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Community health, determinants of health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812802/diplomacy-and-health-the-end-of-the-utilitarian-era
#1
Sebastian Kevany, Marcus Matthews
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA), as a system of allocative efficiency for global health programs, is an influential criterion for resource allocation in the context of diplomacy and inherent foreign policy decisions therein. This is because such programs have diplomatic benefits and costs that can be uploaded from the recipient and affect the broader foreign policy interests of the donor and the diplomacy landscape between both parties. These diplomatic implications are vital to the long-term success of both the immediate program and any subsequent programs; hence it is important to articulate them alongside program performance, in terms of how well their interrelated interventions were perceived by the communities served...
January 8, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811633/rapid-replacement-by-non-vaccine-pneumococcal-serotypes-may-mitigate-the-impact-of-the-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-on-nasopharyngeal-bacterial-ecology
#2
Brenda Kwambana-Adams, Blake Hanson, Archibald Worwui, Schadrac Agbla, Ebenezer Foster-Nyarko, Fatima Ceesay, Chinelo Ebruke, Uzochukwu Egere, Yanjiao Zhou, Maze Ndukum, Erica Sodergren, Michael Barer, Richard Adegbola, George Weinstock, Martin Antonio
There is growing concern that interventions that alter microbial ecology can adversely affect health. We characterised the impact of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on pneumococcal carriage and the bacterial component of the nasopharyngeal microbiome during infancy. Newborns were recruited into three groups as follows: Group1 (n = 33) was the control group and comprised infants who received PCV7 after 6 months and came from unvaccinated communities. Group 2 (n = 30) came from unvaccinated communities and Group 3 (n = 39) came from vaccinated communities...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811583/bacterial-diversity-among-four-healthcare-associated-institutes-in-taiwan
#3
Chang-Hua Chen, Yaw-Ling Lin, Kuan-Hsueh Chen, Wen-Pei Chen, Zhao-Feng Chen, Han-Yueh Kuo, Hsueh-Fen Hung, Chuan Yi Tang, Ming-Li Liou
Indoor microbial communities have important implications for human health, especially in health-care institutes (HCIs). The factors that determine the diversity and composition of microbiomes in a built environment remain unclear. Herein, we used 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to investigate the relationships between building attributes and surface bacterial communities among four HCIs located in three buildings. We examined the surface bacterial communities and environmental parameters in the buildings supplied with different ventilation types and compared the results using a Dirichlet multinomial mixture (DMM)-based approach...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810984/impact-of-a-7-day-field-training-on-oral-health-condition-in-japan-ground-self-defense-force-personnel
#4
Koji Yamashita, Takeshi Nishiyama, Emi Nagata, Atik Ramadhani, Miki Kawada-Matsuo, Hitoshi Komatsuzawa, Takahiko Oho
INTRODUCTION: In the Japan Ground Self-Defense Force (JGSDF), personnel periodically perform intensive training that mimics the conditions seen in battle and during natural disasters. Military training involves intensive, stressful conditions, and changes in immune responses have been found in personnel following training. Good oral condition is important for military personnel to fulfill their duties; however, they have difficulty performing daily oral care under training conditions...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810907/schr%C3%A3-dinger-s-microbes-tools-for-distinguishing-the-living-from-the-dead-in-microbial-ecosystems
#5
REVIEW
Joanne B Emerson, Rachel I Adams, Clarisse M Betancourt Román, Brandon Brooks, David A Coil, Katherine Dahlhausen, Holly H Ganz, Erica M Hartmann, Tiffany Hsu, Nicholas B Justice, Ivan G Paulino Lima, Julia C Luongo, Despoina S Lymperopoulou, Cinta Gomez-Silvan, Brooke Rothschild-Mancinelli, Melike Balk, Curtis Huttenhower, Andreas Nocker, Parag Vaishampayan, Lynn J Rothschild
While often obvious for macroscopic organisms, determining whether a microbe is dead or alive is fraught with complications. Fields such as microbial ecology, environmental health, and medical microbiology each determine how best to assess which members of the microbial community are alive, according to their respective scientific and/or regulatory needs. Many of these fields have gone from studying communities on a bulk level to the fine-scale resolution of microbial populations within consortia. For example, advances in nucleic acid sequencing technologies and downstream bioinformatic analyses have allowed for high-resolution insight into microbial community composition and metabolic potential, yet we know very little about whether such community DNA sequences represent viable microorganisms...
