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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647618/genetic-and-ecological-processes-promoting-early-diversification-in-the-lowland-mesoamerican-bat-sturnira-parvidens-chiroptera-phyllostomidae
#1
Giovani Hernández-Canchola, Livia León-Paniagua
With 22 species, Sturnira is the most speciose genus of frugivorous Neotropical bats. Sturnira parvidens inhabits lowland tropical areas from Mexico to Central America. The elevation of this taxon to species level was recent, and discrepancies with respect to its geographic limits and phylogenetic position continue to exist. In order to identify genetic and ecological processes likely involved in the diversification and current distribution of S. parvidens, we evaluated relationships, researched phylogeographic and demographic history, and tested the divergence/conservatism of the climatic niche of this bat...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645168/genomic-reconstruction-of-the-history-of-native-sheep-reveals-the-peopling-patterns-of-nomads-and-the-expansion-of-early-pastoralism-in-east-asia
#2
Yong-Xin Zhao, Ji Yang, Feng-Hua Lv, Xiao-Ju Hu, Xing-Long Xie, Min Zhang, Wen-Rong Li, Ming-Jun Liu, Yu-Tao Wang, Jin-Quan Li, Yong-Gang Liu, Yan-Ling Ren, Feng Wang, EEr Hehua, Juha Kantanen, Johannes Arjen Lenstra, Jian-Lin Han, Meng-Hua Li
China has a rich resource of native sheep (Ovis aries) breeds associated with historical movements of several nomadic societies. However, the history of sheep and the associated nomadic societies in ancient China remains poorly understood. Here, we studied the genomic diversity of Chinese sheep using genome-wide SNPs, mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal variations in more than 1,000 modern samples. Population genomic analyses combined with archaeological records and historical ethnic demographics data revealed genetic signatures of their origins, secondary expansions and admixtures, thereby revealing the peopling patterns of nomads and the expansion of early pastoralism in East Asia...
June 22, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643450/scpp-genes-and-their-relatives-in-gar-rapid-expansion-of-mineralization-genes-in-osteichthyans
#3
Kazuhiko Kawasaki, Masato Mikami, Mitsushiro Nakatomi, Ingo Braasch, Peter Batzel, John H Postlethwait, Akie Sato, Ichiro Sasagawa, Mikio Ishiyama
Gar is an actinopterygian that has bone, dentin, enameloid, and ganoin (enamel) in teeth and/or scales. Mineralization of these tissues involves genes encoding various secretory calcium-binding phosphoproteins (SCPPs) in osteichthyans, but no SCPP genes have been identified in chondrichthyans to date. In the gar genome, we identified 38 SCPP genes, seven of which encode "acidic-residue-rich" proteins and 31 encode "Pro/Gln (P/Q) rich" proteins. These gar SCPP genes constitute the largest known repertoire, including many newly identified P/Q-rich genes expressed in teeth and/or scales...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642469/tracing-the-epidemic-history-of-hiv-1-crf01_ae-clusters-using-near-complete-genome-sequences
#4
Xingguang Li, Haizhou Liu, Lu Liu, Yi Feng, Marcia L Kalish, Simon Y W Ho, Yiming Shao
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has a number of circulating recombinant forms that are the product of recombination between different HIV subtypes. The first circulating recombinant form of HIV-1 to be identified was CRF01_AE, which originated in Central Africa and is now most prevalent in Southeast and East Asia. In this study, we investigated the timescale, evolutionary history, and population genetics of the HIV-1 CRF01_AE strains primarily responsible for the epidemic in Asia. A further aim of our study was to define and standardize the nomenclature and provide well-characterized reference sequences for the phylogenetic transmission clusters of CRF01_AE...
June 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642336/the-evolving-genetic-risk-for-sporadic-als
#5
Summer B Gibson, Jonathan M Downie, Spyridoula Tsetsou, Julie E Feusier, Karla P Figueroa, Mark B Bromberg, Lynn B Jorde, Stefan M Pulst
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the genetic risk conferred by known amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-associated genes to the pathogenesis of sporadic ALS (SALS) using variant allele frequencies combined with predicted variant pathogenicity. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing and repeat expansion PCR of C9orf72 and ATXN2 were performed on 87 patients of European ancestry with SALS seen at the University of Utah. DNA variants that change the protein coding sequence of 31 ALS-associated genes were annotated to determine which were rare and deleterious as predicted by MetaSVM...
