qualitative study of the relationship between a non-profit children's hospital in Columbus, Ohio, and the neighborhood in which it is located...
July 19, 2017: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725985/diversity-in-fall-characteristics-hampers-effective-prevention-the-precipitants-the-environment-the-fall-and-the-injury
#15
K M Sanders, K Lim, A L Stuart, A Macleod, D Scott, G C Nicholson, L Busija
Falls among the elderly are common and characteristics may differ between injurious and non-injurious falls. Among 887 older Australian women followed for 1.6 years, 32% fell annually. Only 8.5% resulted in fracture and/or hospital admission. The characteristics of those falls are indistinguishable from those not coming to medical attention. INTRODUCTION: The precipitants and environment of all falls occurring among a large cohort of older Caucasian women were categorised by injury status to determine if the characteristics differed between injurious and non-injurious falls...
July 19, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725259/cardiovascular-disease-risk-and-prevention-amongst-syrian-refugees-mixed-methods-study-of-m%C3%A3-decins-sans-fronti%C3%A3-res-programme-in-jordan
#16
Dylan R J Collins, Kiran Jobanputra, Thomas Frost, Shoaib Muhammed, Alison Ward, Abed Alrazzaq Shafei, Taissir Fardous, Sadeq Gabashneh, Carl Heneghan
BACKGROUND: The growing burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) presented new challenges for medical humanitarian aid and little was known about primary health care approaches for these diseases in humanitarian response. We aimed to evaluate Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF's) use of total CVD risk based prevention strategies amongst Syrian refugees in northern Jordan to identify opportunities to improve total CVD risk based guidance for humanitarian settings. METHODS: We evaluated CVD risk assessment and management in two outpatient NCD clinics in the Irbid governorate of Jordan using a mixed methods design with qualitative and quantitative strands of equal priority, integrated during data collection and interpretation...
2017: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725130/role-of-community-pharmacists-in-providing-oral-health-advice-in-the-eastern-province-of-saudi-arabia
#17
Hamad Al-Saleh, Thamir Al-Houtan, Khalid Al-Odaill, Basel Al-Mutairi, Mohammed Al-Muaybid, Tameem Al-Falah, Muhammad Ashraf Nazir
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of patients seeking oral health advice and willingness of community pharmacists to provide oral health information in the Eastern Province of Saudi Arabia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with sample size (n = 332) of randomly selected community pharmacists across the province. The questionnaire comprised of 25 questions divided into 3 sections. Frequency distributions of different categorical variables were calculated and Pearson's chi-square tests were performed to compare categorical variables...
July 2017: Saudi Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725088/self-disclosure-and-spiritual-well-being-in-pastors-seeking-professional-psychological-help
#18
Erik D Salwen, Lee A Underwood, Gabriel S Dy-Liacco, Kathleen R Arveson
Pastoral mental health is a topic that has only rarely been researched empirically in the psychological literature, yet a pastor's mental health can have a significant impact on churches, communities, and even nations (Royal and Thompson, Journal of Psychology and Christianity,31(3), 195-204, 2012). One of the thoughts prompting this research is that evangelical pastors might be expected to resist the findings of psychological research and lack understanding of specific mental illnesses they are potentially facing...
2017: Pastoral Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724682/from-the-memphis-model-to-the-north-carolina-way-lessons-learned-from-emerging-health-system-and-faith-community-partnerships
#19
Teresa Cutts, Gary Gunderson, Dean Carter, Melanie Childers, Phillip Long, Lisa Marisiddaiah, Helen Milleson, Dennis Stamper, Annika Archie, Jeremy Moseley, Emily Viverette, Bobby Baker
National health care policy has encouraged health systems to develop community partnerships designed to decrease costs and readmissions, particularly for underserved populations. This commentary describes and compares the Congregational Health Network's Memphis Model to early local efforts at clinical-faith community partnerships in North Carolina, which we call "The North Carolina Way." Necessary components for building robust health system and congregational partnerships to address social determinants of health and impact health care utilization include partnership growth, allocation of health system resources, community trust, and time...
July 2017: North Carolina Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724678/collaboration-is-critical-working-together-to-optimize-health-in-our-communities
#20
Alisahah J Cole
Clinical care accounts for only 20% of health outcomes, with social determinants of health including environment, health behaviors, and economics accounting for the remaining 80%. Providers ought to address social determinants of health and, more and more are joining community partnerships to do so.
July 2017: North Carolina Medical Journal
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