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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326185/dna-informed-breeding-of-rosaceous-crops-promises-progress-and-prospects
#1
REVIEW
Cameron P Peace
Crops of the Rosaceae family provide valuable contributions to rural economies and human health and enjoyment. Sustained solutions to production challenges and market demands can be met with genetically improved new cultivars. Traditional rosaceous crop breeding is expensive and time-consuming and would benefit from improvements in efficiency and accuracy. Use of DNA information is becoming conventional in rosaceous crop breeding, contributing to many decisions and operations, but only after past decades of solved challenges and generation of sufficient resources...
2017: Horticulture Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325060/hiv-1-genetic-diversity-in-northeastern-brazil-high-prevalence-of-non-b-subtypes
#2
Edson Delatorre, José C Couto-Fernandez, Gonzalo Bello
The Northeastern Brazilian region has experienced a constant increase in the number of newly reported AIDS cases over the last decade, but the genetic diversity of HIV-1 strains currently disseminated in this region remains poorly explored. HIV-1 pol sequences were obtained from 140 patients followed at outpatient clinics from four Northeastern Brazilian states (Alagoas, Bahia, Ceará and Piauí) between 2014 and 2015. Subtype B was the most prevalent HIV-1 clade (72%) detected in the Northeastern region, followed by subtypes F1 (6%), C (5%) and D (1%)...
March 22, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324636/dual-genetic-code-expansion-through-a-mix-and-match-of-cell-lysates
#3
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323903/global-potential-distribution-of-drosophila-suzukii-diptera-drosophilidae
#4
Luana A Dos Santos, Mayara F Mendes, Alexandra P Krüger, Monica L Blauth, Marco S Gottschalk, Flávio R M Garcia
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is a species native to Western Asia that is able to pierce intact fruit during egg laying, causing it to be considered a fruit crop pest in many countries. Drosophila suzukii have a rapid expansion worldwide; occurrences were recorded in North America and Europe in 2008, and South America in 2013. Due to this rapid expansion, we modeled the potential distribution of this species using the Maximum Entropy Modeling (MaxEnt) algorithm and the Genetic Algorithm for Ruleset Production (GARP) using 407 sites with known occurrences worldwide and 11 predictor variables...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323071/the-central-role-of-trna-in-genetic-code-expansion
#5
REVIEW
Noah M Reynolds, Oscar Vargas-Rodriguez, Dieter Söll, Ana Crnković
BACKGROUND: The development of orthogonal translation systems (OTSs) for genetic code expansion (GCE) has allowed for the incorporation of a diverse array of non-canonical amino acids (ncAA) into proteins. Transfer RNA, the central molecule in the translation of the genetic message into proteins, plays a significant role in the efficiency of ncAA incorporation. SCOPE OF REVIEW: Here we review the biochemical basis of OTSs for genetic code expansion. We focus on the role of tRNA and discuss strategies used to engineer tRNA for the improvement of ncAA incorporation into proteins...
March 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322871/recurrent-emergence-of-structural-variants-of-ltr-retrotransposon-csrn1-evolving-novel-expression-strategy-and-their-selective-expansion-in-a-carcinogenic-liver-fluke-clonorchis-sinensis
#6
Seon-Hee Kim, Yoon Kong, Young-An Bae
Autonomous retrotransposons, in which replication and transcription are coupled, encode the essential gag and pol genes as a fusion or separate overlapping form(s) that are expressed in single transcripts regulated by a common upstream promoter. The element-specific expression strategies have driven development of relevant translational recoding mechanisms including ribosomal frameshifting to satisfy the protein stoichiometry critical for the assembly of infectious virus-like particles. Retrotransposons with different recoding strategies exhibit a mosaic distribution pattern across the diverse families of reverse transcribing elements, even though their respective distributions are substantially skewed towards certain family groups...
March 16, 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320191/c9orf72-hexanucleotide-repeat-expansions-are-not-a-common-cause-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#7
Karissa C Arthur, Alberto M Rivera, Jack Samuels, Ying Wang, Marco Grados, Fernando S Goes, Brion Maher, Gerald Nestadt, Bryan J Traynor
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a polygenic neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by repetitive thoughts and behaviors that cause distress. The pathogenic repeat expansion [GGGGCC]n found at the C9orf72 locus is the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and has also been documented in patients with psychosis and schizophrenia. Furthermore, obsessions and compulsions have been identified in patients diagnosed with ALS and/or FTD and carrying the pathogenic repeat expansion...
