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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331580/environmental-enrichment-sexual-dimorphism-and-brain-size-in-sticklebacks
#1
Elisavet A Toli, Kristina Noreikiene, Jacquelin DeFaveri, Juha Merilä
Evidence for phenotypic plasticity in brain size and the size of different brain parts is widespread, but experimental investigations into this effect remain scarce and are usually conducted using individuals from a single population. As the costs and benefits of plasticity may differ among populations, the extent of brain plasticity may also differ from one population to another. In a common garden experiment conducted with three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) originating from four different populations, we investigated whether environmental enrichment (aquaria provided with structural complexity) caused an increase in the brain size or size of different brain parts compared to controls (bare aquaria)...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329724/accurate-predictions-of-postmortem-interval-using-linear-regression-analyses-of-gene-meter-expression-data
#2
M Colby Hunter, Alex E Pozhitkov, Peter A Noble
In criminal and civil investigations, postmortem interval is used as evidence to help sort out circumstances at the time of human death. Many biological, chemical, and physical indicators can be used to determine the postmortem interval - but most are not accurate. Here, we sought to validate an experimental design to accurately predict the time of death by analyzing the expression of hundreds of upregulated genes in two model organisms, the zebrafish and mouse. In a previous study, the death of healthy adults was conducted under strictly controlled conditions to minimize the effects of confounding factors such as lifestyle and temperature...
March 4, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322973/imidazoline-i2-receptors-an-update
#3
REVIEW
Jun-Xu Li
Since first introduced more than two decades ago, the research in imidazoline I2 receptors has been steadily increasing. This review provides an update on the current status of I2 receptor pharmacology. Imidazoline I2 receptors or I2 binding sites refer to several (at least four) different proteins that bind to [(3)H]-idazoxan and [(3)H]-2-BFI with high affinity. The molecular identities of the proteins remain elusive. One of the proteins (45 kD) seems to be consistent with the identity of brain creatine kinase...
March 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322600/renal-mitochondrial-response-to-low-temperature-in-non-hibernating-and-hibernating-species
#4
George J Dugbartey, Maarten C Hardenberg, Wendelinde F Kok, Ate Boerema, Hannah V Carey, James Staples, Robert H Henning, Hjalmar Bouma
SIGNIFICANCE: Therapeutic hypothermia is commonly applied to limit ischemic injury in organ transplantation, during cardiac and brain surgery and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In these procedures, the kidneys are particularly at risk for ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), likely due to their high rate of metabolism. Although hypothermia mitigates ischemic kidney injury, it is not a panacea. Residual mitochondrial failure is thought to be a key event triggering loss of cellular homeostasis, and potentially cell death...
March 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321526/effects-of-fasting-temperature-and-photoperiod-on-preproghrelin-mrna-expression-in-chinese-perch
#5
Yi Song, Cheng Zhao, Xu-Fang Liang, Shan He, Changxu Tian, Xiaoyan Cheng, Xiaochen Yuan, Liyuan Lv, Wenjie Guo, Min Xue, Ya-Xiong Tao
Preproghrelin, a gut/brain peptide, plays an important role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis in teleost and mammals. In the present study, we obtained the full-length preproghrelin cDNA in Chinese perch. The preproghrelin messenger RNA (mRNA) tissue expression showed that level was much higher in stomach and pituitary than in other tissues. The fasting study showed, after gastric emptying (3-6 h), short-term fasting (6-12 h) increased preproghrelin expression in the stomach. While in the pituitary, fasting reduced preproghrelin expression at 1, 3, 12, and 48 h, presenting state fluctuation of self-adjustment...
March 20, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317427/fatigue-is-it-all-neurochemistry
#6
Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands
Fatigue during exercise can be approached from different angles. Peripheral fatigue is usually described as an impairment located in the muscle and characterized by a metabolic end point, while central fatigue is defined as a failure of the central nervous system to adequately drive the muscle. The aim of the present narrative review paper is to look at the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of fatigue during prolonged exercise, predominantly from a brain neurochemical point of view. From studies in rodents it is clear that exercise increases the release of several neurotransmitters in different brain regions, and that the onset of fatigue can be manipulated when dopaminergic influx in the preoptic and anterior hypothalamus is increased, interfering with thermoregulation...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317246/brain-gene-expression-is-influenced-by-incubation-temperature-during-leopard-gecko-eublepharis-macularius-development
#7
Maria Michela Pallotta, Mimmo Turano, Raffaele Ronca, Marcello Mezzasalma, Agnese Petraccioli, Gaetano Odierna, Teresa Capriglione
Sexual differentiation (SD) during development results in anatomical, metabolic, and physiological differences that involve not only the gonads, but also a variety of other biological structures, such as the brain, determining differences in morphology, behavior, and response in the breeding season. In many reptiles, whose sex is determined by egg incubation temperature, such as the leopard gecko, Eublepharis macularius, embryos incubated at different temperatures clearly differ in the volume of brain nuclei that modulate behavior...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317125/referenceless-magnetic-resonance-temperature-imaging-using-gaussian-process-modeling
#8
Joshua P Yung, David Fuentes, Christopher J MacLellan, Florian Maier, Yannis Liapis, John D Hazle, R Jason Stafford
PURPOSE: During magnetic resonance (MR)-guided thermal therapies, water proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) based MR temperature imaging can quantitatively monitor tissue temperature changes. It is widely known that the PRFS technique is easily perturbed by tissue motion, tissue susceptibility changes, magnetic field drift, and modality-dependent applicator induced artifacts. Here a referenceless Gaussian process modeling (GPM) based estimation of the PRFS is investigated as a methodology to mitigate unwanted background field changes...