June 22, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642124/identification-of-genetic-variants-associated-with-huntington-s-disease-progression-a-genome-wide-association-study
#6
Davina J Hensman Moss, Antonio F Pardiñas, Douglas Langbehn, Kitty Lo, Blair R Leavitt, Raymund Roos, Alexandra Durr, Simon Mead, Peter Holmans, Lesley Jones, Sarah J Tabrizi
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the huntingtin gene, HTT. Age at onset has been used as a quantitative phenotype in genetic analysis looking for Huntington's disease modifiers, but is hard to define and not always available. Therefore, we aimed to generate a novel measure of disease progression and to identify genetic markers associated with this progression measure. METHODS: We generated a progression score on the basis of principal component analysis of prospectively acquired longitudinal changes in motor, cognitive, and imaging measures in the 218 indivduals in the TRACK-HD cohort of Huntington's disease gene mutation carriers (data collected 2008-11)...
June 19, 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641575/phylogenetic-and-paleobotanical-evidence-for-late-miocene-diversification-of-the-tertiary-subtropical-lineage-of-ivies-hedera-l-araliaceae
#7
V Valcárcel, B Guzmán, N G Medina, P Vargas, J Wen
BACKGROUND: Hedera (ivies) is one of the few temperate genera of the primarily tropical Asian Palmate group of the Araliaceae, which extends its range out of Asia to Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic results suggested Asia as the center of origin and the western Mediterranean region as one of the secondary centers of diversification. The bird-dispersed fleshy fruits of ivies suggest frequent dispersal over long distances (e.g. Macaronesian archipelagos), although reducing the impact of geographic barriers to gene flow in mainland species...
June 22, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641519/neural-stem-cells-and-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-model-rare-cns-diseases
#8
Lidia De Filippis, Cristina Zalfa, Daniela Ferrari
Despite the great effort spent over the last decades to unravel the pathological mechanisms underpinning the development of central nervous system disorders, most of them remain still unclear. In particular, the study of rare brain diseases is hurdled by the lack of post-mortem samples and of reliable epidemiological studies, thus the setting of in vitro modeling systems appears essential to dissect the puzzle of genetic and environmental alterations affecting neural cells viability and functionality The isolation and expansion in vitro of embryonic (ESC) and fetal neural stem cells (NSC) from human tissue has efficiently allowed to model several neurological diseases "in a dish" and has also provided a novel platform to test potential therapeutic strategies in a pre-clinical setting...
June 15, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641115/feature-integration-drives-probabilistic-behavior-in-the-drosophila-escape-response
#9
Catherine R von Reyn, Aljoscha Nern, W Ryan Williamson, Patrick Breads, Ming Wu, Shigehiro Namiki, Gwyneth M Card
Animals rely on dedicated sensory circuits to extract and encode environmental features. How individual neurons integrate and translate these features into behavioral responses remains a major question. Here, we identify a visual projection neuron type that conveys predator approach information to the Drosophila giant fiber (GF) escape circuit. Genetic removal of this input during looming stimuli reveals that it encodes angular expansion velocity, whereas other input cell type(s) encode angular size. Motor program selection and timing emerge from linear integration of these two features within the GF...
