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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740286/optogenetic-control-of-neural-circuits-in-the-mongolian-gerbil
#1
Stefan Keplinger, Barbara Beiderbeck, Stylianos Michalakis, Martin Biel, Benedikt Grothe, Lars Kunz
The Mongolian gerbil ( Meriones unguiculatus ) is widely used as a model organism for the human auditory system. Its hearing range is very similar to ours and it uses the same mechanisms for sound localization. The auditory circuits underlying these functions have been characterized. However, important mechanistic details are still under debate. To elucidate these issues, precise and reversible optogenetic manipulation of neuronal activity in this complex circuitry is required. However, genetic and genomic resources for the Mongolian gerbil are poorly developed...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694883/adrenergic-modulation-regulates-the-dendritic-excitability-of-layer-5-pyramidal-neurons-in-vivo
#2
Christina Labarrera, Yair Deitcher, Amir Dudai, Benjamin Weiner, Adi Kaduri Amichai, Neta Zylbermann, Michael London
The excitability of the apical tuft of layer 5 pyramidal neurons is thought to play a crucial role in behavioral performance and synaptic plasticity. We show that the excitability of the apical tuft is sensitive to adrenergic neuromodulation. Using two-photon dendritic Ca2+ imaging and in vivo whole-cell and extracellular recordings in awake mice, we show that application of the α2A-adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine increases the probability of dendritic Ca2+ events in the tuft and lowers the threshold for dendritic Ca2+ spikes...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679647/a-new-micro-holder-device-for-local-drug-delivery-during-in-vivo-whole-cell-recordings
#3
María Sáez, Maya Ketzef, Javier Alegre-Cortés, Ramón Reig, Gilad Silberberg
Focal administration of pharmacological agents during in vivo recordings is a useful technique to study the functional properties of neural microcircuits. However, the lack of visual control makes this task difficult and inaccurate, especially when targeting small and deep regions where spillover to neighboring regions is likely to occur. An additional problem with recording stability arises when combining focal drug administration with in vivo intracellular recordings, which are highly sensitive to mechanical vibrations...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673130/effects-of-gip-on-regional-blood-flow-during-normoglycemia-and-hyperglycemia-in-anesthetized-rats
#4
Xiang Gao, Andreas Lindqvist, Monica Sandberg, Leif Groop, Nils Wierup, Leif Jansson
The incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and affects β-cell turnover. This study aimed at evaluating if some of the beneficial effects of GIP on glucose homeostasis can be explained by modulation of islet blood flow. Anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were infused intravenously with different doses of GIP (10, 20, or 60 ng/kg*min) for 30 min. Subsequent organ blood flow measurements were performed with microspheres. In separate animals, islets were perfused ex vivo with GIP (10-6 -10-12  mol/L) during normo- and hyperglycemia and arteriolar responsiveness was recorded...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670095/single-synaptic-inputs-drive-high-precision-action-potentials-in-parvalbumin-expressing-gaba-ergic-cortical-neurons-in-vivo
#5
Jean-Sébastien Jouhanneau, Jens Kremkow, James F A Poulet
A defining feature of cortical layer 2/3 excitatory neurons is their sparse activity, often firing in singlets of action potentials. Local inhibitory neurons are thought to play a major role in regulating sparseness, but which cell types are recruited by single excitatory synaptic inputs is unknown. Using multiple, targeted, in vivo whole-cell recordings, we show that single u EPSPs have little effect on the firing rates of excitatory neurons and somatostatin-expressing GABA-ergic inhibitory neurons but evoke precisely timed action potentials in parvalbumin-expressing inhibitory neurons...
April 18, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608176/preparations-and-protocols-for-whole-cell-patch-clamp-recording-of-xenopus-laevis-tectal-neurons
#6
Zhenyu Liu, Katelynne B Donnelly, Kara G Pratt
The Xenopus tadpole retinotectal circuit, comprised of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) in the eye which form synapses directly onto neurons in the optic tectum, is a popular model to study how neural circuits self-assemble. The ability to carry out whole cell patch clamp recordings from tectal neurons and to record RGC-evoked responses, either in vivo or using a whole brain preparation, has generated a large body of high-resolution data about the mechanisms underlying normal, and abnormal, circuit formation and function...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578407/pauses-in-cholinergic-interneuron-firing-exert-an-inhibitory-control-on-striatal-output-in-vivo
#7
Stefano Zucca, Aya Zucca, Takashi Nakano, Sho Aoki, Jeffery Wickens
The cholinergic interneurons (CINs) of the striatum are crucial for normal motor and behavioral functions of the basal ganglia. Striatal CINs exhibit tonic firing punctuated by distinct pauses. Pauses occur in response to motivationally significant events, but their function is unknown. Here we investigated the effects of pauses in CIN firing on spiny projection neurons (SPNs) - the output neurons of the striatum - using in vivo whole cell and juxtacellular recordings in mice. We found that optogenetically-induced pauses in CIN firing inhibited subthreshold membrane potential activity and decreased firing of SPNs...
March 26, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574880/cannabidiol-exerts-antiepileptic-effects-by-restoring-hippocampal-interneuron-functions-in-a-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-model
#8
Archie A Khan, Tawfeeq Shekh-Ahmad, Ayatakin Khalil, Matthew C Walker, Afia B Ali
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: A non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), shows promising results as an effective potential antiepileptic drug in some forms of refractory epilepsy. In an attempt to understand the mechanisms by which CBD exerts its anti-seizure effects, we investigated the effects of CBD at synaptic connections, and the intrinsic membrane properties of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells and two major inhibitory interneurons: fast spiking, parvalbumin -expressing (PV) and adapting, cholecystokinin-expressing (CCK) interneurons...
