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Community health, determinants of health

J South, A M Connolly, J A Stansfield, P Johnstone, G Henderson, K A Fenton
There is a strong evidence-based rationale for community capacity building and community empowerment as part of a strategic response to reduce health inequalities. Within the current UK policy context, there are calls for increased public engagement in prevention and local decision-making in order to give people greater control over the conditions that determine health. With reference to the challenges and opportunities within the English public health system, this essay seeks to open debate about what is required to mainstream community-centred approaches and ensure that the public is central to public health...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Janya McCalman, Roxanne Bainbridge, Catherine Brown, Komla Tsey, Adele Clarke
Introduction: Spreading proven or promising Aboriginal health programs and implementing them in new settings can make cost-effective contributions to a range of Aboriginal Australian development, health and wellbeing, and educational outcomes. Studies have theorized the implementation of Aboriginal health programs but have not focused explicitly on the conditions that influenced their spread. This study examined the broader political, institutional, social and economic conditions that influenced negotiations to transfer, implement, adapt, and sustain one Aboriginal empowerment program-the Family Wellbeing (FWB) program-to at least 60 geographical sites across Australia over 24 years...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Joshua W Joseph, Samuel Davis, Elissa H Wilker, Matthew L Wong, Ori Litvak, Stephen J Traub, Larry A Nathanson, Leon D Sanchez
OBJECTIVES: Emergency physician productivity, often defined as new patients evaluated per hour, is essential to planning clinical operations. Prior research in this area considered this a static quantity; however, our group's study of resident physicians demonstrated significant decreases in hourly productivity throughout shifts. We now examine attending physicians' productivity to determine if it is also dynamic. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study, conducted from 2014 to 2016 across three community hospitals in the north-eastern USA, with different schedules and coverage...
March 15, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Briana L Moreland, Laura L Durbin, Judith D Kasper, Thelma J Mielenz
OBJECTIVES: To determine the characteristics of community-dwelling older adults receiving fall-related rehabilitation. Injurious falls cost billions of dollars each year in the United States and these costs are expected to rise. Fall-related rehabilitation can presumably decrease this burden. More needs to be known about the characteristics of older adults utilizing fall-related rehabilitation services. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of the fifth round (2015) of the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS)...
March 12, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Jennifer Power, Gosia Mikołajczak, Adam Bourne, Graham Brown, William Leonard, Anthony Lyons, Gary W Dowsett, Jayne Lucke
Background: This paper explores associations between use of party-and-play drugs, including crystal methamphetamine, and wellbeing among HIV positive gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Australia. This study considers whether use of drugs in a social or sex-based setting facilitates access to social and support networks, which may in turn support wellbeing. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of Australian people living with HIV (PLHIV) was conducted. There were 714 participants (79.7%) who identified as GBM. Differences between party-and-play drug users and non-users were examined using bivariate and multinomial logistic regressions...
March 16, 2018: Sexual Health
Minerva Kyei-Onanjiri, Mary Carolan-Olah, John Koku Awoonor-Williams, Terence V McCann
BACKGROUND: Maternal morbidity and mortality is most prevalent in resource-poor settings such as sub-Saharan Africa and southern Asia. In sub-Saharan Africa, Ghana is one of the countries still facing particular challenges in reducing its maternal morbidity and mortality. Access to emergency obstetric care (EmOC) interventions has been identified as a means of improving maternal health outcomes. Assessing the range of interventions provided in health facilities is, therefore, important in determining capacity to treat obstetric emergencies...
March 15, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Janhavi Ajit Vaingankar, Mythily Subramaniam, Linda Wei Lin Tan, Edimansyah Abdin, Wei Yen Lim, Hwee Lin Wee, Siow Ann Chong, Rob Martinus van Dam
BACKGROUND: Measures of mental well-being and positive mental health (PMH) have been largely developed and used in Western populations, however, data on representative Asian communities are lacking. Using data from a population sample, this study sought to establish psychometric properties and norms of the PMH Instrument (PMH-I), a measure of positive mental health developed in Singapore. METHODS: We conducted a nationally representative survey among 1925 adults aged 18-79 years of Chinese, Malay, Indian or other ethnicity...
