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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929058/tectal-derived-interneurons-contribute-to-phasic-and-tonic-inhibition-in-the-visual-thalamus
#1
Polona Jager, Zhiwen Ye, Xiao Yu, Laskaro Zagoraiou, Hong-Ting Prekop, Juha Partanen, Thomas M Jessell, William Wisden, Stephen G Brickley, Alessio Delogu
The release of GABA from local interneurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN-INs) provides inhibitory control during visual processing within the thalamus. It is commonly assumed that this important class of interneurons originates from within the thalamic complex, but we now show that during early postnatal development Sox14/Otx2-expressing precursor cells migrate from the dorsal midbrain to generate dLGN-INs. The unexpected extra-diencephalic origin of dLGN-INs sets them apart from GABAergic neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus...
December 8, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924875/gabab-receptor-mediates-opposing-adaptations-of-gaba-release-from-two-types-of-prefrontal-interneurons-after-observational-fear
#2
Lei Liu, Wataru Ito, Alexei Morozov
The observational fear (OF) paradigm in rodents, in which the subject is exposed to a distressed conspecific, elicits contextual fear learning and enhances future passive avoidance learning, which may model certain behavioral traits resulting from traumatic experiences in humans. Because these behaviors affected by the OF, require dorso-medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), we searched for synaptic adaptations in dmPFC resulting from OF in mice by recording synaptic responses in dmPFC layer V pyramidal neurons elicited by repeated 5 Hz electrical stimulation of dmPFC layer I, or by optogenetic stimulation of specific interneurons ex vivo one day after OF...
December 7, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924203/the-effects-of-etomidate-and-midazolam-on-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-proliferation
#3
Ho Park, Kyoungho Ryu, Yun-Hong Kim, Won-Jun Choi, Dongchan Ko
BACKGROUND: Stem cell therapy using adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs), which are capable of multipotent differentiation, is currently being investigated in the field of tissue regeneration and the treatment of patients in intensive care units. It is known that type-A γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptor activity has an influence on stem cell proliferation. Thus, we investigated the effects of the clinically available GABAA receptor agonists, etomidate and midazolam, on ADSC proliferation measured by the cell counting kit-8 assay...
December 2016: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923876/stellate-and-pyramidal-neurons-in-goldfish-telencephalon-respond-differently-to-anoxia-and-gaba-receptor-inhibition
#4
Nariman Hossein-Javaheri, Michael P Wilkie, Wudu E Lado, Leslie T Buck
With oxygen deprivation, the mammalian brain undergoes hyper-activity and neuronal death while this does not occur in the anoxia tolerant goldfish (Carassius auratus). Anoxic survival of the goldfish may rely on neuromodulatory mechanisms to suppress neuronal hyper-excitability. Since γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in brain, we decided to investigate its potential role in suppressing the electrical activity of goldfish telencephalic neurons. Utilizing whole-cell patch-clamp recording we recorded the electrical activities of both excitatory (pyramidal) and inhibitory (stellate) neurons...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923665/nicotine-enhances-gabaergic-inhibition-of-oxytocin-mrna-expressing-neuron-in-the-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-in-vitro-in-rats
#5
Ke-Min Zhang, Guo-Yan Zhao, Bin-Bin Zhang, Qi Xu, Chun-Ping Chu, Hua Jin, De-Lai Qiu
We recently found that extracellular administration of nicotine indirectly excited hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA-expressing neurons. In this study, we studied the effect of nicotine on PVN oxytocin (OT) mRNA-expressing neuron in vitro in rats, by whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique, immunohistochemistry methods and single-cell reverse-transcription multiplex polymerase chain reaction (SC-RT-mPCR) methods Our results showed that 79.3% (73/92) of the 92 PVN putative magnocellular neurons co-expressed GAPDH mRNA and OT mRNA...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922016/gabaergic-anxiolytic-drug-in-water-increases-migration-behaviour-in-salmon
#6
Gustav Hellström, Jonatan Klaminder, Fia Finn, Lo Persson, Anders Alanärä, Micael Jonsson, Jerker Fick, Tomas Brodin
Migration is an important life-history event in a wide range of taxa, yet many migrations are influenced by anthropogenic change. Although migration dynamics are extensively studied, the potential effects of environmental contaminants on migratory physiology are poorly understood. In this study we show that an anxiolytic drug in water can promote downward migratory behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in both laboratory setting and in a natural river tributary. Exposing salmon smolt to a dilute concentration of a GABAA receptor agonist (oxazepam) increased migration intensity compared with untreated smolt...