March 20, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314170/-pseudo-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-sign-on-early-brain-computed-tomography-in-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest-survivors-receiving-targeted-temperature-management
#9
Byung Kook Lee, Youn-Jung Kim, Seung Mok Ryoo, Su Jin Kim, Dong Hun Lee, Kyung Woon Jeung, Won Young Kim
PURPOSE: Newly updated guidelines suggest brain computed tomography for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest survivors to identify a neurologic cardiac arrest cause. We hypothesized that the "pseudo-subarachnoid hemorrhage" (p-SAH) sign in cardiac arrest survivors is associated with poor outcome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the registries of 2 tertiary hospitals, identifying 836 adult (≥18 years) patients achieving return of spontaneous circulation after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306631/thermoregulate-autoregulate-and-ventilate-brain-directed-critical-care-for-pediatric-cardiac-arrest
#10
Jonathan E Kurz, Craig M Smith, Mark S Wainwright
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cardiac arrest in childhood is associated with a high risk for mortality and poor long-term functional outcome. This review discusses the current evidence for neuroprotective therapies and goals for postarrest care in the context of the pathophysiology of hypoxic-ischemic injury, modalities for neurologic prognostication in these children and potential future monitoring paradigms for maximizing cerebral perfusion in the postarrest period. RECENT FINDINGS: The recent publication of the in-hospital and out-of-hospital Therapeutic Hypothermia After Cardiac Arrest trials demonstrated a lack of statistically significant benefit for the use of postarrest therapeutic hypothermia...
March 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298595/incubation-under-climate-warming-affects-learning-ability-and-survival-in-hatchling-lizards
#11
Buddhi Dayananda, Jonathan K Webb
Despite compelling evidence for substantial individual differences in cognitive performance, it is unclear whether cognitive ability influences fitness of wild animals. In many animals, environmental stressors experienced in utero can produce substantial variation in the cognitive abilities of offspring. In reptiles, incubation temperatures experienced by embryos can influence hatchling brain function and learning ability. Under climate warming, the eggs of some lizard species may experience higher temperatures, which could affect the cognitive abilities of hatchlings...
March 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294184/crystallization-and-hardening-of-poly-ethylene-co-vinyl-acetate-mouthguards-during-routine-use
#12
Ryoko Kuwahara, Ryotaro Tomita, Natsumi Ogawa, Kazunori Nakajima, Tomotaka Takeda, Hiroki Uehara, Takeshi Yamanobe
Mouthguards (MGs) made from poly(ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) are widely used in contact sports to prevent injuries such as breaking teeth and lip lacerations and to reduce brain concussion. However, the changes in morphology and the molecular mobility of EVA, which can affect its physical properties during practical usage, have not been precisely examined. Therefore, we attempted to determine the main factors which lead to changes in MG performance after one season of practical use by high school rugby players...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293389/exploring-the-effect-of-intravenous-lipid-emulsion-in-acute-methamphetamine-toxicity
#13
Ameneh Ghadiri, Leila Etemad, Mohammad Moshiri, Seyed Adel Moallem, Amir Hossein Jafarian, Farzin Hadizadeh, Mahmoud Seifi
OBJECTIVES: The increasing use of methamphetamine (METH) in the last decades has made it the second most abused drug. Advancs in the area of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) have led to its potential application in the treatment of poisoning. The present study aims to investigate the potential role of ILE as an antidote for acute METH poisoning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two groups of six male rats were treated by METH (45 mg/kg), intraperitoneally. Five to seven min later, they received an infusion of 18...
