Read by QxMD icon Read

Brain temperature

Thomas Voets
Two recent studies reveal a crucial role for the cation channel TRPM2 in sensing warm temperatures, both in the thermoregulatory center of the brain and in the somatosensory system.
October 21, 2016: Cell Research
Shadi Shafaghi, Azizollah Abbasi Dezfuli, Zahra Ansari Aval, Kambiz Sheikhy, Behrooz Farzanegan, Esmaeil Mortaz, Habib Emami, Clemens Aigner, Fatemeh Sadat Hosseini-Baharanchi, Katayoun Najafizadeh
OBJECTIVES: Although the number of lung transplants is limited because of general shortage of organ donors, ex vivo lung perfusion is a novel method with 2 main benefits, including better evaluation of lung potential and recovery of injured lungs. The main aim of this study was to establish and operationalize ex vivo lung perfusion as the first experience in Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective operational research study on 5 cases, including 1 pig from Vienna Medical University and 4 patients from Masih Daneshvari Hospital...
October 14, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Evelyn H Schlenker
The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ANH) interacts with other hypothalamic nuclei, forebrain regions, and downstream brain sites to affect autonomic nervous system outflow, energy balance, temperature regulation, sleep, arousal, neuroendocrine function, reproduction, and cardiopulmonary regulation. Compared to studies of other ANH functions, how the ANH regulates cardiopulmonary function is less understood. Importantly, the ANH exhibits structural and functional sexually dimorphic characteristics and contains numerous neuroactive substances and receptors including leptin, neuropeptide Y, glutamate, acetylcholine, endorphins, orexin, kisspeptin, insulin, Agouti-related protein, cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, dopamine, somatostatin, components of renin-angiotensin system and gamma amino butyric acid that modulate physiological functions...
October 15, 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Eunjoo Cho, Euna Lee, Eun Young Kim
The circadian clock system enables organisms to anticipate the rhythmic environmental changes and to manifest behavior and physiology at advantageous times of day. Transcriptional/translational feedback loop (TTFL) is the basic feature of eukaryotic circadian clock and is based on the rhythmic association of circadian transcriptional activator and repressor. In Drosophila, repression of dCLOCK/CYCLE (dCLK/CYC) mediated transcription by PERIOD (PER) is critical for inducing circadian rhythms of gene expression...
October 19, 2016: BMB Reports
Martin Jastroch, Sylvain Giroud, Perry Barrett, Fritz Geiser, Gerhard Heldmaier, Annika Herwig
Endothermic mammals and birds require intensive energy turnover to sustain high body temperatures and metabolic rates. To cope with energetic bottlenecks associated with the change of seasons, and to minimise energy expenditure, complex mechanisms and strategies, such as daily torpor and hibernation, are used. During torpor metabolic depression and low body temperatures save energy. However, these bouts of torpor lasting for hours to weeks are interrupted by active 'euthermic' phases with high body temperatures...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
Ivan Ezquerra-Romano, Angel Ezquerra
Temperature maintenance and detection are essential for the survival and perpetuation of any species. This review is focused on thermosensation; thus a detailed and traced explanation of the anatomical and physiological characteristics of each component of this sensation is given. First, the proteins that react to temperature changes are identified; next, the nature of the neurons involved in thermosensation is described; and then, the pathways from the skin through the spinal cord to the brain are outlined...
October 18, 2016: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Junjie Luo, Wei L Shen, Craig Montell
Avoidance of noxious ambient heat is crucial for survival. A well-known phenomenon is that animals are sensitive to the rate of temperature change. However, the cellular and molecular underpinnings through which animals sense and respond much more vigorously to fast temperature changes are unknown. Using Drosophila larvae, we found that nociceptive rolling behavior was triggered at lower temperatures and at higher frequencies when the temperature increased rapidly. We identified neurons in the brain that were sensitive to the speed of the temperature increase rather than just to the absolute temperature...
