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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777919/brain-to-bone-what-is-the-contribution-of-the-brain-to-skeletal-homeostasis
#1
REVIEW
Anna Idelevich, Roland Baron
The brain, which governs most, if not all, physiological functions in the body, from the complexities of cognition, learning and memory, to the regulation of basal body temperature, heart rate and breathing, has long been known to affect skeletal health. In particular, the hypothalamus - located at the base of the brain in close proximity to the medial eminence, where the blood-brain-barrier is not as tight as in other regions of the brain but rather "leaky", due to fenestrated capillaries - is exposed to a variety of circulating body cues, such as nutrients (glucose, fatty acids, amino acids), and hormones (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin) [1-3]...
May 16, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777174/how-does-blood-regulate-cerebral-temperatures-during-hypothermia
#2
Stephen Blowers, Ian Marshall, Michael Thrippleton, Peter Andrews, Bridget Harris, Iain Bethune, Prashant Valluri
Macro-modeling of cerebral blood flow can help determine the impact of thermal intervention during instances of head trauma to mitigate tissue damage. This work presents a bioheat model using a 3D fluid-porous domain coupled with intersecting 1D arterial and venous vessel trees. This combined vascular porous (VaPor) model resolves both cerebral blood flow and energy equations, including heat generated by metabolism, using vasculature extracted from MRI data and is extended using a tree generation algorithm...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776378/differential-induction-of-mutant-sod1-misfolding-and-aggregation-by-tau-and-%C3%AE-synuclein-pathology
#3
Michael C Pace, Guilian Xu, Susan Fromholt, John Howard, Benoit I Giasson, Jada Lewis, David R Borchelt
BACKGROUND: Prior studies in C. elegans demonstrated that the expression of aggregation-prone polyglutamine proteins in muscle wall cells compromised the folding of co-expressed temperature-sensitive proteins, prompting interest in whether the accumulation of a misfolded protein in pathologic features of human neurodegenerative disease burdens cellular proteostatic machinery in a manner that impairs the folding of other cellular proteins. METHODS: Mice expressing high levels of mutant forms of tau and α-synuclein (αSyn), which develop inclusion pathologies of the mutant protein in brain and spinal cord, were crossed to mice expressing low levels of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 fused to yellow fluorescent protein (G85R-SOD1:YFP) for aging and neuropathological evaluation...
May 18, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766125/trauma-early-mortality-prediction-tool-tempt-for-assessing-28-day-mortality
#4
Ryan C Kunitake, Lucy Z Kornblith, Mitchell Jay Cohen, Rachael A Callcut
Background: Prior mortality prediction models have incorporated severity of anatomic injury quantified by Abbreviated Injury Severity Score (AIS). Using a prospective cohort, a new score independent of AIS was developed using clinical and laboratory markers present on emergency department presentation to predict 28-day mortality. Methods: All patients (n=1427) enrolled in an ongoing prospective cohort study were included. Demographic, laboratory, and clinical data were recorded on admission...
2018: Trauma surgery & acute care open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764559/-application-of-targeted-temperature-management-in-the-treatment-of-cardiac-arrest-in-adult-patients
#5
Yue Hu, Xintao Wang, Derong Cui
Cardiac arrest (CA) is a fatal condition with low resuscitation rate and high mortality rate. Most of the survivors have neurological sequelae affecting their quality of life. Targeted temperature management (TTM) has been suggested by a number of studies to increase the survival rate and improve neurological outcome of CA. It is highly recommended by the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) for unconscious patients after resuscitation. In this review, we discuss the pathological mechanism of brain injury in CA and applications of TTM in adults with CA, with the aim of providing valuable information for clinical application...
May 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763714/optic-nerve-sheath-diameter-measured-using-early-unenhanced-brain-computed-tomography-shows-no-correlation-with-neurological-outcomes-in-patients-undergoing-targeted-temperature-management-after-cardiac-arrest
#6
Dong Hoon Lee, Sun Hwa Lee, Je Hyeok Oh, In Soo Cho, Young Hwan Lee, Chul Han, Wook Jin Choi, You Dong Sohn
AIM: Previous studies indicated that the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measured using brain computed tomography (CT) is a prognostic factor for poor neurological outcome after cardiac arrest. However, these studies were retrospective or included a small sample size. We performed a prospective multi-centre observational study to investigate the correlation between the ONSD on early brain CT and neurological outcomes in patients undergoing targeted temperature management (TTM). METHODS: This study used data from the Korean Hypothermia Network prospective registry between November 2015 and October 2016...