April 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319737/relationship-between-c9orf72-repeat-size-and-clinical-phenotype
#8
REVIEW
Sara Van Mossevelde, Julie van der Zee, Marc Cruts, Christine Van Broeckhoven
Patient carriers of a C9orf72 repeat expansion exhibit remarkable heterogeneous clinical and pathological characteristics suggesting the presence of modifying factors. In accordance with other repeat expansion diseases, repeat length is the prime candidate as a genetic modifier. Observations of earlier onset ages in younger generations of large families suggested a mechanism of disease anticipation. Yet, studies of repeat size and onset age have led to conflicting results. Also, the correlation between repeat size and diagnosis is poorly understood...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319089/natural-variation-at-the-soybean-j-locus-improves-adaptation-to-the-tropics-and-enhances-yield
#9
Sijia Lu, Xiaohui Zhao, Yilong Hu, Shulin Liu, Haiyang Nan, Xiaoming Li, Chao Fang, Dong Cao, Xinyi Shi, Lingping Kong, Tong Su, Fengge Zhang, Shichen Li, Zheng Wang, Xiaohui Yuan, Elroy R Cober, James L Weller, Baohui Liu, Xingliang Hou, Zhixi Tian, Fanjiang Kong
Soybean is a major legume crop originating in temperate regions, and photoperiod responsiveness is a key factor in its latitudinal adaptation. Varieties from temperate regions introduced to lower latitudes mature early and have extremely low grain yields. Introduction of the long-juvenile (LJ) trait extends the vegetative phase and improves yield under short-day conditions, thereby enabling expansion of cultivation in tropical regions. Here we report the cloning and characterization of J, the major classical locus conferring the LJ trait, and identify J as the ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana EARLY FLOWERING 3 (ELF3)...
March 20, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303732/mitochondrial-dna-sequence-variation-in-iranian-native-dogs
#10
Zeinab Amiri Ghanatsaman, Adeniyi C Adeola, Masood Asadi Fozi, Ya-Ping Ma, Min-Sheng Peng, Guo-Dong Wang, Ali Esmailizadeh, Ya-Ping Zhang
The dog mtDNA diversity picture from wide geographical sampling but from a small number of individuals per region or breed, displayed little geographical correlation and high degree of haplotype sharing between very distant breeds. For a clear picture, we extensively surveyed Iranian native dogs (n = 305) in comparison with published European (n = 443) and Southwest Asian (n = 195) dogs. Twelve haplotypes related to haplogroups A, B and C were shared by Iranian, European, Southwest Asian and East Asian dogs...
March 17, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303189/islands-within-an-island-population-genetic-structure-of-the-endemic-sardinian-newt-euproctus-platycephalus
#11
Sarah E Ball, Stefano Bovero, Giuseppe Sotgiu, Giulia Tessa, Claudio Angelini, Jon Bielby, Christopher Durrant, Marco Favelli, Enrico Gazzaniga, Trenton W J Garner
The identification of historic and contemporary barriers to dispersal is central to the conservation of endangered amphibians, but may be hindered by their complex life history and elusive nature. The complementary information generated by mitochondrial (mtDNA) and microsatellite markers generates a valuable tool in elucidating population structure and the impact of habitat fragmentation. We applied this approach to the study of an endangered montane newt, Euproctus platycephalus. Endemic to the Mediterranean island of Sardinia, it is threatened by anthropogenic activity, disease, and climate change...
February 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303146/an-assessment-of-genetic-diversity-and-drought-tolerance-in-argan-tree-argania-spinosa-populations-potential-for-the-development-of-improved-drought-tolerance
#12
Abdelghani Chakhchar, Matthew Haworth, Cherkaoui El Modafar, Marco Lauteri, Claudia Mattioni, Said Wahbi, Mauro Centritto
The argan tree (Argania spinosa) occurs in a restricted area of Southwestern Morocco characterized by low water availability and high evapotranspirative demand. Despite the adaptation of the argan tree to drought stress, the extent of the argan forest has declined markedly due to increased aridity, land use changes and the expansion of olive cultivation. The oil of the argan seed is used for cooking and as the basis for numerous cosmetics. The identification of argan tree varieties with enhanced drought tolerance may minimize the economic losses associated with the decline of the argan forest and constrain the spread of desertification...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302420/a-cryptic-mitochondrial-dna-link-between-north-european-and-west-african-dogs
#13
Adeniyi C Adeola, Sheila C Ommeh, Jiao-Jiao Song, S Charles Olaogun, Oscar J Sanke, Ting-Ting Yin, Guo-Dong Wang, Shi-Fang Wu, Zhong-Yin Zhou, Jacqueline K Lichoti, Bernard R Agwanda, Philip M Dawuda, Robert W Murphy, Min-Sheng Peng, Ya-Ping Zhang
Domestic dogs have an ancient origin and a long history in Africa. Nevertheless, the timing and sources of their introduction into Africa remain enigmatic. Herein, we analyse variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences from 345 Nigerian and 37 Kenyan village dogs plus 1530 published sequences of dogs from other parts of Africa, Europe and West Asia. All Kenyan dogs can be assigned to one of three haplogroups (matrilines; clades): A, B, and C, while Nigerian dogs can be assigned to one of four haplogroups A, B, C, and D...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Genetics and Genomics, Yi Chuan Xue Bao
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301696/toward-an-ethically-sensitive-implementation-of-noninvasive-prenatal-screening-in-the-global-context
#14
Jessica Mozersky, Vardit Ravitsky, Rayna Rapp, Marsha Michie, Subhashini Chandrasekharan, Megan Allyse
Noninvasive prenatal screening using cell-free DNA, which analyzes placental DNA circulating in maternal blood to provide information about fetal chromosomal disorders early in pregnancy and without risk to the fetus, has been hailed as a potential "paradigm shift" in prenatal genetic screening. Commercial provision of cell-free DNA screening has contributed to a rapid expansion of the tests included in the screening panels. The tests can include screening for sex chromosome anomalies, rare subchromosomal microdeletions and aneuploidies, and most recently, the entire fetal genome...