June 21, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640866/diet-induced-adipose-tissue-expansion-is-mitigated-in-mice-with-a-targeted-inactivation-of-mesoderm-specific-transcript-mest
#10
Rea P Anunciado-Koza, Justin Manuel, Randall L Mynatt, Jingying Zhang, Leslie P Kozak, Robert A Koza
Interindividual variation of white adipose tissue (WAT) expression of mesoderm specific transcript (Mest), a paternally-expressed imprinted gene belonging to the α/β-hydrolase fold protein family, becomes apparent among genetically inbred mice fed high fat diet (HFD) and is positively associated with adipose tissue expansion (ATE). To elucidate a role for MEST in ATE, mice were developed with global and adipose tissue inactivation of Mest. Mice with homozygous (MestgKO) and paternal allelic (MestpKO) inactivation of Mest were born at expected Mendelian frequencies, showed no behavioral or physical abnormalities, and did not perturb expression of the Mest locus-derived microRNA miR-335...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639748/expansion-of-the-phenotype-of-kosaki-overgrowth-syndrome
#11
Mari Minatogawa, Toshiki Takenouchi, Yu Tsuyusaki, Fuminori Iwasaki, Tomoko Uenara, Kenji Kurosawa, Kenjiro Kosaki, Cynthia J Curry
Skeletal overgrowth is a characteristic of several genetic disorders that are linked to specific molecular signaling cascades. Recently, we established a novel overgrowth syndrome (Kosaki overgrowth syndrome, OMIM #616592) arising from a de novo mutation in PDGFRB, that is, c.1751C>G p.(Pro584Arg). Subsequently, other investigators provided in vitro molecular evidence that this specific mutation in the juxtamembrane domain of PDGFRB causes an overgrowth phenotype and is the first gain-of-function point mutation of PDGFRB to be reported in humans...
June 22, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639691/distinct-controls-of-leaf-widening-and-elongation-by-light-and-evaporative-demand-in-maize
#12
Sebastien Lacube, Christian Fournier, Carine Palaffre, Emilie J Millet, François Tardieu, Boris Parent
Leaf expansion depends on both carbon and water availabilities. In cereals, most of experimental effort has focused on leaf elongation, with essentially hydraulic effects. We have tested if evaporative demand and light could have distinct effects on leaf elongation and widening, and if short term effects could translate into final leaf dimensions. For that, we have monitored leaf widening and elongation in a field experiment with temporary shading, and in a platform experiment with 15-min temporal resolution and contrasting evaporative demands...
June 22, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639466/genetic-characterization-of-sarcoptes-scabiei-from-black-bears-ursus-americanus-and-other-hosts-in-eastern-united-states
#13
Sarah Peltier, Justin D Brown, Mark Ternent, Kevin D Niedringhaus, Krysten Schuler, Elizabeth Bunting, Megan Kirchgessner, Michael John Yabsley
Since the early 1990s there has been an increase in the number of cases and geographic expansion of severe mange in the black bear (Ursus americanus) population in Pennsylvania. Although there are 3 species of mites associated with mange in bears, Sarcoptes scabiei has been identified as the etiologic agent in these Pennsylvania cases. Historically S. scabiei-associated mange in bears has been uncommon and sporadic although it is widespread and relatively common in canid populations. To better understand this recent emergence of sarcoptic mange in bears in Pennsylvania and nearby states, we genetically characterized S...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638142/inter-generational-instability-of-inserted-repeats-during-transmission-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-31
#14
Kunihiro Yoshida, Akira Matsushima, Katsuya Nakamura
The causative mutation for spinocerebellar ataxia type 31 (SCA31) is an intronic insertion containing pathogenic pentanucleotide repeats, (TGGAA)n. We examined to what degree the inserted repeats were unstable during transmission. In 14 parent-child pairs, the average change of onset age was -6.4±7.3 years (mean±s.d.) in the child generation when compared with the parent generation. Of the 11 pairs analyzed, six showed expansion of inserted repeat length during transmission, and five showed contraction. On average, the inserted repeats expanded by 12...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637851/island-rule-quantitative-genetics-and-brain-body-size-evolution-in-homo-floresiensis
#15
José Alexandre Felizola Diniz-Filho, Pasquale Raia
Colonization of islands often activate a complex chain of adaptive events that, over a relatively short evolutionary time, may drive strong shifts in body size, a pattern known as the Island Rule. It is arguably difficult to perform a direct analysis of the natural selection forces behind such a change in body size. Here, we used quantitative evolutionary genetic models, coupled with simulations and pattern-oriented modelling, to analyse the evolution of brain and body size in Homo floresiensis, a diminutive hominin species that appeared around 700 kya and survived up to relatively recent times (60-90 kya) on Flores Island, Indonesia...