December 6, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920723/sex-dependent-anti-stress-effect-of-an-%C3%AE-5-subunit-containing-gabaa-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulator
#7
Sean C Piantadosi, Beverly J French, Michael M Poe, Tamara Timić, Bojan D Marković, Mohan Pabba, Marianne L Seney, Hyunjung Oh, Beverley A Orser, Miroslav M Savić, James M Cook, Etienne Sibille
Rationale: Current first-line treatments for stress-related disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD) act on monoaminergic systems and take weeks to achieve a therapeutic effect with poor response and low remission rates. Recent research has implicated the GABAergic system in the pathophysiology of depression, including deficits in interneurons targeting the dendritic compartment of cortical pyramidal cells. Objectives: The present study evaluates whether SH-053-2'F-R-CH3 (denoted "α5-PAM"), a positive allosteric modulator selective for α5-subunit containing GABAA receptors found predominantly on cortical pyramidal cell dendrites, has anti-stress effects...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916842/synthesis-and-pharmacological-evaluation-of-new-3-4-dihydroisoquinolin-derivatives-containing-heterocycle-as-potential-anticonvulsant-agents
#8
Hong-Jian Zhang, Qing-Kun Shen, Chun-Mei Jin, Zhe-Shan Quan
Two novel series of 3,4-dihydroisoquinolin with heterocycle derivatives (4a-t and 9a-e) were synthesized and evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity using maximal electroshock (MES) test and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure test. All compounds were characterized by IR, ¹H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, and mass spectral data. Among them, 9-(exyloxy)-5,6-dihydro-[1,2,4]triazolo[3,4-a]isoquinolin-3(2H)-one (9a) showed significant anticonvulsant activity in MES tests with an ED50 value of 63.31 mg/kg and it showed wide margins of safety with protective index (PI > 7...
November 29, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916275/artemisinins-target-gabaa-receptor-signaling-and-impair-%C3%AE-cell-identity
#9
Jin Li, Tamara Casteels, Thomas Frogne, Camilla Ingvorsen, Christian Honoré, Monica Courtney, Kilian V M Huber, Nicole Schmitner, Robin A Kimmel, Roman A Romanov, Caterina Sturtzel, Charles-Hugues Lardeau, Johanna Klughammer, Matthias Farlik, Sara Sdelci, Andhira Vieira, Fabio Avolio, François Briand, Igor Baburin, Peter Májek, Florian M Pauler, Thomas Penz, Alexey Stukalov, Manuela Gridling, Katja Parapatics, Charlotte Barbieux, Ekaterine Berishvili, Andreas Spittler, Jacques Colinge, Keiryn L Bennett, Steffen Hering, Thierry Sulpice, Christoph Bock, Martin Distel, Tibor Harkany, Dirk Meyer, Giulio Superti-Furga, Patrick Collombat, Jacob Hecksher-Sørensen, Stefan Kubicek
Type 1 diabetes is characterized by the destruction of pancreatic β cells, and generating new insulin-producing cells from other cell types is a major aim of regenerative medicine. One promising approach is transdifferentiation of developmentally related pancreatic cell types, including glucagon-producing α cells. In a genetic model, loss of the master regulatory transcription factor Arx is sufficient to induce the conversion of α cells to functional β-like cells. Here, we identify artemisinins as small molecules that functionally repress Arx by causing its translocation to the cytoplasm...
