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Joshua P McClure, Kyle N Grew, David R Baker, Eric Gobrogge, Naresh Das, Deryn Chu
Plasmonic metal nanoparticles (NPs) extend the overall light absorption of semiconductor materials. However, it is not well understood how coupling metal NPs to semiconductors alters the photo-electrochemical activity of small molecule oxidation (SMO) reactions. Different photo-anode electrodes comprised of Au NPs and α-Fe2O3 are designed to elucidate how the coupling plays not only a role in the water oxidation reaction (WO) but also performs for different SMO reactions. In this regard, Au NPs are inserted at specific regions within and/or on α-Fe2O3 layers created with a sequential electron beam evaporation method and multiple annealing treatments...
April 17, 2018: Nanoscale
Yan-Ru Li, Chun-Sheng Fu, Wen-Jing Yang, Xiao-Ling Wang, Dan Feng, Xiao-Ning Wang, Dong-Mei Ren, Hong-Xiang Lou, Tao Shen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl has been used for the traditional medicine as a therapeutic agent of inflammation-related diseases, including sprains, rheumatic arthritis, abdominal pain, cough and bronchitis, for a long history. The aim of the present study was to illustrate anti-inflammatory substances of C. camphora and their mechanism of action, and to establish the correlations between chemical constituents and traditional uses of this plant. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chemical constituents were purified by chromatographic methods, and their structures were established based on spectroscopic analysis...
April 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yi Guo, Guochao Shi, Huanying Wan, Min Zhou
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a persistent airway inflammation influenced by cigarette smoke. Previous studies have reported that Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is aberrantly activated by cigarette smoke and dysregulated in COPD. The present study explored the role of the Hh signaling pathway on the expression levels of certain inflammatory mediators in cigarette‑induced airway inflammation. Herein, a total of three A549 cell populations were generated: The A0 group as control cells, the A1 group cells treated with nicotine at a concentration of 10 µM for 12, 24 and 48 h, and the A2 group cultured simultaneously with nicotine and cyclopamine for the same duration...
April 11, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Linqi Guo, Yu Zhou, Ying Chen, Huawei Sun, Yue Wang, Yikun Qu
Over the past decades, lncRNAs have attracted more and more attentions of researchers. It has been verified that lncRNAs can modulate multiple biological behaviors in various human cancers. LncRNA ASAP1-IT1 has been certified to be a tumor facilitator in several malignant tumors. This study aims to investigate the effects of dysregulated ASAP1-IT1 on biological processes of Cholangiocarcinoma. The high expression level of ASAP1-IT1 was tested in Cholangiocarcinoma tissues and cells with qRT-PCR. Upregulation of ASAP1-IT predicted the unfavorable prognosis for Cholangiocarcinoma patients...
April 10, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Juanjuan Qi, Ke Chen, Yi Xing, Hua Fan, Hewei Zhao, Jie Yang, Lidong Li, Bingyi Yan, Jing Zhou, Lin Guo, Shihe Yang
Currently, the development of semiconducting metal oxide (SMO)-based gas sensors with innovative modification and three-dimensional (3D) structural designs has become a significant scientific interest due to their potential for addressing key technological challenges. Herein, gas sensing devices based on the 3D hierarchical monoclinic-type structural Sb-doped WO3 (HMSW) gas sensing material were successfully constructed by ordered assembly of urchin-like monoclinic-type structural (P2/m) Sb-doped WO2.72 (W18O49) (UMSW) nanocrystals and nanowires...
April 12, 2018: Nanoscale
He-Jing Bao, Shu-Dong Ma
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regulatory role of classical Shh signaling pathway in the development of the epithelium and mesenchyme (bronchial cartilage and smooth muscles) during lung development in fetal mice. METHODS: Immunohistochemical technique was used to detect the expression of Shh signaling pathway receptor Smo and Pdgfr-α in murine fetal lungs to explore the spatial and temporal characteristics of their expression. Based on the interstitial specificity of Pdgfr-α expression, we constructed a Pdgfr-α-cre to establish a E12...
March 20, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Zhaodi Wang, Menghan Hu, Guangtao Zhai
Deep learning has become a widely used powerful tool in many research fields, although not much so yet in agriculture technologies. In this work, two deep convolutional neural networks (CNN), viz. Residual Network (ResNet) and its improved version named ResNeXt, are used to detect internal mechanical damage of blueberries using hyperspectral transmittance data. The original structure and size of hypercubes are adapted for the deep CNN training. To ensure that the models are applicable to hypercube, we adjust the number of filters in the convolutional layers...