March 15, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
Mohan Paudel, Sara Javanparast, Gouranga Dasvarma, Lareen Newman
OBJECTIVE AND THE CONTEXT: This paper examines the beliefs and experiences of women and their families in remote mountain villages of Nepal about perinatal sickness and death and considers the implications of these beliefs for future healthcare provision. METHODS: Two mountain villages were chosen for this qualitative study to provide diversity of context within a highly disadvantaged region. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 42 women of childbearing age and their family members, 15 health service providers, and 5 stakeholders...
2018: PloS One
Julie Rivière, Yann Le Strat, Pascal Hendrikx, Barbara Dufour
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a common disease of cattle and wildlife, with economic repercussions and implications for animal and human health. The surveillance of bTB in wildlife is particularly important, to shed light on the epidemiological role of wild species and for the adaptation of control measures. In France, a bTB surveillance system for free-ranging wildlife, the Sylvatub system, was launched in 2011 on wild boars, red deer, roe deer and badgers. It relies on active and passive surveillance activities, constrained by practical difficulties, such as the accessibility of wild animals, and regulatory rules for the trapping of badgers, for example...
2018: PloS One
Jiyoung Hwang, Lisa Wang, Jodi Siever, Talia Del Medico, Charlotte A Jones
OBJECTIVES: Loneliness and social isolation (L&SI) are associated with physical and cognitive decline in older adults. Walk 'n' Talk for your Life (WTL) is a community-based program of socialization, health education, falls prevention exercise and walking for community-dwelling older adults. This qualitative study was done to gain further insight into the experience and impacts of the WTL on seniors' L&SI. METHODS: One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with sixteen participants who had completed the WTL ...
March 15, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
Jennifer Katz, Hugh F Crean, Catherine Cerulli, Ellen L Poleshuck
Introduction Although poverty is an established correlate of poorer mental health for pregnant women, limited research has examined the mental health effects of material hardship (i.e., difficulties meeting basic needs such as for food, transportation, or stable housing) during pregnancy. Methods The current research examined rates of material hardship among pregnant women seeking prenatal care and the relationships of both income and material hardship with depression and anxiety during pregnancy. Pregnant women (N = 892) responded to self-report measures of mental health symptoms, annual household income, and current material hardship in the waiting areas of community-based obstetrics/gynecology practices serving primarily financially disadvantaged patients...
March 14, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Monica Guo, Kathleen O'Connor Duffany, Fatma M Shebl, Alycia Santilli, Danya E Keene
Perceptions of neighborhood safety shape the well-being of individuals and communities, affecting neighborhood walkability, associated physical activity behaviors, and health conditions. However, less is known about the factors that determine perceptions of safety. One factor that may affect perceptions of neighborhood safety is the length of time someone has lived in their neighborhood. We use a representative, adult sample of urban low-income residents from the 2015 New Haven Health Survey (n = 1189) to investigate the associations between length of residence (new residents of < 1 year in neighborhood versus longer-term residents of 1 or more years in neighborhood) and perceptions of neighborhood safety (whether feeling unsafe to walk at night)...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Eiman Zargaran, Richard Spence, Lauren Adolph, Andrew Nicol, Nadine Schuurman, Pradeep Navsaria, Damon Ramsey, S Morad Hameed
Importance: Collection and analysis of up-to-date and accurate injury surveillance data are a key step in the maturation of trauma systems. Trauma registries have proven to be difficult to establish in low- and middle-income countries owing to the burden of trauma volume, cost, and complexity. Objective: To determine whether an electronic trauma health record (eTHR) used by physicians can serve as simultaneous clinical documentation and data acquisition tools. Design, Setting, and Participants: This 2-part quality improvement study included (1) preimplementation and postimplementation eTHR study with assessments of satisfaction by 41 trauma physicians, time to completion, and quality of data collected comparing paper and electronic charting; and (2) prospective ecologic study describing the burden of trauma seen at a Level I trauma center, using real-time data collected by the eTHR on consecutive patients during a 12-month study period...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Surgery
Melanie Penner, Evdokia Anagnostou, Wendy J Ungar
Background: Inefficient diagnostic practices for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may contribute to longer wait times, delaying access to intervention. The objectives were to describe the diagnostic practices of Canadian pediatricians and to identify determinants of longer wait time for ASD diagnosis. Methods: An online survey was conducted through the Canadian Paediatric Society's developmental pediatrics, community pediatrics, and mental health sections. Participants were asked for demographic information, whether they diagnosed ASD, and elements of their diagnostic assessment...