August 16, 2017: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810870/vector-borne-and-zoonotic-diseases-of-dogs-in-north-west-new-south-wales-and-the-northern-territory-australia
#6
Amanda J Shapiro, Graeme Brown, Jacqueline M Norris, Katrina L Bosward, Debbie J Marriot, Nandhakumar Balakrishnan, Edward B Breitschwerdt, Richard Malik
BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases of dogs in Australian Aboriginal communities are relatively unexplored. These dogs represent a unique group with variable ecto- and endo-parasitic burdens, nutritional stresses and a general lack of veterinary intervention. We investigated haemoprotozoal and bacterial pathogen prevalences in relation to erythrocyte and platelet numbers in dogs from North-West New South Wales (N-W NSW) and the Northern Territory (NT; Central Australia). METHODS: Real-time PCR (qPCR) amplification of Anaplasma platys, Babesia vogeli, Mycoplasma haemocanis, Candidatus Mycoplasma haematoparvum and Bartonella spp...
August 15, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808447/predictors-for-mortality-among-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-patients-in-tanzania
#7
Edson W Mollel, Jaffu O Chilongola
PROBLEM: Factors related to MDRTB mortality in Tanzania have not been adequately explored and reported. OBJECTIVES: To determine demographic, clinical, radiographic, and laboratory factors associated with MDRTB mortality in a Tanzanian TB Referral Hospital. METHODOLOGY: This was a cross-sectional study with 193 participants. Demographic, clinical, laboratory, and radiological data were collected, and their associations with mortality among MDRTB patients were determined...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808040/evaluating-the-longitudinal-risk-of-social-vigilance-on-atherosclerosis-study-protocol-for-the-north-texas-heart-study
#8
John M Ruiz, Daniel J Taylor, Bert N Uchino, Timothy W Smith, Matthew Allison, Chul Ahn, Jillian J Johnson, Joshua M Smyth
INTRODUCTION: Psychosocial factors are increasingly recognised as important determinants of cardiovascular disease risk. The North Texas Heart Study aims to understand the mechanisms responsible for this association with a focus on social vigilance (ie, scanning the environment for social threats). There is also growing interest in supplementing traditional methods (eg, survey assessment of psychosocial risk paired with cross-sectional and longitudinal health outcomes) with daily or repeated momentary assessment of psychosocial factors...
August 14, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807851/toxic-pyrrolizidine-alkaloids-provide-a-warning-sign-to-overuse-of-the-ethnomedicine-arnebia-benthamii
#9
Latif Ahmad, He Yi, Jia-Chen Hao, Andrew Semotiuk, Quan-Ru Liu, Paras Mazari
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: From early times man has used medicinal plants for the treatment of various ailments and basic health care needs. The use of herbal medicines has increased day by day and with this, so do reports of adverse events, poisoning, and suspected toxicity. Similarly, the indigenous communities of Neelum Valley in Azad Kashmir commonly use Arnebia benthamii (Wall. ex G.Don) I.M.Johnst. for medicinal purposes to treat various human aliments. Besides their medicinal uses, it also contains hepatotoxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs)...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807692/community-use-of-physical-and-occupational-therapy-after-stroke-and-risk-of-hospital-readmission
#10
Janet K Freburger, Dongmei Li, Erin P Fraher
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether receipt of therapy and number and timing of therapy visits decreased hospital readmission risk in stroke survivors discharged home. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort analysis of Medicare claims (2010-2013). SETTING: Acute care hospital and community. PARTICIPANTS: Patients hospitalized for stroke who were discharged home and survived the first 30 days (N=23,413; mean [SD] age of 77.6 [7.5] years)...