April 7, 2018: Sensors
Michel Oelschlägel, Juliane Zimmerling, Dirk Tischler
Styrene is one of the most produced and processed chemicals worldwide and is released into the environment during widespread processing. But, it is also produced from plants and microorganisms. The natural occurrence of styrene led to several microbiological strategies to form and also to degrade styrene. One pathway designated as side-chain oxygenation has been reported as a specific route for the styrene degradation among microorganisms. It comprises the following enzymes: styrene monooxygenase (SMO; NADH-consuming and FAD-dependent, two-component system), styrene oxide isomerase (SOI; cofactor independent, membrane-bound protein) and phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (PAD; NAD+ -consuming) and allows an intrinsic cofactor regeneration...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Peresi Majura Bulemo, Hee-Jin Cho, Dong-Ha Kim, Il-Doo Kim
Whereas single-nozzle electrospraying seems a versatile technique in synthesis of spherical semiconducting metal oxide (SMO) structures, the synthesized structures find limited use in gas-sensing applications due to their thick and dense morphology, which minimizes accessibility of their inner surfaces. Herein, unprecedented spherical SiO2 @SnO2 core-shell structures are synthesized upon calcination of single-nozzle as-electrosprayed spheres (SPs) containing tin (Sn) and silicon (Si) precursors. Subsequent etching of SiO2 in NaOH (pH 12) affords meso/macroporous SnO2 hollow spheres (HSPs) with short diffusion length (31...
April 2, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wenya Linda Bi, Vikram C Prabhu, Ian F Dunn
The epochal developments in the treatment of meningioma-microsurgery, skull base techniques, and radiation therapy-will be appended to include the rational application of targeted and immune therapeutics, previously ill-fitting concepts for a tumor that has traditionally been a regarded as a surgical disease. The genomic and immunological architecture of these tumors continues to be defined in ever-greater detail. Grade I meningiomas are driven by NF2 alterations or mutations in AKT1, SMO, TRAF7, PIK3CA, KLF4, POLR2A, SUFU, and SMARCB1...
April 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
Sabina Podlewska, Rafał Kafel
Metabolic stability is an important parameter to be optimized during the complex process of designing new active compounds. Tuning this parameter with the simultaneous maintenance of a desired compound's activity is not an easy task due to the extreme complexity of metabolic pathways in living organisms. In this study, the platform for in silico qualitative evaluation of metabolic stability, expressed as half-lifetime and clearance was developed. The platform is based on the application of machine learning methods and separate models for human, rat and mouse data were constructed...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ekaterina Revenkova, Qing Liu, G Luca Gusella, Carlo Iomini
Cilia-mediated signal transduction involves precise targeting and localization of selected molecules along the ciliary membrane. However, the molecular mechanism underlying these events is unclear. The Joubert syndrome protein ARL13B is a membrane-associated G-protein that localizes along the cilium and functions in protein transport and signaling. We identify tubulin as a direct interactor of ARL13B and demonstrate that the association occurs via the G-domain and independently from ARL13B's GTPase activity...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Rafael Kramann, Rebekka K Schneider
Myofibroblasts are fibrosis-driving cells and well characterized in solid organ fibrosis but their role and cellular origin in bone marrow fibrosis remained obscure. Recent work has demonstrated that Gli1+ and LepR+ mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) are progenitors of fibrosis-causing myofibroblasts in the bone marrow. Genetic ablation of Gli1+ MSC or pharmacological targeting Hedghog-Gli signaling ameliorated fibrosis in mouse models of myelofibrosis (MF). Moreover, pharmacologic or genetic intervention in platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha ( Pdgfra ) signaling in Lepr + stromal cells suppressed their expansion and ameliorated MF...
March 23, 2018: Blood
Eduardo D Gigante, Alyssa Bushey Long, Johanna Ben-Ami, Tamara Caspary
Smoothened (Smo) is the essential transducer of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling, which regulates cell fate and proliferation during embryogenesis. We identified a novel mouse mutant, cabbie (cbb), and found that its cause is a missense mutation in Smo. We showed the Smocbb mutation is insensitive to the Shh agonist SAG, perhaps due to the disruption of SAG binding. We characterized Smocbb for defects in craniofacial and skeletal development, as well as neural tube patterning, and revealed Smocbb affected processes that require the highest levels of Shh activity...