October 17, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
Ling Cui, Wen-Jing He, Fan Xu, Li Jiang, Ming-Liang Lv, Hui Huang, Ji-Ping Xu, Yu Wu, Hai-Bin Zhong, Shao-Yang Zhang, Li-Fei Chen, Chao-Lan Shen, Gang Yao, Li Li, Min Li, Si-Ming Zeng
HS-1-associated protein X-1 (Hax-1) has been suggested to be expressed in various rodent and human tissues. Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that Hax‑1 exerts an anti‑apoptotic effect in neurological diseases. Furthermore, it has also been reported that Hax‑1 interacts with various apoptosis‑associated proteins, including high temperature-regulated A2 (HtrA2) and caspase‑3. Previous studies have indicated that abnormal expression of Hax‑1 may be associated with the development of the nervous system and with the pathophysiology of neurological diseases, including traumatic brain injury and cerebral ischemia...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Wafaa Abdou Mohamed Mohamed, Tamer Ismail, Sameh Farouk
OBJECTIVES: Hyperthermia is one of the most common environmental stressors that affect multi-biological systems in the body including the central nervous system as well as the hematopoietic organs. The objective of the present study was to investigate the protective role of ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) on some selective stress markers, hematological, biochemical, and histopathological changes in rats subjected to hyperthermia (40 °C/12 hr). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The experimental groups (10 rats each) were classified as follows; Group A; control, (C), was kept at a controlled room temperature (25±5 °C)...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Jeffrey A Gross, Corina Nagy, Li Lin, Éric Bonneil, Marissa Maheu, Pierre Thibault, Naguib Mechawar, Peng Jin, Gustavo Turecki
There has been a growing interest in the study of epigenetic mechanisms to elucidate the molecular bases of human brain-related diseases and disorders. Frequently, researchers utilize post-mortem tissue with the assumption that post-mortem tissue decay has little or no effect on epigenetic marks. Although previous studies show no effect of post-mortem interval on certain epigenetic marks, no such research has been performed on cytosine modifications. In this study, we use DNA from the brains of adult Sprague Dawley rats subjected to post-mortem intervals at room temperature, ranging from 0 to 96h, to assess the stability of cytosine modifications, namely 5-methycytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine...
October 13, 2016: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
Hongmei Xia, Yinxiang Xu, Zhiqing Cheng, Yongfeng Cheng
Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) was extracted from Ligusticum chuanxiong hort. The compound is known to have a variety of medicinal functions; in particular, it is used for the treatment of cerebral ischemic diseases. TMP-loaded hydrogels offer an excellent preparation with the capacity to bypass the blood-brain barrier, allowing treatment of the brain through intranasal administration. We prepared TMP-loaded hydrogels using carbomer 940 and evaluated the release of TMP from the hydrogel. We determined the release rate using Franz-type diffusion cell experiments with a subcutaneous-mucous-membrane model and also by a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation...
October 14, 2016: AAPS PharmSciTech
Yan-Lin Liu, Guo-Yang Li, Ping He, Ze-Qi Mao, Yanping Cao
Determining the mechanical properties of brain tissues is essential in such cases as the surgery planning and surgical training using virtual reality based simulators, trauma research and the diagnosis of some diseases that alter the elastic properties of brain tissues. Here, we suggest a protocol to measure the temperature-dependent elastic properties of brain tissues in physiological saline using the shear wave elastography method. Experiments have been conducted on six porcine brains. Our results show that the shear moduli of brain tissues decrease approximately linearly with a slope of -0...
September 21, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Nathan McDannold, Margaret Livingstone, Can Barış Top, Jonathan Sutton, Nick Todd, Natalia Vykhodtseva
This study investigated thermal ablation and skull-induced heating with a 230 kHz transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (TcMRgFUS) system in nonhuman primates. We evaluated real-time acoustic feedback and aimed to understand whether cavitation contributed to the heating and the lesion formation. In four macaques, we sonicated thalamic targets at acoustic powers of 34-560 W (896-7590 J). Tissue effects evaluated with MRI and histology were compared to MRI-based temperature and thermal dose measurements, acoustic emissions recorded during the experiments, and acoustic and thermal simulations...
October 14, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Ernesto Solis, R Aaron Bola, Bradley J Fasulo, Eugene A Kiyatkin
Glucose enters the brain extracellular space from arterial blood and its proper delivery is essential for metabolic activity of brain cells. By using enzyme-based biosensors coupled with high-speed amperometry in freely moving rats, we previously showed that glucose levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) display high variability, increasing rapidly following exposure to various arousing stimuli. In this study, the same technology was used to assess NAc glucose fluctuations induced by intravenous heroin. Heroin passively injected at a low dose optimal for maintaining self-administration behavior (100 μg/kg) induces a rapid but moderate glucose rise (~150-200 μM or ~15-25% over resting baseline)...
