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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914800/effect-of-clotting-duration-and-temperature-on-bdnf-measurement-in-human-serum
#1
Patrizia Amadio, Leonardo Sandrini, Alessandro Ieraci, Elena Tremoli, Silvia Stella Barbieri
Brain-derived neurothrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin expressed in different tissues and cells, including neurons, endothelial cells, leukocytes, megakaryocytes and platelets. Modifications of BDNF in plasma and/or in serum are associated with neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic syndrome and with mortality risk. Indeed, changes in blood levels of BDNF may reflect those of its tissue of origin and/or promote pathological dysfunctions. The measurement of BDNF amount in plasma or in serum has been characterized with particular attention in the impact of different anti-coagulants, clotting duration, temperature (≤21 °C) and delay in blood sample centrifugation as well as in stability of storage...
September 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914739/hypothermic-neuroprotections-in-the-brain-of-an-echolocation-bat-hipposideros-terasensis
#2
Ching-Lung Lin, Chun-Jen Hsiao, Chih-Hsiang Hsu, Sheue-Er Wang, Philip H-S Jen, Chung-Hsin Wu
The present study aimed to investigate how bats protect their brain in a hypothermic situation. Formosan leaf-nosed bats (Hipposideros terasensis) were used in this study and treated under three conditions: room temperature (25±1°C), low temperature (4±1°C), and hibernation. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in the blood and apoptosis-related proteins in the brain tissue were assessed and then compared among those bats under three conditions. Our results showed that the blood ROS levels of bats treated under conditions of low temperature and hibernation were significantly reduced compared with bats treated under the condition of room temperature...
October 18, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913711/emergency-neurological-life-support-resuscitation-following-cardiac-arrest
#3
Jonathan Elmer, Kees H Polderman
Cardiac arrest is the most common cause of death in North America. An organized bundle of neurocritical care interventions can improve chances of survival and neurological recovery in patients who are successfully resuscitated from cardiac arrest. Therefore, resuscitation following cardiac arrest was chosen as an Emergency Neurological Life Support protocol. Key aspects of successful early post-arrest management include: prevention of secondary brain injury; identification of treatable causes of arrest in need of emergent intervention; and, delayed neurological prognostication...
September 14, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912456/physiological-activity-in-calm-thermal-indoor-environments
#4
Tsuyoshi Okamoto, Kaori Tamura, Naoyuki Miyamoto, Shogo Tanaka, Takaharu Futaeda
Indoor environmental comfort has previously been quantified based on the subjective assessment of thermal physical parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and airflow velocity. However, the relationship of these parameters to brain activity remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of airflow on brain activity using electroencephalograms (EEG) of participants in a living environment under different airflow conditions. Before the recording, the room was set to a standardised air temperature and humidity...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911239/controlled-release-of-liposome-encapsulated-temozolomide-for-brain-tumor-treatment-by-convection-enhanced-delivery
#5
Chung-Yin Lin, Rui-Jin Li, Chiung-Yin Huang, Kuo-Chen Wei, Pin-Yuan Chen
Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a promising technique for the delivery of drugs directly into the central nervous system (CNS) and, more specifically, the brain. CED can increase drug concentration within a brain tumor, thereby improving the therapeutic efficacy and limiting the systemic toxicity of tumoricidal agents. In this study, we evaluated a drug-liposome construct in vitro and in vivo using U87 tumor-bearing nude mice. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-based liposomes were designed to deliver a lipophilic temozolomide (TMZ) formulation (LipoTMZ)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910706/pharmacokinetics-and-tissue-distribution-of-five-major-triterpenoids-after-oral-administration-of-rhizoma-alismatis-extract-to-rats-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#6
Wen Xu, Xiaoyan Li, Na Lin, Xue Zhang, Xiaoqiang Huang, Tingting Wu, Yanni Tai, Shuyun Chen, Chieh-Hsi Wu, Mingqing Huang, Shuisheng Wu
Rhizoma Alismatis (RA) was wildly used for treatment of dysuria, pyelonephritis, hyperlipidemia, enteritis diarrhea, diabetes, inflammation, and cancer. Triterpenoids are the major active components of RA, and its extract is mainly composed of alisol A (ALA), alisol B (ALB), alisol C 23-acetate (ALC-23A), alisol A 24-acetate (ALA-24A), and alisol B 23-acetate (ALB-23A). In this study, a simple, reliable, and sensitive ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was created and validated for the quantification of the five major triterpenoids in rat plasma and various tissues biosamples (including intestine, stomach, liver, kidney, fat, muscle, brain, heart, lung, spleen, and testes)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903626/light-dominates-peripheral-circadian-oscillations-in-drosophila-melanogaster-during-sensory-conflict
#7
Ross E F Harper, Maite Ogueta, Peter Dayan, Ralf Stanewsky, Joerg T Albert
In Drosophila, as in other animals, the circadian clock is a singular entity in name and concept only. In reality, clock functions emerge from multiple processes and anatomical substrates. One distinction has conventionally been made between a central clock (in the brain) and peripheral clocks (e.g., in the gut and the eyes). Both types of clock generate robust circadian oscillations, which do not require external input. Furthermore, the phases of these oscillations remain exquisitely sensitive to specific environmental cues, such as the daily changes of light and temperature...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901713/neural-correlates-of-interoception-effects-of-interoceptive-focus-and-relationship-to-dimensional-measures-of-body-awareness
#8
Emily R Stern, Stephanie J Grimaldi, Alexandra Muratore, James Murrough, Evan Leibu, Lazar Fleysher, Wayne K Goodman, Katherine E Burdick
Interoception has been defined as the sensing of the physiological condition of the body, with interoceptive sensibility (IS) characterizing an individual's self-reported awareness of internal sensation. IS is a multidimensional construct including not only the tendency to be aware of sensation but also how sensations are interpreted, regulated, and used to inform behavior, with different dimensions relating to different aspects of health and disease. Here we investigated neural mechanisms of interoception when healthy individuals attended to their heartbeat and skin temperature, and examined the relationship between neural activity during interoception and individual differences in self-reported IS using the Multidimensional Scale of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA)...