May 12, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761783/preoptic-leptin-signaling-modulates-energy-balance-independent-of-body-temperature-regulation
#7
Sangho Yu, Helia Cheng, Marie François, Emily Qualls-Creekmore, Clara Huesing, Yanlin He, Yanyan Jiang, Hong Gao, Yong Xu, Andrea Zsombok, Andrei V Derbenev, Eduardo A Nillni, David H Burk, Christopher D Morrison, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud, Heike Münzberg
The adipokine leptin acts on the brain to regulate energy balance but specific functions in many brain areas remain poorly understood. Among these, the preoptic area (POA) is well known to regulate core body temperature by controlling brown fat thermogenesis, and we have previously shown that glutamatergic, long-form leptin receptor (Lepr)-expressing neurons in the POA are stimulated by warm ambient temperature and suppress energy expenditure and food intake. Here we further investigate the role of POA leptin signaling in body weight regulation and its relationship to body temperature regulation in mice...
May 15, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760928/aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-intensive-care-for-improving-neurological-outcome
#8
REVIEW
Tomoya Okazaki, Yasuhiro Kuroda
Background: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage is a life-threatening disease requiring neurocritical care. Delayed cerebral ischemia is a well-known complication that contributes to unfavorable neurological outcomes. Cerebral vasospasm has been thought to be the main cause of delayed cerebral ischemia, and although several studies were able to decrease cerebral vasospasm, none showed improved neurological outcomes. Our target is not cerebral vasospasm but improving neurological outcomes...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758099/the-reduction-in-treatment-efficiency-at-high-acoustic-powers-during-mr-guided-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-thalamotomy-for-essential-tremor
#9
Alec Hughes, Yuexi Huang, Michael L Schwartz, Kullervo Hynynen
PURPOSE: To analyze clinical data indicating a reduction in the induced energy-temperature efficiency relationship during transcranial focused ultrasound (FUS) essential tremor (ET) thalamotomy treatments at higher acoustic powers, establish its relationship with the spatial distribution of the focal temperature elevation, and explore its cause. METHODS: A retrospective observational study of patients (N = 19) treated between July 2015-August 2016 for Essential Tremor (ET) by FUS thalamotomy was performed...
May 14, 2018: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757912/dysfunction-of-iron-metabolism-and-iron-regulatory-proteins-in-the-rat-hippocampus-after-heat-stroke
#10
Jing Liu, Shengming Wan, Yun Zhang, Shu Zhang, Hongying Zhang, Shiwen Wu
Heat stroke, the most serious type of heat illness, refers to the presence of hyperthermia (core temperature >40°C), accompanied by central nervous system dysfunction. The hippocampus is a particularly vulnerable region in the early stage of heat stroke. Increasing evidence suggests that dysregulation of brain iron metabolism is involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. However, whether heat stroke causes dysfunction of iron metabolism, as well as iron-regulatory proteins, in the hippocampus remains unknown...
May 11, 2018: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754901/nocte-is-required-for-integrating-light-and-temperature-inputs-in-circadian-clock-neurons-of-drosophila
#11
Chenghao Chen, Min Xu, Yuto Anantaprakorn, Mechthild Rosing, Ralf Stanewsky
Circadian clocks organize biological processes to occur at optimized times of day and thereby contribute to overall fitness. While the regular daily changes of environmental light and temperature synchronize circadian clocks, extreme external conditions can bypass the temporal constraints dictated by the clock. Despite advanced knowledge about how the daily light-dark changes synchronize the clock, relatively little is known with regard to how the daily temperature changes influence daily timing and how temperature and light signals are integrated...
May 8, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753409/if-technological-intelligent-extraterrestrials-exist-what-biological-traits-are-de-rigueur
#12
E R Taylor
If extraterrestrials exist in the depths of cosmic space, and are capable of interstellar communications, even space flight, there is no requirement that they be humanoid in form. However, certain humanoid capabilities would be advantageous for tool fashioning and critical to operating space craft as well as functioning under the disparate extreme conditions under which they may be forced to operate. They would have to be "gas breathing". The reasonable assumption that life based upon the same elements as Earth life requiring water stems from the unique properties of water that no other similar low molecular weight nonmetal hydride offers...
May 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752691/analytical-modelling-of-temperature-effects-on-an-ampa-type-synapse
#13
Dominik S Kufel, Grzegorz M Wojcik
It was previously reported, that temperature may significantly influence neural dynamics on the different levels of brain function. Thus, in computational neuroscience, it would be useful to make models scalable for a wide range of various brain temperatures. However, lack of experimental data and an absence of temperature-dependent analytical models of synaptic conductance does not allow to include temperature effects at the multi-neuron modeling level. In this paper, we propose a first step to deal with this problem: A new analytical model of AMPA-type synaptic conductance, which is able to incorporate temperature effects in low-frequency stimulations...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746801/design-and-implementation-of-a-discrete-time-proportional-integral-pi-controller-for-the-temperature-control-of-a-heating-pad
#14
Pathan Fayaz Khan, S Sengottuvel, Rajesh Patel, K Gireesan, R Baskaran, Awadhesh Mani
Contact heat evoked potentials (CHEPs) are recorded from the brain by giving thermal stimulations through heating pads kept on the surface of the skin. CHEP signals have crucial diagnostic implications in human pain activation studies. This work proposes a novel design of a digital proportional integral (PI) controller based on Arduino microcontroller with a view to explore the suitability of an electric heating pad for use as a thermode in a custom-made, cost-effective CHEP stimulator. The purpose of PI controller is to set, regulate, and deliver desired temperatures on the surface of the heating pad in a user-defined pattern...