March 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299915/metabolism-plays-the-key-roles-in-th-cells-differentiation
#15
A Hosseinzadeh, S Soukhtehzari, M Ghaedi, R Mansouri
The increasing rate of autoimmunity in recent decades cannot be related to only genetic instabilities and disorders. Diet can directly influence our health. Studies have shown that there is a relationship between nutritional elements and alteration in the immune system. Among immune cells, the function of T lymphocyte is important in directing immune response. T CD4+ cells lead other immune cells to respond to pathogens by secreting cytokines. HIV+ patients, who have largely lost their T CD4+ cells, are susceptible to opportunistic infections, which do not normally affect healthy people...
December 31, 2016: Reumatismo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299549/elective-single-blastocyst-transfer-in-advanced-maternal-age
#16
Samer Tannus, Weon-Young Son, Michael Haim Dahan
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate reproductive outcomes following elective single blastocyst transfer (eSBT) compared with those of double blastocyst transfer (DBT) in advanced maternal age. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study performed at an academic fertility center. All women aged 40 and over for whom in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles were performed and in whom embryo culture was extended to the blastocyst stage were reviewed for possible inclusion...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297624/genomics-of-acute-myeloid-leukemia-diagnosis-and-pathways
#17
Lars Bullinger, Konstanze Döhner, Hartmut Döhner
In recent years, our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of myeloid neoplasms, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML), has been greatly advanced by genomics discovery studies that use novel high-throughput sequencing techniques. AML, similar to most other cancers, is characterized by multiple somatically acquired mutations that affect genes of different functional categories, a complex clonal architecture, and disease evolution over time. Patterns of mutations seem to follow specific and temporally ordered trajectories...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297180/human-variation-in-pelvic-shape-and-the-effects-of-climate-and-past-population-history
#18
Lia Betti
The human pelvis is often described as an evolutionary compromise (obstetrical dilemma) between the requirements of efficient bipedal locomotion and safe parturition of a highly encephalized neonate, that has led to a tight fit between the birth canal and the head and body of the foetus. Strong evolutionary constraints on the shape of the pelvis can be expected under this scenario. On the other hand, several studies have found a significant level of pelvic variation within and between human populations, a fact that seems to contradict such expectations...
April 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292896/loss-of-lmod1-impairs-smooth-muscle-cytocontractility-and-causes-megacystis-microcolon-intestinal-hypoperistalsis-syndrome-in-humans-and-mice
#19
Danny Halim, Michael P Wilson, Daniel Oliver, Erwin Brosens, Joke B G M Verheij, Yu Han, Vivek Nanda, Qing Lyu, Michael Doukas, Hans Stoop, Rutger W W Brouwer, Wilfred F J van IJcken, Orazio J Slivano, Alan J Burns, Christine K Christie, Karen L de Mesy Bentley, Alice S Brooks, Dick Tibboel, Suowen Xu, Zheng Gen Jin, Tono Djuwantono, Wei Yan, Maria M Alves, Robert M W Hofstra, Joseph M Miano
Megacystis microcolon intestinal hypoperistalsis syndrome (MMIHS) is a congenital visceral myopathy characterized by severe dilation of the urinary bladder and defective intestinal motility. The genetic basis of MMIHS has been ascribed to spontaneous and autosomal dominant mutations in actin gamma 2 (ACTG2), a smooth muscle contractile gene. However, evidence suggesting a recessive origin of the disease also exists. Using combined homozygosity mapping and whole exome sequencing, a genetically isolated family was found to carry a premature termination codon in Leiomodin1 (LMOD1), a gene preferentially expressed in vascular and visceral smooth muscle cells...
March 14, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292260/ruminant-specific-multiple-duplication-events-of-prdm9-before-speciation
#20
Abinash Padhi, Botong Shen, Jicai Jiang, Yang Zhou, George E Liu, Li Ma
BACKGROUND: Understanding the genetic and evolutionary mechanisms of speciation genes in sexually reproducing organisms would provide important insights into mammalian reproduction and fitness. PRDM9, a widely known speciation gene, has recently gained attention for its important role in meiotic recombination and hybrid incompatibility. Despite the fact that PRDM9 is a key regulator of recombination and plays a dominant role in hybrid incompatibility, little is known about the underlying genetic and evolutionary mechanisms that generated multiple copies of PRDM9 in many metazoan lineages...
March 14, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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