September 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900235/neural-correlates-of-ambient-thermal-sensation-an-fmri-study
#9
Hajime Oi, Teruo Hashimoto, Takayuki Nozawa, Akitake Kanno, Natasha Kawata, Kanan Hirano, Yuki Yamamoto, Motoaki Sugiura, Ryuta Kawashima
An increasing number of biometeorological and psychological studies have demonstrated the importance and complexity of the processes involved in environmental thermal perception in humans. However, extant functional imaging data on thermal perception have yet to fully reveal the neural mechanisms underlying these processes because most studies were performed using local thermal stimulation and did not dissociate thermal sensation from comfort. Thus, for the first time, the present study employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and manipulated ambient temperature during brain measurement to independently explore the neural correlates of thermal sensation and comfort...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898645/sensory-neurobiology-wet-fly-fishing
#10
Elizabeth Marin, Marta Costa
A neuron responding to moist air and its ionotropic receptor have been identified in Drosophila melanogaster. Moreover, second-order neurons integrate temperature and humidity information before reaching higher brain centres.
September 11, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898421/tooth-bleaching-with-low-temperature-plasma-lowers-surface-roughness-and-streptococcus-mutans-adhesion
#11
S-H Nam, S-M Ok, G-C Kim
AIM: To evaluate the structural-morphological changes in enamel surface roughness and Streptococcus mutans adhesion after tooth bleaching using plasma in combination with a low concentration of 15% carbamide peroxide (CP). METHODOLOGYS: Sixty pairs of premolars were randomly assigned to the treatment groups (n = 30; buccal surface, Groups 1A/2A) or controls (n = 30; palatal surface, Groups 1B/2B). Group 1A received a low concentration of 15% CP and low-temperature plasma...
September 12, 2017: International Endodontic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895884/interaction-of-recombinant-gallus-gallus-sept5-and-brain-proteins-of-h5n1-avian-influenza-virus-infected-chickens
#12
Jasmine Elanie Khairat, Vinod Balasubramaniam, Iekhsan Othman, Abdul Rahman Omar, Sharifah Syed Hassan
Septin forms a conserved family of cytoskeletal guanosine triphosphate (GTP) binding proteins that have diverse roles in protein scaffolding, vesicle trafficking, and cytokinesis. The involvement of septins in infectious viral disease pathogenesis has been demonstrated by the upregulation of SEPT5 protein and its mRNA in brain tissues of H5N1-infected chickens, thus, providing evidence for the potential importance of this protein in the pathogenesis of neurovirulence caused by the avian influenza virus. In this study, cloning, expression, and purification of Gallus gallus SEPT5 protein was performed in Escherichia coli...
September 12, 2017: Proteomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889004/quantitative-vascular-neuroimaging-of-the-rat-brain-using-superparamagnetic-nanoparticles-new-insights-on-vascular-organization-and-brain-function
#13
Codi A Gharagouzloo, Liam Timms, Ju Qiao, Zihang Fang, Joseph Nneji, Aniket Pandya, Praveen Kulkarni, Anne L van de Ven, Craig Ferris, Srinivas Sridhar
A method called Quantitative Ultra-Short Time-to-Echo Contrast Enhanced (QUTE-CE) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which utilizes superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as a contrast agent to yield positive contrast angiograms with high clarity and definition is applied to the whole live rat brain. QUTE-CE MRI intensity data are particularly well suited for measuring quantitative cerebral blood volume (qCBV). A global map of qCBV in the awake resting-state with unprecedented detail was created via application of a 3D MRI rat brain atlas with 173 segmented and annotated brain areas...