August 11, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807189/effect-of-non-monetary-incentives-on-uptake-of-couples-counselling-and-testing-among-clients-attending-mobile-hiv-services-in-rural-zimbabwe-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#11
Euphemia L Sibanda, Mary Tumushime, Juliet Mufuka, Sue Napierala Mavedzenge, Stephano Gudukeya, Sergio Bautista-Arredondo, Karin Hatzold, Harsha Thirumurthy, Sandra I McCoy, Nancy Padian, Andrew Copas, Frances M Cowan
BACKGROUND: Couples' HIV testing and counselling (CHTC) is associated with greater engagement with HIV prevention and care than individual testing and is cost-effective, but uptake remains suboptimal. Initiating discussion of CHTC might result in distrust between partners. Offering incentives for CHTC could change the focus of the pre-test discussion. We aimed to determine the impact of incentives for CHTC on uptake of couples testing and HIV case diagnosis in rural Zimbabwe. METHODS: In this cluster-randomised trial, 68 rural communities (the clusters) in four districts receiving mobile HIV testing services were randomly assigned (1:1) to incentives for CHTC or not...
September 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806966/an-exploratory-study-assessing-psychological-distress-of-indigents-in-burkina-faso-a-step-forward-in-understanding-mental-health-needs-in-west-africa
#12
Émilie Pigeon-Gagné, Ghayga Hassan, Maurice Yaogo, Valéry Ridde
BACKGROUND: Poverty is known as an important determinant of health, but empirical data are still missing on the relationships between poverty, other adverse living conditions, and psychological distress, particularly in low-income countries. This study aimed to assess mental health needs and psychological distress among the poorest in rural settings in Burkina Faso where food security and access to water, electricity, schooling, and healthcare are limited. METHODS: We randomly selected 2000 individuals previously identified as indigents by a community-targeting process...
August 14, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806785/adherence-to-ivermectin-is-more-associated-with-perceptions-of-community-directed-treatment-with-ivermectin-organization-than-with-onchocerciasis-beliefs
#13
Fanny Nadia Dissak-Delon, Guy-Roger Kamga, Perrine Claire Humblet, Annie Robert, Jacob Souopgui, Joseph Kamgno, Marie José Essi, Stephen Mbigha Ghogomu, Isabelle Godin
BACKGROUND: The fight against onchocerciasis in Africa has boomed thanks to the Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) program. However, in Cameroon, after more than 15 years of mass treatment, onchocerciasis prevalence is still above the non-transmission threshold. This study aimed to explore a possible association between people's beliefs/perceptions of onchocerciasis and of CDTI program, and their adherence to ivermectin in three regions of Cameroon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional survey was carried out in three health districts with persistent high onchocerciasis prevalence...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806302/surgery-for-primary-hyperparathyroidism-adherence-to-consensus-guidelines-in-an-academic-health-system
#14
Eric J Kuo, Mostafa A Al-Alusi, Lin Du, Albert Shieh, Masha J Livhits, Angela M Leung, Michael W Yeh
OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which consensus guidelines for surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) are followed within an academic health system. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that adherence to consensus guidelines in community practice is low. METHODS: Adults with biochemically confirmed PHPT who received primary care within an academic health system were identified from 2005 to 2015. Multivariable logistic regression was used to analyze predictors of parathyroidectomy (PTx)...
August 11, 2017: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804254/developing-scientists-in-hispanic-substance-use-and-health-disparities-research-through-the-creation-of-a-national-mentoring-network
#15
Angela R Bazzi, Cristina Mogro-Wilson, Nalini Junko Negi, Jennifer M Reingle Gonzalez, Miguel Ángel Cano, Yessenia Castro, Alice Cepeda
Hispanics are disproportionately affected by substance use and related health harms yet remain underrepresented across scientific disciplines focused on researching and addressing these issues. An interdisciplinary network of scientists committed to fostering the development of social and biomedical researchers focused on Hispanic substance use and health disparities developed innovative mentoring and career development activities. We conducted a formative evaluation study using anonymous membership and conference feedback data to describe specific mentoring and career development activities developed within the national network...