2018: Molecular Autism
Sally-Ann Cooper, Elita Smiley, Linda Allan, Jillian Morrison
BACKGROUND: Incidence and determinants of affective disorders among adults with intellectual disabilities are unknown. Aims To investigate affective disorder incidence, and determinants of unipolar depression, compared with general population reports. METHOD: Prospective cohort study measuring mental ill health of adults with mild to profound intellectual disabilities living within a defined community, over 2 years. RESULTS: There was 70% cohort retention (n = 651)...
March 15, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Daeho Kim, Sanghyun Hong, Hongjun Na, Jihwan Chun, Robin B Guevarra, You-Tae Kim, Sangryeol Ryu, Hyeun Bum Kim, Ju-Hoon Lee
Bellflower root ( Platycodon grandiflorum ), which belongs to the Campanulaceae family, is a perennial grass that grows naturally in Korea, northeastern China, and Japan. Bellflower is widely consumed as both food and medicine due to its high nutritional value and potential therapeutic effects. Since foodborne disease outbreaks often come from vegetables, understanding the public health risk of microorganisms on fresh vegetables is pivotal to predict and prevent foodborne disease outbreaks.We investigated the microbial communities on the bellflower root (n=10)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
José Maria Farah Costa Junior, Camile Irene Mota da Silva, Abner Ariel da Silva Lima, Dario Rodrigues Júnior, Luiz Carlos de Lima Silveira, Givago da Silva Souza, Maria da Conceição Nascimento Pinheiro
Riverine communities are exposed to mercury due to the high ingestion of fish in their diet. In order to evaluate the levels of exposure in the Tapajós region, also assessing the fish ingestion frequency, a study was conducted in adults living in riverine communities in the municipality of Itaituba in the State of Pará. Hair samples were collected for the determination of total mercury and the weekly frequency data of fish ingestion was recorded. The mean concentration of total mercury varied from 7.25μg/g (in 2013) to 10...
March 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Rangarirai Matima, Katherine Murphy, Naomi S Levitt, Rhonda BeLue, Tolu Oni
BACKGROUND: Current South African health policy for chronic disease management proposes integration of chronic services for better outcomes for chronic conditions; that is based on the Integrated Chronic Disease Model (ICDM). However, scant data exist on how patients with chronic multimorbidities currently experience the (re)-organisation of health services and what their perceived needs are in order to enhance the management of their conditions. METHODS: A qualitative study was conducted in a community health centre treating both HIV and diabetes patients in Cape Town...
2018: PloS One
Alexandra Henteleff, Helena Wall
INTRODUCTION: HANS KAI is a unique health promotion intervention to improve participants' health by focussing on interrelated chronic disease prevention behaviours through peer support and strengthening of social support networks. The study objective was to determine the effectiveness of HANS KAI in an urban Canadian setting. METHODS: We used a mixed methods intervention research design that involved multiple sites from November 2010 to April 2015. Data was obtained from participant surveys as well as in-person interviews at zero, 6, 12 and 24 months...
March 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
Maria McInerney, Vikki Ho, Anita Koushik, Isabelle Massarelli, Isabelle Rondeau, Gavin R McCormack, Ilona Csizmadi
INTRODUCTION: Poor diet quality has been shown to increase the risk of common chronic diseases that can negatively impact quality of life and burden the healthcare system. Canada's Food Guide evidence-based recommendations provide dietary guidance aimed at increasing diet quality. Compliance with Canada's Food Guide can be assessed with the Canadian Healthy Eating Index (C-HEI), a diet quality score. The recently designed Canadian Diet History Questionnaire II (C-DHQ II), a comprehensive food frequency questionnaire could be used to estimate the C-HEI in Canadian populations with the addition of food group equivalents (representing Canada's Food Guide servings) to the C-DHQ II nutrient database...
March 2018: Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada
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