November 30, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913590/control-of-spike-transfer-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-synapses-in-vivo-by-gabaa-and-gabab-receptor-mediated-inhibition
#10
Stefano Zucca, Marilena Griguoli, Meryl Malézieux, Noëlle Grosjean, Mario Carta, Christophe Mulle
: Despite extensive studies in hippocampal slices and incentive from computational theories, the synaptic mechanisms underlying information transfer at mossy fiber (mf) connections between the dentate gyrus (DG) and CA3 neurons in vivo are still elusive. Here we used an optogenetic approach in mice to selectively target and control the activity of DG granule cells (GCs) while performing whole cell and juxtacellular recordings of CA3 neurons in vivo In CA3 pyramidal cells (PCs), mf-CA3 synaptic responses consisted predominantly of an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) at low stimulation frequency (0...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908749/a-new-role-for-gabaergic-transmission-in-the-control-of-male-rat-sexual-behavior-expression
#11
Gabriela Rodríguez-Manzo, Ana Canseco-Alba
GABAergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exerts a tonic inhibitory influence on mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons' activity. Blockade of VTA GABAA receptors increases dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Increases in NAcc dopamine levels typically accompany sexual behavior display. Copulation to satiety is characterized by the instatement of a long lasting (72h) sexual behavior inhibition and the mesolimbic system appears to be involved in this phenomenon. GABAergic transmission in the VTA might play a role in the maintenance of this long lasting sexual inhibitory state...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902689/using-intrinsic-flavoprotein-and-nad-p-h-imaging-to-map-functional-circuitry-in-the-main-olfactory-bulb
#12
Cedric R Uytingco, Adam C Puche, Steven D Munger
Neurons exhibit strong coupling of electrochemical and metabolic activity. Increases in intrinsic fluorescence from either oxidized flavoproteins or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate) [NAD(P)H] in the mitochondria have been used as an indicator of neuronal activity for the functional mapping of neural circuits. However, this technique has not been used to investigate the flow of olfactory information within the circuitry of the main olfactory bulb (MOB). We found that intrinsic flavoprotein fluorescence signals induced by electrical stimulation of single glomeruli displayed biphasic responses within both the glomerular (GL) and external plexiform layers (EPL) of the MOB...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897671/high-intensity-interval-exercise-promotes-motor-cortex-disinhibition-and-early-motor-skill-consolidation
#13
Ellen L Stavrinos, James P Coxon
Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition shapes motor cortex output, gates synaptic plasticity in the form of long-term potentiation, and plays an important role in motor learning. Remarkably, recent studies have shown that acute cardiovascular exercise can improve motor memory, but the cortical mechanisms are not completely understood. We investigated whether an acute bout of lower-limb high-intensity interval (HIT) exercise could promote motor memory formation in humans through changes in cortical inhibition within the hand region of the primary motor cortex...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897203/reducing-gabaa-mediated-inhibition-improves-forelimb-motor-function-after-focal-cortical-stroke-in-mice
#14
Claudia Alia, Cristina Spalletti, Stefano Lai, Alessandro Panarese, Silvestro Micera, Matteo Caleo
A deeper understanding of post-stroke plasticity is critical to devise more effective pharmacological and rehabilitative treatments. The GABAergic system is one of the key modulators of neuronal plasticity, and plays an important role in the control of "critical periods" during brain development. Here, we report a key role for GABAergic inhibition in functional restoration following ischemia in the adult mouse forelimb motor cortex. After stroke, the majority of cortical sites in peri-infarct areas evoked simultaneous movements of forelimb, hindlimb and tail, consistent with a loss of inhibitory signalling...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895555/spike-timing-rigidity-is-maintained-in-bursting-neurons-under-pentobarbital-induced-anesthetic-conditions
#15
Risako Kato, Masanori Yamanaka, Eiko Yokota, Noriaki Koshikawa, Masayuki Kobayashi
Pentobarbital potentiates γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-mediated inhibitory synaptic transmission by prolonging the open time of GABAA receptors. However, it is unknown how pentobarbital regulates cortical neuronal activities via local circuits in vivo. To examine this question, we performed extracellular unit recording in rat insular cortex under awake and anesthetic conditions. Not a few studies apply time-rescaling theorem to detect the features of repetitive spike firing. Similar to these methods, we define an average spike interval locally in time using random matrix theory (RMT), which enables us to compare different activity states on a universal scale...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895193/organum-vasculosum-of-the-lamina-terminalis-detects-nacl-to-elevate-sympathetic-nerve-activity-and-blood-pressure
#16
Brian J Kinsman, Sarah S Simmonds, Kirsteen N Browning, Sean D Stocker
High-salt diet elevates NaCl concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid to increase sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) in salt-sensitive hypertension. The organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT) resides along the rostral wall of the third ventricle, lacks a complete blood-brain barrier, and plays a pivotal role in body fluid homeostasis. Therefore, the present study used a multifaceted approach to examine whether OVLT neurons of Sprague-Dawley rats are intrinsically sensitive to changes in extracellular NaCl concentrations and mediate the sympathoexcitatory responses to central NaCl loading...
