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Ambika Mathur, Christine S Chow, Andrew L Feig, Heidi Kenaga, Judith A Moldenhauer, Nisansala S Muthunayake, Mathew L Ouellett, Laura E Pence, Victoria Straub
The Broadening Experiences in Scientific Experiences (BEST) program at Wayne State University was designed to increase doctoral students' awareness of multiple employment sectors beyond academia, improve their knowledge of transferable skills required to succeed in any career path, provide opportunities to explore diverse career paths, and gain in-depth knowledge about those paths using experiential learning opportunities. We devised a three-phase program that ranged from providing students with a broad introduction to multiple career opportunities to immersive experiential learning in a specific career sector...
2018: PloS One
Mubina Isani, Brandon A Bell, Patrick T Delaplain, Jordan D Bowling, Jamie M Golden, Melissa Elizee, Laura Illingworth, Jin Wang, Christopher P Gayer, Anatoly V Grishin, Henri R Ford
The use of lactobacilli in prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is hampered by insufficient knowledge about optimal species/strains and effects on intestinal bacterial populations. We therefore sought to identify lactobacilli naturally occurring in postnatal rats and examine their ability to colonize the neonatal intestine and protect from NEC. L. murinus, L. acidophilus, and L. johnsonii were found in 42, 20, and 1 out of 51 4-day old rats, respectively. Higher proportion of L. murinus in microbiota correlated with lower NEC scores...
2018: PloS One
Laura Iacorossi, Francesca Gambalunga, Simona Molinaro, Rosaria De Domenico, Diana Giannarelli, Alessandra Fabi
BACKGROUND: Upper extremity lymphedema is a complication that often occurs in women with breast cancer as a result of surgery and/or radiotherapy. Some studies report that a boating activity known as the "dragon boat" sport can benefit these women. AIM: The aim of this study was to assess whether this type of sport prevents or reduces lymphedema, its impact on quality of life (QoL), and the possible predictors of this condition. METHODS: This was an observational study of 2 groups: group A (women who participated in dragon boat racing for at least 6 months) and group B (women who participated in other forms of physical exercise biweekly)...
June 22, 2018: Cancer Nursing
Célia L Petersen Vitello Kalil, Clarissa P Herman Reinehr, Laura de Mattos Milman, Renato M Bakos
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2018: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Laura Perea-Sanz, Rebeca Montero, Carmela Belloch, Mónica Flores
Slow fermented sausages with reduced ingoing amounts of sodium nitrate were manufactured: control (250 ppm), 15% (212.5 ppm) and 25% (187.5 ppm) reduction. The effect of nitrate reduction on microbiology and chemical parameters, volatile compounds and aroma production was studied. Parameters like, pH, aw and colour decreased during ripening, without being affected by nitrate reduction. Lipid oxidation increased during ripening and it was higher in control sausages due to fat content. Residual nitrite was below the detection limit during the whole process and residual nitrate decreased during ripening, with higher reduction in RN25 sausages...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Laura A Grafe, Seema Bhatnagar
The neuropeptides orexins are important in regulating the neurobiological systems that respond to stressful stimuli. Furthermore, orexins are known to play a role many of the phenotypes associated with stress-related mental illness such as changes in cognition, sleep-wake states, and appetite. Interestingly, orexins are altered in stress-related psychiatric disorders such as Major Depressive Disorder and Anxiety Disorders. Thus, orexins may be a potential target for treatment of these disorders. In this review, we will focus on what is known about the role of orexins in acute and repeated stress, in stress-induced phenotypes relevant to psychiatric illness in preclinical models, and in stress-related psychiatric illness in humans...
June 19, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Julián Alfredo Fernández-Niño, Víctor Alfonso Flórez-García, Claudia Iveth Astudillo-García, Laura Andrea Rodríguez-Villamizar
Historically, seasonal variations in suicide rates were thought to be associated with changes in weather. Most of this evidence however, is based on studies that were conducted in developed countries that are located outside the tropics. As such, it is necessary to examine this association in developing countries, such as Colombia, which do not experience marked seasons. In addition, it is important to adjust for the effect of holidays when analyzing this association as they have been reported to be a relevant confounding factor...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Christine Mulligan, Marie-Ève Labonté, Laura Vergeer, Mary R L'Abbé
Imposing governmental restrictions on the marketing of unhealthy foods and beverages to children is a demanded policy action since in Canada, this remains self-regulated by the voluntary, industry-led Canadian Children’s Food and Beverage Advertising Initiative (CAI) whose participants pledge to only advertise products that satisfy its Uniform Nutrition Criteria to children. This study evaluated the stringency of this nutrient profiling (NP) model for restricting child-directed food and beverage marketing in Canada...