September 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888435/resuscitation-and-growth-kinetics-of-sub-lethally-injured-listeria-monocytogenes-strains-following-fluorescence-activated-cell-sorting-facs
#14
Thulani Sibanda, Elna M Buys
This study investigated the effect of acid (pH4.2), osmotic (10% NaCl) and heat (55°C for 30min) stress induced injury on Listeria monocytogenes strains ATCC19115, 69, 159/10 and 243 using differential plating and flow cytometry coupled with membrane integrity indicators, thiazole orange (TO) and propidium iodide (PI) staining. Growth kinetics of injured cells sorted by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) were studied at 4, 25 and 37°C. The percentage of cell injury detectable by both flow cytometry and differential plating varied significantly among strains and stress treatments (p<0...
October 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887185/role-of-monoaminergic-systems-and-ambient-temperature-in-bath-salts-constituent-3-4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone-mdpv-elicited-hyperthermia-and-locomotor-stimulation-in-mice
#15
REVIEW
Brenda M Gannon, Adrian Williamson, Kenner C Rice, William E Fantegrossi
3,4-Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a common constituent of illicit bath salts products, and in vitro studies implicate monoamine transporters as mediators of its pharmacological effects. Locomotor and thermoregulatory effects of MDPV depend on ambient temperature, so the current studies aimed to gauge the involvement of dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and serotonin (5-HT) in MDPV-induced locomotor stimulation and hyperthermia in the mouse at different ambient temperatures. Mice were pretreated with the selective 5-HT-reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (3 mg/kg), the NE-reuptake inhibitor desipramine (3 mg/kg), the DA-reuptake inhibitor bupropion (10 mg/kg), or saline, followed by 10 mg/kg MDPV while thermoregulation and locomotor activity were monitored via radiotelemetry...
September 5, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884411/role-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-energy-metabolism
#16
REVIEW
William Gustavo Lima, Gleuber Henrique Marques-Oliveira, Thaís Marques da Silva, Valéria Ernestânia Chaves
PURPOSE: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide produced by alternative tissue-specific splicing of the primary transcript of the CALC genes. CGRP is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous system, as well as in several organs and tissues. The presence of CGRP in the liver and brown and white adipose tissue suggests an effect of this neuropeptide on regulation of energy homeostasis. METHODS: In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of the effect of CGRP on the control of energy metabolism, primarily focusing on food intake, thermoregulation and lipid metabolism in adipose tissue, liver and muscle...
September 7, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880154/micromagnetic-stimulation-of-the-mouse-auditory-cortex-in-vivo-using-an-implantable-solenoid-system
#17
Shunsuke Minusa, Hisayuki Osanai, Takashi Tateno
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have reported that micromagnetic stimulation (μMS), which can activate neural tissue and cells via sub-millimeter inductors, may address several limitations of conventional magnetic stimulation methods. Previous studies have examined the effects of μMS on single neurons, yet little is known about how μMS can affect brain tissue including local neural networks. Here, we propose a new, readily available implantable μMS system and computationally and experimentally evaluate its validity...
September 1, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873052/the-importance-of-holding-water-salinity-and-chemosensory-cues-affect-zebrafish-behavior
#18
Samantha Mahabir, Robert Gerlai
The zebrafish is becoming a popular model organism for studying numerous biological phenomena. Among these are brain function and behavior, including social behavior. Although usually neglected, few studies have already demonstrated that even trivial factors, such as features of the holding water may alter zebrafish behavior. In this study, we employed a 2 × 2 between-subject experimental design, exposing zebrafish to water of either high or low salinity and with chemosensory/olfactory cues of conspecifics either present or absent (while maintaining pH, temperature, nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia levels constant)...
September 5, 2017: Zebrafish
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867580/ethanol-potentiates-heat-response-in-the-carotid-artery-via-trpv1
#19
Seham Mustafa, Hishaam N Ismael
AIM: Ethanol is one of the most widely used recreational drugs in the world. At high concentrations, it can induce carotid artery vasoconstriction. Hyperthermia potentiates its effects resulting in carotid artery vasoconstriction at any concentration. The aim of this study is to investigate the interaction between ethanol and heating and to understand the underlying mechanisms leading to their synergistic effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Isometric tension of rabbit carotid artery ring segments suspended in organ baths filled with Krebs solution was recorded...
August 31, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864962/heat-stress-mortality-and-desired-adaptation-responses-of-healthcare-system-in-poland
#20
Anna Błażejczyk, Krzysztof Błażejczyk, Jarosław Baranowski, Magdalena Kuchcik
Heat stress is one of the environmental factors influencing the health of individuals and the wider population. There is a large body of research to document significant increases in mortality and morbidity during heat waves all over the world. This paper presents key results of research dealing with heat-related mortality (HRM) in various cities in Poland which cover about 25% of the country's population. Daily mortality and weather data reports for the years 1991-2000 were used. The intensity of heat stress was assessed by the universal thermal climate index (UTCI)...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
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