May 1, 2018: SLAS Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744845/disaggregation-of-a%C3%AE-42-for-structural-and-biochemical-studies
#15
Hyewon Chung, Elliot J Crooks, Martine Ziliox, Steven O Smith
The amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides that form the amyloid fibrils associated with Alzheimer's disease are generated by sequential proteolysis of the amyloid precursor protein by β- and γ-secretase. The two predominant Aβ peptides, Aβ40 and Aβ42, differ by two amino acids, are soluble as monomers at low concentration (and/or low temperature) and are normally cleared from the brain parenchyma. In order to study the structure and assembly of these peptides, they are often synthesized using solid-phase peptide synthesis and purified...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740356/behavioural-pharmacokinetic-metabolic-and-hyperthermic-profile-of-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-in-the-wistar-rat
#16
Rachel R Horsley, Eva Lhotkova, Katerina Hajkova, Barbara Feriancikova, Michal Himl, Martin Kuchar, Tomas Páleníček
3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a potent pyrovalerone cathinone that is substituted for amphetamines by recreational users. We report a comprehensive and detailed description of the effects of subcutaneous MDPV (1-4 mg/kg) on pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and metabolism, acute effects on thermoregulation under isolated and aggregated conditions, locomotion (open field) and sensory gating (prepulse inhibition, PPI). All studies used male Wistar rats. Pharmacokinetics after single dose of 2 mg/kg MDPV was measured over 6 h in serum, brain and lungs...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731401/adverse-effects-of-common-sports-and-recreational-activities-on-male-reproduction
#17
REVIEW
Kush Panara, John M Masterson, Luis F Savio, Ranjith Ramasamy
CONTEXT: Male factor infertility plays a significant role in infertility. Many factors have been associated with male infertility; however, the link between many sports and recreational factors and male reproduction remains poorly characterized. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current literature regarding the impact of many common sports and recreational factors on male reproduction. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive PubMed and Embase search for relevant articles published between 1970 and 2017 was performed by combining the following search terms: male, sports (including individual sports), traumatic brain injury, sauna, hot tub, fertility, erectile dysfunction, varicocele, environment, cell phone, and laptop computer...
May 3, 2018: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731253/a-brain-wide-circuit-model-of-heat-evoked-swimming-behavior-in-larval-zebrafish
#18
Martin Haesemeyer, Drew N Robson, Jennifer M Li, Alexander F Schier, Florian Engert
Thermosensation provides crucial information, but how temperature representation is transformed from sensation to behavior is poorly understood. Here, we report a preparation that allows control of heat delivery to zebrafish larvae while monitoring motor output and imaging whole-brain calcium signals, thereby uncovering algorithmic and computational rules that couple dynamics of heat modulation, neural activity and swimming behavior. This approach identifies a critical step in the transformation of temperature representation between the sensory trigeminal ganglia and the hindbrain: A simple sustained trigeminal stimulus representation is transformed into a representation of absolute temperature as well as temperature changes in the hindbrain that explains the observed motor output...
May 1, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727362/effect-of-body-temperature-on-cerebral-autoregulation-in-acutely-comatose-neurocritically-ill-patients
#19
Krishma Adatia, Romergryko G Geocadin, Ryan Healy, Wendy Ziai, Luciano Ponce-Mejia, Mirinda Anderson-White, Dhaval Shah, Batya R Radzik, Caitlin Palmisano, Charles W Hogue, Charles Brown, Lucia Rivera-Lara
OBJECTIVES: Impaired cerebral autoregulation following neurologic injury is a predictor of poor clinical outcome. We aimed to assess the relationship between body temperature and cerebral autoregulation in comatose patients. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data. SETTING: Neurocritical care unit of the Johns Hopkins Hospital. PATIENTS: Eighty-five acutely comatose patients (Glasgow Coma Scale score of ≤ 8) admitted between 2013 and 2017...
May 4, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725820/cadasil-brain-vessels-show-a-htra1-loss-of-function-profile
#20
Andreas Zellner, Eva Scharrer, Thomas Arzberger, Chio Oka, Valérie Domenga-Denier, Anne Joutel, Stefan F Lichtenthaler, Stephan A Müller, Martin Dichgans, Christof Haffner
Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and a phenotypically similar recessive condition (CARASIL) have emerged as important genetic model diseases for studying the molecular pathomechanisms of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD). CADASIL, the most frequent and intensely explored monogenic SVD, is characterized by a severe pathology in the cerebral vasculature including the mutation-induced aggregation of the Notch3 extracellular domain (Notch3ECD ) and the formation of protein deposits of insufficiently determined composition in vessel walls...
May 3, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
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