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Brain temperature

Sunmin Park, Da Sol Kim, Eun Seon Kang, Da Bin Kim, Suna Kang
We evaluated the effects of intracerebroventricular administration(ICV) of brain estrogen and progesterone on menopausal symptoms and their effects on the secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH) and luteinizing hormone(LH) in estrogen-deficient rats. Three weeks after ovariectomy(OVX) or Sham-operation, OVX rats were given ICV infusions of either 17β-estradiol(4 μg/day; ICV-E), progesterone(0.8 μg/day; ICV-P), or vehicle(control) for 4 weeks. OVX rats in the positive-control group were orally provided 150 μg 17β-estradiol/kg bw/day...
March 20, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Monika Lakk, Felix Vazquez-Chona, Oleg Yarishkin, David Križaj
Unesterified cholesterol controls the fluidity, permeability and electrical properties of eukaryotic cell membranes. Consequently, cholesterol levels in the retina and the brain are tightly regulated whereas depletion or oversupply caused by diet or heredity contribute to neurodegenerative diseases and vision loss. Astroglia play a central role in the biosynthesis, uptake and transport of cholesterol and also drive inflammatory signaling under hypercholesterolemic conditions associated with high-fat diet (diabetes) and neurodegenerative disease...
February 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Anders Blomqvist, David Engblom
Fever is a common symptom of infectious and inflammatory disease. It is well-established that prostaglandin E2 is the final mediator of fever, which by binding to its EP3 receptor subtype in the preoptic hypothalamus initiates thermogenesis. Here, we review the different hypotheses on how the presence of peripherally released pyrogenic substances can be signaled to the brain to elicit fever. We conclude that there is unequivocal evidence for a humoral signaling pathway by which proinflammatory cytokines, through their binding to receptors on brain endothelial cells, evoke fever by eliciting prostaglandin E2 synthesis in these cells...
March 1, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Gianvincenzo Sparacia, Roberto Cannella, Vincenzina Lo Re, Giuseppe Mamone, Koji Sakai, Kei Yamada, Roberto Miraglia
PURPOSE: To assess brain-core temperature of end-stage liver disease patients undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) using a temperature measurement technique based on the apparent diffusion coefficient of the cerebrospinal fluid in the lateral ventricles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group was composed of 19 patients with a model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score of 23.7 who underwent MR imaging before and after OLT. MR imaging studies were performed with a 1...
March 19, 2018: Japanese Journal of Radiology
Pablo A Cortes, Francisco Bozinovic, Pierre U Blier
Mammalian torpor is a phenotype characterized by a controlled decline of metabolic rate, generally followed by a reduction in body temperature. During arousal from torpor, both metabolic rate and body temperature rapidly returns to resting levels. Metabolic rate reduction experienced by torpid animals is triggered by active suppression of mitochondrial respiration, which is rapidly reversed during rewarming process. In this study, we analyzed the changes in the maximal activity of key enzymes related to electron transport system (complexes I, III and IV) in six tissues of torpid, arousing and euthermic Chilean mouse-opossums (Thylamys elegans)...
March 15, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
Aiguo Zhou, Shaolin Xie, Zhenlu Wang, Yanfeng Chen, Yue Zhang, Lanfen Fan, Fang Zeng, Jixing Zou
The great albino northern snakehead, Channa argus, is one of the most important economical fish in China. In the present study, cDNA encoding heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) was cloned and characterized. The cDNA was 2462 bp, containing an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 575-amino-acids polypeptide of 61.10 kDa (theoretical isoelectric point [pI]: 5.66). BLAST analysis showed that AcaHSP60 was highly similar with other HSP60s, and three conserved amino acid blocks and characteristic motifs or domains defined as HSP60 protein family signatures...