February 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291867/development-and-validation-of-a-brain-phantom-for-therapeutic-cooling-devices
#14
Ryan D M Packett, Philip Brown, Gautam S S Popli, F Scott Gayzik
Tissue cooling is a viable therapy for multiple conditions and injuries, and has been applied to the brain to treat epilepsy and concussions, leading to improved long-term outcomes. To facilitate the study of temperature reduction as a function of various cooling methods, a thermal brain phantom was developed and analyzed. The phantom is composed of a potassium-neutralized, superabsorbent co-polymer hydrogel. The phantom was tested in a series of cooling trials using a cooling block and 37 deg. water representing non-directional blood flow ranging up to 6 GPH, a physiologically representative range based on the prototype volume...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291783/oesophageal-heat-exchangers-with-a-diameter-of-11mm-or-14-7mm-are-equally-effective-and-safe-for-targeted-temperature-management
#15
Daniel C Schroeder, Maria Guschlbauer, Alexandra C Maul, Daniel A Cremer, Ingrid Becker, David de la Puente Bethencourt, Peter Paal, Stephan A Padosch, Wolfgang A Wetsch, Thorsten Annecke, Bernd W Böttiger, Anja Sterner-Kock, Holger Herff
BACKGROUND: Targeted temperature management (TTM) is widely used in critical care settings for conditions including hepatic encephalopathy, hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy, meningitis, myocardial infarction, paediatric cardiac arrest, spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, ischemic stroke and sepsis. Furthermore, TTM is a key treatment for patients after out-of-hospital cardiac-arrest (OHCA). However, the optimal cooling method, which is quick, safe and cost-effective still remains controversial...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285429/hypothermia-decreased-the-expression-of-heat-shock-proteins-in-neonatal-rat-model-of-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#16
Byong Sop Lee, Euiseok Jung, Yeonjoo Lee, Sung-Hoon Chung
Hypothermia (HT) is a well-established neuroprotective strategy against neonatal hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). The overexpression of heat shock proteins (HSP) has been shown to provide neuroprotection in animal models of stroke. We aimed to investigate the effect of HT on HSP70 and HSP27 expression in a neonatal rat model of HIE. Seven-day-old rat pups were exposed to hypoxia for 90 min to establish the Rice-Vannucci model and were assigned to the following four groups: hypoxic injury (HI)-normothermia (NT, 36 °C), HI-HT (30 °C), sham-NT, and sham-HT...
March 11, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282384/adaptation-of-a-to-i-rna-editing-in-drosophila
#17
Yuange Duan, Shengqian Dou, Shiqi Luo, Hong Zhang, Jian Lu
Adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing is hypothesized to facilitate adaptive evolution by expanding proteomic diversity through an epigenetic approach. However, it is challenging to provide evidences to support this hypothesis at the whole editome level. In this study, we systematically characterized 2,114 A-to-I RNA editing sites in female and male brains of D. melanogaster, and nearly half of these sites had events evolutionarily conserved across Drosophila species. We detected strong signatures of positive selection on the nonsynonymous editing sites in Drosophila brains, and the beneficial editing sites were significantly enriched in genes related to chemical and electrical neurotransmission...
March 10, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282326/effects-of-mental-fatigue-on-endurance-performance-in-the-heat
#18
Jeroen Van Cutsem, Kevin De Pauw, Luk Buyse, Samuele Marcora, Romain Meeusen, Bart Roelands
PURPOSE: Mental fatigue is a psychobiological state caused by prolonged periods of demanding cognitive activity and has been observed to decrease time-trial (TT) endurance performance by ~3,5% in normal ambient temperatures. Recently it has been suggested that heat may augment the negative effect of mental fatigue on cognitive performance, raising the question whether it may also amplify the effect of mental fatigue on TT-performance. METHODS: In 30 °C and 30% relative humidity, ten endurance-trained male athletes (Age: 22 ± 3 y; Wmax: 332 ± 41 W) completed two experimental conditions: intervention (I; 45-min Stroop task) and control (C; 45-min documentary)...
March 9, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281221/evidence-for-decreased-brain-parenchymal-volume-after-large-intracerebral-hemorrhages-a-potential-mechanism-limiting-intracranial-pressure-rises
#19
Michael R Williamson, Frederick Colbourne
Potentially fatal intracranial pressure (ICP) rises commonly occur after large intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH). We monitored ICP after infusing 100-160 μL of autologous blood (vs. 0 μL control) into the striatum of rats in order to test the validity of this common model with regard to ICP elevations. Other endpoints included body temperature, behavioral impairment, lesion volume, and edema. Also, we evaluated hippocampal CA1 sector and somatosensory cortical neuron morphology to assess whether global ischemic injury occurred...
March 9, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280965/radiosynthesis-and-first-in-human-pet-mri-evaluation-with-clinical-grade-18-f-ftc-146
#20
Bin Shen, Jun Hyung Park, Trine Hjørnevik, Peter W Cipriano, Daehyun Yoon, Praveen K Gulaka, Dawn Holly, Deepak Behera, Bonnie A Avery, Sanjiv S Gambhir, Christopher R McCurdy, Sandip Biswal, Frederick T Chin
PURPOSE: Sigma-1 receptors (S1Rs) play an important role in many neurological disorders. Simultaneous positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with S1R radioligands may provide valuable information for diagnosing and guiding treatment for these diseases. Our previously reported S1R radioligand, [(18)F]FTC-146, demonstrated high affinity for the S1R (K i = 0.0025 nM) and excellent selectivity for the S1R over the sigma-2 receptor (S2Rs; K i = 364 nM) across several species (from mouse to non-human primate)...
March 9, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
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