November 28, 2016: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894927/the-dynamics-of-gaba-signaling-revelations-from-the-circadian-pacemaker-in-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus
#17
REVIEW
H Elliott Albers, James C Walton, Karen L Gamble, John K McNeill, Daniel L Hummer
Virtually every neuron within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) communicates via GABAergic signaling. The extra-cellular levels of GABA within the SCN are determined by a complex interaction of synthesis and transport, as well as synaptic and non-synaptic release. The response to GABA is mediated by GABAA receptors that respond to both phasic and tonic GABA release and that can produce excitatory as well as inhibitory cellular responses. GABA also influences circadian control through the exclusively inhibitory effects of GABAB receptors...
November 25, 2016: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888546/sex-differences-in-depolarizing-actions-of-gabaa-receptor-activation-in-rat-embryonic-hypothalamic-neurons
#18
Franco R Mir, Hugo F Carrer, María J Cambiasso
GABAA receptor activation exerts trophic actions in immature neurons through depolarization of resting membrane potential. The switch to its classical hyperpolarizing role is developmentally regulated. Previous results suggest that a hormonally biased sex difference exists at the onset of the switch in hypothalamic neurons. The aim of this work was to evaluate sex differences in GABAA receptor function of hypothalamic neurons before brain masculinization by gonadal hormones. Hypothalamic cells were obtained from embryonic day 16 male and female rat foetuses, 2 days before the peak of testosterone production by the foetal testis, and grown in vitro for 9 days...
November 5, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886620/pet-measurement-of-gaba-shift-in-the-rat-brain-a-preclinical-application-of-bolus-plus-constant-infusion-paradigm-of-18-f-flumazenil
#19
Wook Kim, Hyun Soo Park, Byung Seok Moon, Byung Chul Lee, Sang Eun Kim
INTRODUCTION: We measured the tiagabine-induced enhancement of the GABAA receptor's affinity for benzodiazepine ligands ("GABA shift") using [(18)F]flumazenil (FMZ) PET with preclinical application of bolus plus constant infusion (B/I). Differences in quantified results of [(18)F]FMZ binding were compared to that of [(18)F]FMZ PET with single bolus injection (SB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats underwent [(18)F]FMZ PET scans with B/I, which consisted of baseline and "GABA shift" sessions in a scan, or scans with SB one week apart...
November 4, 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884423/alterations-in-a-unique-class-of-cortical-chandelier-cell-axon-cartridges-in-schizophrenia
#20
Brad R Rocco, Adam M DeDionisio, David A Lewis, Kenneth N Fish
BACKGROUND: The axons of chandelier cells (ChCs) target the axon initial segment of pyramidal neurons, forming an array of boutons termed a cartridge. In schizophrenia, the density of cartridges detectable by gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) membrane transporter 1 immunoreactivity is lower, whereas the density of axon initial segments detectable by immunoreactivity for the α2 subunit of the GABAA receptor is higher in layers 2/superficial 3 of the prefrontal cortex. These findings were interpreted as compensatory responses to lower GABA levels in ChCs...
September 29, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
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