October 13, 2016: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Laurent Koessler, Sophie Colnat-Coulbois, Thierry Cecchin, Janis Hofmanis, Jacek P Dmochowski, Anthony M Norcia, Louis G Maillard
In-vivo measurements of human brain tissue conductivity at body temperature were conducted using focal electrical currents injected through intracerebral multicontact electrodes. A total of 1,421 measurements in 15 epileptic patients (age: 28 ± 10) using a radiofrequency generator (50 kHz current injection) were analyzed. Each contact pair was classified as being from healthy (gray matter, n = 696; white matter, n = 530) or pathological (epileptogenic zone, n = 195) tissue using neuroimaging analysis of the local tissue environment and intracerebral EEG recordings...
October 11, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Glauco A Westphal, Elisabeth Coll, Rafael L de Souza, Silvana Wagner, Artur Montemezzo, Fernanda Carolina Cani de Souza, Gabriel Torres, Stefan Halla, Tiago C Carnin, Míriam C Machado, Eduardo Berbigier, Fernando Busetto, Ivonei Bittencourt, Karine Gerent, Bruno S de Souza, Manoel Tassinari, Joel de Andrade
BACKGROUND: The disproportion between the large organ demand and the low number of transplantations performed represents a serious public health problem worldwide. Reducing the loss of transplantable organs from deceased potential donors as a function of cardiac arrest (CA) may contribute to an increase in organ donations. Our purpose was to test the hypothesis that a goal-directed protocol to guide the management of deceased donors may reduce the losses of potential brain-dead donors (PBDDs) due to CA...
October 11, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Anning Li, Yue Wu, Jenny Linnoila, Benjamin Pulli, Cuihua Wang, Matthias Zeller, Muhammad Ali, Grant K Lewandrowski, Jinghui Li, Benoit Tricot, Edmund Keliher, Gregory R Wojtkiewicz, Giulia Fulci, Xiaoyuan Feng, Bakhos A Tannous, Zhenwei Yao, John W Chen
Currently, there is no stable and flexible method to label and track cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) in vivo in CTL immunotherapy. We aimed to evaluate whether the sulfo-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS)-biotin-streptavidin (SA) platform could chemically modify the cell surface of CTLs for in vivo tracking. CD8+ T lymphocytes were labeled with sulfo-NHS-biotin under different conditions and then incubated with SA-Alexa647. Labeling efficiency was proportional to sulfo-NHS-biotin concentration. CD8+ T lymphocytes could be labeled with higher efficiency with sulfo-NHS-biotin in DPBS than in RPMI (P < 0...
October 8, 2016: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Poonam Malhotra Kapoor, Rohan Magoon, Rajinder Rawat, Yatin Mehta
Goal-directed therapy (GDT) encompasses guidance of intravenous (IV) fluid and vasopressor/inotropic therapy by cardiac output or similar parameters to help in early recognition and management of high-risk cardiac surgical patients. With the aim of establishing the utility of perioperative GDT using robust clinical and biochemical outcomes, we conducted the present study. This multicenter randomized controlled study included 130 patients of either sex, with European system for cardiac operative risk evaluation ≥3 undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting on cardiopulmonary bypass...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Kai Oliver Jensen, Leonhard Held, Andrea Kraus, Frank Hildebrand, Philipp Mommsen, Ladislav Mica, Guido A Wanner, Peter Steiger, Rudolf M Moos, Hans-Peter Simmen, Kai Sprengel
BACKGROUND: Although under discussion, induced hypothermia (IH) is an established therapy for patients with cardiac arrest or traumatic brain injuries. The influences on coagulopathy and bleeding tendency in severely injured patients (SIP) with concomitant traumatic brain injury are most widely unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to quantify the effect of mild IH in SIP with concomitant severe traumatic brain injuries on transfusion rate and mortality. METHODS: In this retrospective multi-centre study, SIP from three European level-1 trauma centres with an ISS ≥16 between 2009 and 2011 were included...
October 6, 2016: European Journal of Medical Research
James F Doyle, Frédérique Schortgen
The concept of pyrexia as a protective physiological response to aid in host defence has been challenged with the awareness of the severe metabolic stress induced by pyrexia. The host response to pyrexia varies, however, according to the disease profile and severity and, as such, the management of pyrexia should differ; for example, temperature control is safe and effective in septic shock but remains controversial in sepsis. From the reported findings discussed in this review, treating pyrexia appears to be beneficial in septic shock, out of hospital cardiac arrest and acute brain injury...
October 3, 2016: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"