June 22, 2018: Nutrients
Joaquim Aguirre-Plans, Janet Piñero, Jörg Menche, Ferran Sanz, Laura I Furlong, Harald H H W Schmidt, Baldo Oliva, Emre Guney
The past decades have witnessed a paradigm shift from the traditional drug discovery shaped around the idea of “one target, one disease” to polypharmacology (multiple targets, one disease). Given the lack of clear-cut boundaries across disease (endo)phenotypes and genetic heterogeneity across patients, a natural extension to the current polypharmacology paradigm is to target common biological pathways involved in diseases via endopharmacology (multiple targets, multiple diseases). In this study, we present proximal pathway enrichment analysis (PxEA) for pinpointing drugs that target common disease pathways towards network endopharmacology...
June 22, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Michal Assaf, Liron Rabany, Luis Zertuche, Laura Bragdon, David Tolin, John Goethe, Gretchen Diefenbach
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) might be effective in treating generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Cognitive models of GAD highlight the role of intolerance of uncertainty (IU) in precipitating and maintaining worry, and it has been hypothesized that patients with GAD exhibit decision-making deficits under uncertain conditions. Improving understanding of the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits associated with IU may lead to the identification of novel rTMS treatment targets and optimization of treatment parameters...
June 21, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Michelle W Cheng, Lisa D Hisaw, Laura Bernet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Peter J Colvonen, Laura D Straus, Carl Stepnowsky, Michael J McCarthy, Lizabeth A Goldstein, Sonya B Norman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and insomnia, nightmares, and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is high. We review recent research on psychotherapeutic and pharmacological interventions for sleep disorders in PTSD. RECENT FINDINGS: PTSD treatments decrease PTSD severity and nightmare frequency, but do not resolve OSA or insomnia. Research on whether insomnia hinders PTSD treatment shows mixed results; untreated OSA does interfere with PTSD treatment...
June 21, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Micaela Morettini, Francesco Di Nardo, Laura Burattini, Sandro Fioretti, Christian Göbl, Alexandra Kautzky-Willer, Giovanni Pacini, Andrea Tura
AIMS: Minimal model analysis of intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) data represents the reference method to assess insulin sensitivity (SI ) and glucose effectiveness (SG ) that quantify the insulin-dependent and insulin-independent processes of glucose disappearance, respectively. However, test duration (3 h) and need for modeling expertise limit the applicability of this method. Aim of this study was providing a simple predictor of SG applicable to short test (1 h), as previously done with SI ...
June 21, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Manuel Ritter, Vanessa Krupp, Katharina Wiszniewsky, Anna Wiszniewsky, Gnatoulma Katawa, Ruth S E Tamadaho, Achim Hoerauf, Laura E Layland
Lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis and loiasis are widespread neglected tropical diseases causing serious public health problems and impacting the socio-economic climate in endemic communities. More than 100 million people currently suffer from filarial infections but disease-related symptoms and infection-induced immune mechanisms are still ambiguous. Although most infected individuals have dominant Th2 and regulatory immune responses leading to a homeostatic regulated state, filarial-induced overt pathology like lymphedema, dermal pathologies or blindness can occur...
June 22, 2018: Parasitology Research
Yi-Kai Su, Laura B Willis, Lars Rehmann, David Smith, Thomas W Jeffries
This study employed cell recycling, batch adaptation, cell mating and high throughput screening to select adapted Spathaspora passalidarum strains with improved fermentative ability.The most promising candidate, YK208-E11 (E11) showed a 3-fold increase in specific fermentation rate compared to the parental strain and an ethanol yield greater than 0.45 g/g substrate while co-utilizing cellobiose, glucose, and xylose. Further characterization showed that strain E11 also makes 40% less biomass compared to the parental strain when cultivated in rich media under aerobic conditions...