June 28, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637806/the-pneumococcal-serotype-15c-capsule-is-partially-o-acetylated-and-allows-for-limited-evasion-of-ppv23-elicited-anti-serotype-15b-antibodies
#16
Brady L Spencer, Anukul T Shenoy, Carlos J Orihuela, Moon H Nahm
As a species, Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) utilizes a diverse array of capsular polysaccharides to evade the host. In contrast to large variations in sugar composition and linkage formation, O-acetylation is a subtle capsular modification that nonetheless has a large impact on capsular shielding and recognition of the capsule by vaccine-elicited antibodies. Serotype 15B, which is included in the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23), encodes the putative O-acetyltransferase gene wciZ...
June 21, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637425/the-colonization-and-divergence-patterns-of-brandt-s-vole-lasiopodomys-brandtii-populations-reveal-evidence-of-genetic-surfing
#17
Ke Li, Michael H Kohn, Songmei Zhang, Xinrong Wan, Dazhao Shi, Deng Wang
BACKGROUND: The colonial habit of Brandt's vole (Lasiopodomys brandtii) differs from that of most other species of the genus Microtus. The demographic history of this species and the patterns shaping its current genetic structure remain unknown. Here, we explored patterns of genetic differentiation and infered the demographic history of Brandt's vole populations through analyses of nuclear microsatellite and D-loop sequences. RESULTS: Phylogenetic analyses divided the sampled populations into three main clusters, which represent the southeastern, northeastern and western parts of the total range in Mongolia and China...
June 21, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637406/socioeconomic-status-the-missing-link-between-obesity-and-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Alexei Volaco, Ana Maria Cavalcanti, Roberto Pecoits Filho, Dalton Bertolim Précoma
BACKGROUND: Currently, there is an epidemic expansion of the obesity rates worldwide. The increasing number of obese individuals associated with the aging of population leads to increasing number of individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at the same rate. The traditional factors that link obesity to T2DM are related to genetics, hypercaloric diet, sedentary lifestyle, and stress. Individuals from lower socioeconomic status (SES) have restricted autonomy and opportunities that could lead to more stress and consequently increase in stress hormones, such as cortisol, catecholamines, glucagon, and growth hormone, which might ultimately change fat deposition, increasing visceral fat and increasing the risk of T2DM mellitus development...
June 21, 2017: Current Diabetes Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636804/new-insights-into-global-biogeography-population-structure-and-natural-selection-from-the-genome-of-the-epipelagic-copepod-oithona
#19
Mohammed-Amin Madoui, Julie Poulain, Kevin Sugier, Marc Wessner, Benjamin Noel, Leo Berline, Karine Labadie, Astrid Cornils, Leocadio Blanco-Bercial, Lars Stemmann, Jean-Louis Jamet, Patrick Wincker
In the epipelagic ocean the genus Oithona is considered as one of the most abundant and widespread copepods and plays an important role in the trophic food web. Despite its ecological importance, little is known about the Oithona and cyclopoid copepods genomics. Therefore, we sequenced, assembled and annotated the genome of Oithona nana. The comparative genomic analysis integrating available copepod genomes highlighted the expansions of genes related to stress response, cell differentiation, and development, including genes coding Lin12-Notch-Repeat (LNR) domain proteins...
June 21, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635966/testing-models-of-refugial-isolation-colonization-and-population-connectivity-in-two-species-of-montane-salamanders
#20
S M Rovito, S D Schoville
Pleistocene glaciations have profoundly affected patterns of genetic diversity within many species. Temperate alpine organisms likely experienced dramatic range shifts, given that much of their habitat was glaciated during this time. While the effects of glaciations are relatively well understood, the spatial locations of refugia and processes that gave rise to current patterns of diversity are less well known. We use a microsatellite data set to test hypotheses of population connectivity and refugial isolation in the web-toed salamanders (Hydromantes) of the Sierra Nevada...
June 21, 2017: Heredity
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