March 14, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
Joshua S Elmore, Michael H Baumann
Naphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH-018) is a synthetic compound found in psychoactive "spice" products that activates cannabinoid receptors. Preclinical evidence suggests that exposure to synthetic cannabinoids increases 5-HT2A/2C receptor function in the brain, an effect which might contribute to psychotic symptoms. Here, we hypothesized that repeated exposures to JWH-018 would enhance behavioral responsiveness to the 5-HT2A/2C receptor agonist DOI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fitted with subcutaneously (sc) temperature transponders received daily injections of JWH-018 (1...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Aage Kristian Olsen Alstrup, Nora Elisabeth Zois, Mette Simonsen, Ole Lajord Munk
BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of anaesthetized pig brains is a useful tool in neuroscience. Stable cerebral blood flow (CBF) is essential for PET, since variations can affect the distribution of several radiotracers. However, the effect of physiological factors regulating CBF is unresolved and therefore knowledge of optimal anaesthesia and monitoring of pigs in PET studies is sparse. The aim of this study was therefore to determine if and how physiological variables and the duration of anaesthesia affected CBF as measured by PET using [15 O]-water in isoflurane-N2 O anaesthetized domestic female pigs...
March 12, 2018: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
W C Wang, F F Yan, J Y Hu, O A Amen, H W Cheng
Probiotics reduce stress-related inflammation and abnormal behaviors in humans and rodents via regulation of the microbiota-gut-brain axis. The objective of this study was to determine if probiotic, Bacillus subtilis, has similar functions in broiler chickens under heat stress (HS). Two hundred forty 1-day-old broiler chicks were assigned to 48 pens with 4 treatments: Thermoneutral (TN)-RD (regular diet), TN-PD (the regular diet mixed with 1×106 CFU/g feed probiotic), HS-RD and HS-PD. Probiotic (Sporulin®) was fed from day 1; and HS at 32 ºC for 10 h daily was initiated at day 15...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Marek J Noga, Ronald Zielman, Robin M van Dongen, Sabine Bos, Amy Harms, Gisela M Terwindt, Arn M J M van den Maagdenberg, Thomas Hankemeier, Michel D Ferrari
Introduction: Metabolic profiling of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a promising technique for studying brain diseases. Measurements should reflect the in vivo situation, so ex vivo metabolism should be avoided. Objective: To investigate the effects of temperature (room temperature vs. 4 °C), centrifugation and ethanol, as anti-enzymatic additive during CSF sampling on concentrations of glutamic acid, glutamine and other endogenous amines. Methods: CSF samples from 21 individuals were processed using five different protocols...
2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Martin Holtkamp, Lars Büntjen, Friedhelm C Schmitt
New treatment approaches in epilepsy - such as novel antiepileptic drugs and neurostimulation - generally at first are assessed in animal models in regard to feasibility, efficacy and safety. The aim of this review was to elucidate and summarize the available literature on in vivo experimental studies on radiofrequency thermoablation and laser interstitial thermal therapy. We have found two in vivo studies on radiofrequency ablation of an acute seizure focus, one assessed the conventional transcranial and the other one a transvenous approach...
March 3, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Lisa Letzkus, Nancy Addison, Lauren Turner, Mark Conaway, Beth Quatrara
PROBLEM: Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a complicated phenomenon that presents as autonomic instability and muscle overactivity in individuals who experience severe brain injury. Identifying potential modifiable environmental nociceptive stimuli is necessary for developing interventions that impact clinical outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify physical environmental nociceptive stimuli that could hinder recovery for children who experience PSH after severe brain injury...
April 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Nursing: Journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
Anwar S Shatil, Md Nasir Uddin, Kant M Matsuda, Chase R Figley
Purpose: Postmortem MRI can be used to reveal important pathologies and establish radiology-pathology correlations. However, quantitative MRI values are altered by tissue fixation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate time-dependent effects of formalin fixation on MRI relaxometry (T1 and T2 ), diffusion tensor imaging (fractional anisotropy, FA; and mean diffusivity, MD), and myelin water fraction (MWF) measurements throughout intact human brain specimens. Methods: Two whole, neurologically-healthy human brains were immersed in 10% formalin solution and scanned at 13 time points between 0 and 1,032 h...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Fred Rincon
Evidence from animal models indicates that lowering temperature by a few degrees can produce substantial neuroprotection. In humans, hypothermia has been found to be neuroprotective with a significant impact on mortality and long-term functional outcome only in cardiac arrest and neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Clinical trials have explored the potential role of maintaining normothermia and treating fever in critically ill brain injured patients. This review concentrates on basic concepts to understand the physiologic interactions of thermoregulation, effects of thermal modulation in critically ill patients, proposed mechanisms of action of temperature modulation, and practical aspects of targeted temperature management...