June 21, 2018: FEMS Yeast Research
Umile Giuseppe Longo, Laura Risi Ambrogioni, Mauro Ciuffreda, Nicola Maffulli, Vincenzo Denaro
Introduction: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) of young athletes during competition or training is a tragic event. The long QT syndrome (LQTS) is an arrythmogenic disorder characterized by prolonged ventricular repolarization leading to torsade de pointes evident at electrocardiogram (ECG). Implantable cardioverter defibrillator is an option to revert ventricular fibrillation to sinus rhythm, although the implantation may result in denial of sports participations to the athlete. The authors reviewed the current literature on LQTS in young athletes, to clarify the role of different screening technologies to prevent SCD...
June 20, 2018: British Medical Bulletin
Kevin K Chung, Elsa C Coates, William L Hickerson, Angela L Arnold-Ross, Daniel M Caruso, Marlene Albrecht, Brett D Arnoldo, Christina Howard, Laura S Johnson, Melissa M McLawhorn, Bruce Friedman, Amy M Sprague, Michael J Mosier, Peggie F Conrad, David J Smith, Rachel A Karlnoski, James K Aden, Elizabeth A Mann-Salinas, Steven E Wolf
Acute kidney injury (AKI) after severe burns is historically associated with a high mortality. Over the past two decades, various modes of renal replacement therapy (RRT) have been utilized in this population. The purpose of this multicenter study was to evaluate demographic, treatment and outcomes data among severe burn patients treated with RRT collectively at various burn centers around the United States. After institutional review board approval, a multicenter observational study was conducted. All adult patients 18 or older, admitted with severe burns who were placed on RRT for acute indications but not randomized into a concurrently enrolling interventional trial were included...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Laura Stirm, Markéta Kovárová, Sarah Perschbacher, Renate Michlmaier, Louise Fritsche, Dorothea Siegel-Axel, Erwin Schleicher, Andreas Peter, Jan Pauluschke-Fröhlich, Sara Brucker, Harald Abele, Diethelm Wallwiener, Hubert Preissl, Christian Wadsack, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Fritsche, Regina Ensenauer, Gernot Desoye, Harald Staiger
Purpose: Recently, alterations of maternal lipid metabolism were shown to associate with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). However, detailed plasma lipid profiles and their relevance for placenta and fetal metabolism are currently not understood. Methods: Maternal and placental lipid profiles were characterized in GDM and normal glucose tolerant (NGT) women. Inflammatory gene expression was compared in placentas and primary term trophoblasts between both groups...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Minouk J Schoemaker, Hazel B Nichols, Lauren B Wright, Mark N Brook, Michael E Jones, Katie M O'Brien, Hans-Olov Adami, Laura Baglietto, Leslie Bernstein, Kimberly A Bertrand, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Tonje Braaten, Yu Chen, Avonne E Connor, Miren Dorronsoro, Laure Dossus, A Heather Eliassen, Graham G Giles, Susan E Hankinson, Rudolf Kaaks, Timothy J Key, Victoria A Kirsh, Cari M Kitahara, Woon-Puay Koh, Susanna C Larsson, Martha S Linet, Huiyan Ma, Giovanna Masala, Melissa A Merritt, Roger L Milne, Kim Overvad, Kotaro Ozasa, Julie R Palmer, Petra H Peeters, Elio Riboli, Thomas E Rohan, Atsuko Sadakane, Malin Sund, Rulla M Tamimi, Antonia Trichopoulou, Giske Ursin, Lars Vatten, Kala Visvanathan, Elisabete Weiderpass, Walter C Willett, Alicja Wolk, Jian-Min Yuan, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Dale P Sandler, Anthony J Swerdlow
Importance: The association between increasing body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and risk of breast cancer is unique in cancer epidemiology in that a crossover effect exists, with risk reduction before and risk increase after menopause. The inverse association with premenopausal breast cancer risk is poorly characterized but might be important in the understanding of breast cancer causation. Objective: To investigate the association of BMI with premenopausal breast cancer risk, in particular by age at BMI, attained age, risk factors for breast cancer, and tumor characteristics...
June 21, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Stefania Senger, Laura Ingano, Rachel Freire, Antony Anselmo, Weishu Zhu, Ruslan Sadreyev, William Allan Walker, Alessio Fasano
Background & Aims: Untreated necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) can lead to massive inflammation resulting in intestinal necrosis with a high mortality rate in preterm infants. Limited access to human samples and relevant experimental models have hampered progress in NEC pathogenesis. Earlier evidence has suggested that bacterial colonization of an immature and developing intestine can lead to an abnormally high inflammatory response to bacterial bioproducts. The aim of our study was to use human fetal organoids to gain insights into NEC pathogenesis...
2018: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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