2017: Mentor Tutoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804010/frailty-and-malnutrition-related-and-distinct-syndrome-prevalence-and-association-among-community-dwelling-older-adults-singapore-longitudinal-ageing-studies
#16
Kai Wei, Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt, Qi Gao, Shiou Liang Wee, Tze-Pin Ng
OBJECTIVE: The association between frailty and malnutrition is widely noted, but the common and distinct aspects of this relationship are not well understood. We investigated the prevalence of prefrailty/frailty and malnutrition/nutritional risk; their overlapping prevalence; compared their sociodemographic, physical, and mental health risk factors; and assessed their association, independently of other risk factors. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of population-based cohort (Singapore Longitudinal Ageing Study [SLAS]-1 [enrolled 2003-2005] and SLAS-2 [enrolled 2010-2013]) of community-dwelling older Singaporeans aged ≥55 (n = 6045)...
August 10, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803884/challenging-the-colonisation-of-birth-koori-women-s-birthing-knowledge-and-practice
#17
Karen Adams, Shannon Faulkhead, Rachel Stanfield, Petah Atkinson
BACKGROUND: The 2007 United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples states that Indigenous peoples have the right to self-determination for social and cultural development. This fundamental right has been impeded worldwide through colonisation where many Indigenous peoples have had to adapt to ensure continuation of cultural knowledge and practice. In South East Australia colonisation was particularly brutal interrupting a 65,000 year-old oral culture and archives have increasing importance for cultural revival...
August 10, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802991/volcanogenic-so2-a-natural-pollutant-measurements-modeling-and-hazard-assessment-at-vulcano-island-aeolian-archipelago-italy
#18
Domenico Granieri, Fabio Vita, Salvatore Inguaggiato
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a major component of magmatic gas discharges. Once emitted in the atmosphere it can affect the air and land environment at different spatial and temporal scales, with harmful effects on human health and plant communities. We used a dense dataset of continuous SO2 flux and meteorological measurements collected at Vulcano over an 8-year period spanning from May 2008 to February 2016 to model air SO2 concentrations over the island. To this end, we adopted the DISGAS (DISpersion of GAS) numerical code coupled with the Diagnostic Wind Model (DWM)...
August 9, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801707/association-between-anticholinergic-drug-use-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#19
Benoit Cossette, Maimouna Bagna, Modou Sene, Caroline Sirois, Gabrielle P Lefebvre, Olivier Germain, José A Morais, Pierrette Gaudreau, Hélène Payette
BACKGROUND: The use of drugs with anticholinergic properties (AC drugs) has been associated with decreased functioning and impaired cognition in older adults. Studies assessing the association between AC-drug use and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) show conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate the association between AC-drug use and HRQoL in community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: The NuAge cohort study enrolled 1793 men and women aged 68-82 years...
August 11, 2017: Drugs & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801235/cost-effectiveness-of-a-proactive-primary-care-program-for-frail-older-people-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Nienke Bleijenberg, Irene Drubbel, Rabin Ej Neslo, Marieke J Schuurmans, Valerie H Ten Dam, Mattijs E Numans, G Ardine de Wit, Niek J de Wit
BACKGROUND: A proactive integrated approach has shown to preserve daily functioning among older people in the community. The aim is to determine the cost-effectiveness of a proactive integrated primary care program. METHODS: Economic evaluation embedded in a single-blind, 3-armed, cluster-randomized controlled trial with 12 months' follow-up in 39 general practices in the Netherlands. General practices were randomized to one of 3 trial arms: (1) an electronic frailty screening instrument using routine medical record data followed by standard general practitioner (GP) care; (2) this screening instrument followed by a nurse-led care program; or (3) usual care...
August 8, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
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