April 2018: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Mohamed H Abou El Fadl, Kristine H O'Phelan
The care of patients with traumatic brain injury can be one of the most challenging and rewarding aspects of clinical neurocritical care. This article reviews the approach to unique aspects specific to the care of this patient population. These aspects include appropriate use of sedation and analgesia, and the principles and the clinical use of intracranial monitors. Common clinical challenges encountered in these patients are also discussed, including the treatment of intracranial hypertension, temperature management, and control of sympathetic hyperactivity...
April 2018: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
Roberto Sánchez-Sánchez, Ignacio Ferre, Michela Re, Patricia Vázquez, Luis Miguel Ferrer, Javier Blanco-Murcia, Javier Regidor-Cerrillo, Manuel Pizarro Díaz, Marta González-Huecas, Enrique Tabanera, Paula García-Lunar, Julio Benavides, Pablo Castaño, Andrew Hemphill, Matthew A Hulverson, Grant R Whitman, Kasey L Rivas, Ryan Choi, Kayode K Ojo, Lynn K Barrett, Wesley C Van Voorhis, Luis Miguel Ortega-Mora
Neospora caninum is one of the main causes of abortion in cattle, and recent studies have highlighted its relevance as an abortifacient in small ruminants. Vaccines or drugs for the control of neosporosis are lacking. Bumped kinase inhibitors (BKIs), which are ATP-competitive inhibitors of calcium dependent protein kinase 1 (CDPK1), were shown to be highly efficacious against several apicomplexan parasites in vitro and in laboratory animal models. We here present the pharmacokinetics, safety and efficacy of BKI-1553 in pregnant ewes and foetuses using a pregnant sheep model of N...
March 1, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Mostafa Pasandi Boroon, Mohammad-Bagher Ayani, Sajad Razavi Bazaz
Hyperthermia is one of the most appealing methods of cancer treatment in which the temperature of tumor is elevated to reach a desired temperature. One of the methods of increasing tissue temperature is injection of nanoparticle fluids to tumor and applying alternative magnetic field, which is called magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia method. The total number of injection points, as well as the their location within a tissue play a significant role in this method. Furthermore, the power of heating of a magnetic material per gram or specific loss power (SLP) is another important factor which needs to be investigated...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Hyun Kyong Shon, Shin Hye Kim, Sohee Yoon, Chan Young Shin, Tae Geol Lee
Brain imaging using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) has been reported to produce the distorted biomolecular distributions due to the cholesterol-induced matrix effect when cholesterol migrates to the surface, particularly in white matter, which contains a high level of cholesterol. Frozen-hydrated analysis has been used to inhibit the movement of cholesterol in the brain. In this paper, the authors propose new sample preparation and drying methods that can be used to obtain accurate biomolecular images at room temperature, instead of frozen-hydrated analysis using liquid-nitrogen, which must be continuously supplied to maintain the sample at -160 °C during the experiment...
March 1, 2018: Biointerphases
Denis E Bragin, Gloria L Statom, Edwin M Nemoto
OBJECTIVE: In previous work we showed that high intracranial pressure (ICP) in the rat brain induces a transition from capillary (CAP) to pathological microvascular shunt (MVS) flow, resulting in brain hypoxia, edema, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage. This transition was correlated with a loss of cerebral blood flow (CBF) autoregulation undetected by static autoregulatory curves but identified by induced dynamic ICP (iPRx) and cerebrovascular (iCVRx) reactivity. We hypothesized that loss of CBF autoregulation as correlated with MVS flow would be identified by iPRx and iCVRx in traumatic brain injury (TBI) with elevated ICP...
2018: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
Bi Zhang, Jianke Gong, Wenyuan Zhang, Rui Xiao, Jianfeng Liu, X Z Shawn Xu
Tissue-tissue communications are integral to organismal aging, orchestrating a body-wide aging process. The brain plays a key role in this process by detecting and processing signals from the environment and then communicating them to distal tissues such as the gut to regulate longevity. How this is achieved, however, is poorly understood. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans as a model, we identified two distinct neuroendocrine signaling circuits by which the worm nervous system senses cool and warm environmental temperatures through cool- and warm-sensitive neurons and then signals the gut to extend and shorten life span, respectively...
February 1, 2018: Genes & Development
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