March 20, 2018: Developmental Biology
Andrey Korshunov, Felix Sahm, Damian Stichel, Daniel Schrimpf, Marina Ryzhova, Olga Zheludkova, Andrey Golanov, Peter Lichter, David T W Jones, Andreas von Deimling, Stefan M Pfister, Marcel Kool
Medulloblastoma with extensive nodularity (MBEN) is a rare histological variant of medulloblastoma (MB). These tumors are usually occurring in the first 3 years of life and are associated with good prognosis. Molecular analyses of MBEN, mostly limited to single cases or small series, have shown that they always classify as sonic hedgehog (SHH)-driven MB. Here, we have analyzed 25 MBEN through genome-wide DNA methylation, copy-number profiling and targeted next-generation sequencing. Results of these analyses were compared with molecular profiles of other SHH MB histological variants...
March 22, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Ana Maria Hoyos Cadavid, E Kaminagakura, M F S D Rodrigues, C A L Pinto, T H N Teshima, F A Alves
AIMS: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and demographic features of 62 patients presenting sporadic odontogenic keratocysts (OKCs) or OKCs associated with nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS). In conjunction with this, we also evaluated the immunohistochemical expression of Shh, Ptch1, Ptch2, Smo, Gli1, Gli2 and Gli3 proteins in 86 OKCs. By doing this, we add to the understanding of the biology of this type of lesion, providing tools that will help facilitate the early diagnosis of NBCCS in those patients where the first manifestation is that of OKCs...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Xueling Song, Liying Yan, Cuiling Lu, Chunyu Zhang, Fuli Zhu, Jingjing Yang, Hongyan Jing, Yang Zhang, Jie Qiao, Hongyan Guo
Few studies have evaluated Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway activation in different types of ovarian tumors including benign, borderline and malignant ovarian tumors. The present study investigated the expression of Hh signaling pathway components (SHH, SMO, PTCH, and GLI1) in 193 ovarian epithelial tumor specimens (including 147 malignant epithelial ovarian cancers, 30 borderline ovarian tumors, 16 benign ovarian epithelial tumors) and 11 normal ovarian epithelial tissues by immunohistochemistry. The results demonstrated widespread expression of Hh pathway molecules in ovarian tumors...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Arianna L Kim, Jung Ho Back, Sandeep C Chaudhary, Yucui Zhu, Mohammad Athar, David R Bickers
Currently available SMO targeted therapies in patients with basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS) are associated with substantial tumor recurrence and clinical resistance. Strategies bypassing SMO and/or identifying additional downstream components of the Hedgehog (Hh) pathway could provide novel anti-tumor targets with a better therapeutic index. SOX9 is a Hh/GLI-regulated transcription factor known to be overexpressed in BCCs. A sequence motif search for SOX9-responsive elements identified three motifs in the promoter region of mTOR...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Thibaut Eguether, Fabrice P Cordelieres, Gregory J Pazour
The vertebrate hedgehog pathway is organized in primary cilia and hedgehog components relocate into or out of cilia during signaling. Defects in intraflagellar transport (IFT) typically disrupt ciliary assembly and attenuate hedgehog signaling. Determining if IFT drives the movement of hedgehog components is difficult due to the requirement of IFT for building cilia. Unlike most IFT proteins, IFT27 is dispensable for cilia formation but affects hedgehog signaling similar to other IFTs allowing us to examine its role in the dynamics of signaling...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Kirti K Chahal, Milind Parle, Ruben Abagyan
The hedgehog (Hh) pathway plays an important role in cancer development and maintenance, as ~25% of all cancers have aberrant Hh pathway activation. Targeted therapy for inhibition of the Hh pathway was thought to be promising for achieving clinical response in the Hh-dependent cancers. However, the results of new clinical trials with smoothened (SMO) antagonists do not show much success in cancers other than basal cell carcinoma. The studies suggest that the Hh pathway involves multiple mechanisms of activation or inhibition in primary cilia and interactions between several related pathways in different types of cells, which makes this pathway extremely complex...
March 13, 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
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