March 25, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535604/development-of-an-ex-vivo-method-for-multi-unit-recording-of-microbiota-colonic-neural-signaling-in-real-time
#9
Maria M Buckley, Dervla O'Malley
Background and Objectives: Bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is vital for maintaining whole-body homeostasis. Moreover, emerging evidence implicates vagal afferent signaling in the modulation of host physiology by microbes, which are most abundant in the colon. This study aims to optimize and advance dissection and recording techniques to facilitate real-time recordings of afferent neural signals originating in the distal colon. New Protocol: This paper describes a dissection technique, which facilitates extracellular electrophysiological recordings from visceral pelvic, spinal and vagal afferent neurons in response to stimulation of the distal colon...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29512156/nmda-receptor-gated-visual-responses-in-hippocampal-ca1-neurons
#10
Yu-Zhang Liu, Yao Wang, Wei Tang, Jun-Yi Zhu, Zhiru Wang
KEY POINTS: Sensory information processing in hippocampal circuits is critical for numerous hippocampus-dependent functions, but the underlying synaptic mechanism remains elusive. We performed whole-cell recording in vivo to examine visually evoked synaptic activity in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs). We first found that at resting potentials, ∼30% of CA1 PCs showed synaptic responses to a flash of visual stimulation. Interestingly, at depolarizing potentials, nearly all CA1 PCs were found to exhibit NMDA receptor-dependent responses, indicating the presence of NMDA receptor-mediated gating of CA1 responses...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508394/loss-of-gaba-b-mediated-interhemispheric-synaptic-inhibition-in-stroke-periphery
#11
Bojana Kokinovic, Paolo Medini
KEY POINTS: Recovery from the potentially devastating consequences of stroke depends largely upon plastic changes occurring in the lesion periphery and its inputs. In a focal model of stroke in mouse somatosensory cortex, we found that the recovery of sensory responsiveness occurs at the level of synaptic inputs, without gross changes of the intrinsic electrical excitability of neurons, and also that recovered responses had longer than normal latencies. Under normal conditions, one somatosensory cortex inhibits the responsiveness of the other located in the opposite hemisphere (interhemispheric inhibition) via activation of GABAB receptors...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507411/nontoxic-double-deletion-mutant-rabies-viral-vectors-for-retrograde-targeting-of-projection-neurons
#12
Soumya Chatterjee, Heather A Sullivan, Bryan J MacLennan, Ran Xu, YuanYuan Hou, Thomas K Lavin, Nicholas E Lea, Jacob E Michalski, Kelsey R Babcock, Stephan Dietrich, Gillian A Matthews, Anna Beyeler, Gwendolyn G Calhoon, Gordon Glober, Jennifer D Whitesell, Shenqin Yao, Ali Cetin, Julie A Harris, Hongkui Zeng, Kay M Tye, R Clay Reid, Ian R Wickersham
Recombinant rabies viral vectors have proven useful for applications including retrograde targeting of projection neurons and monosynaptic tracing, but their cytotoxicity has limited their use to short-term experiments. Here we introduce a new class of double-deletion-mutant rabies viral vectors that left transduced cells alive and healthy indefinitely. Deletion of the viral polymerase gene abolished cytotoxicity and reduced transgene expression to trace levels but left vectors still able to retrogradely infect projection neurons and express recombinases, allowing downstream expression of other transgene products such as fluorophores and calcium indicators...
April 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503184/activity-dependent-downscaling-of-subthreshold-synaptic-inputs-during-slow-wave-sleep-like-activity-in-vivo
#13
Ana González-Rueda, Victor Pedrosa, Rachael C Feord, Claudia Clopath, Ole Paulsen
Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity is critical for cortical circuit refinement. The synaptic homeostasis hypothesis suggests that synaptic connections are strengthened during wake and downscaled during sleep; however, it is not obvious how the same plasticity rules could explain both outcomes. Using whole-cell recordings and optogenetic stimulation of presynaptic input in urethane-anesthetized mice, which exhibit slow-wave-sleep (SWS)-like activity, we show that synaptic plasticity rules are gated by cortical dynamics in vivo...
March 21, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474819/direct-evidence-for-high-affinity-blockade-of-na-v-1-6-channel-subtype-by-huwentoxin-iv-spider-peptide-using-multiscale-functional-approaches
#14
Tânia C Gonçalves, Rachid Boukaiba, Jordi Molgó, Muriel Amar, Michel Partiseti, Denis Servent, Evelyne Benoit
The Chinese bird spider huwentoxin-IV (HwTx-IV) is well-known to be a highly potent blocker of NaV 1.7 subtype of voltage-gated sodium (NaV ) channels, a genetically validated analgesic target, and thus promising as a potential lead molecule for the development of novel pain therapeutics. In the present study, the interaction between HwTx-IV and NaV 1.6 channel subtype was investigated using multiscale (from in vivo to individual cell) functional approaches. HwTx-IV was approximatively 2 times more efficient than tetrodotoxin (TTX) to inhibit the compound muscle action potential recorded from the mouse skeletal neuromuscular system in vivo, and 30 times more effective to inhibit nerve-evoked than directly-elicited muscle contractile force of isolated mouse hemidiaphragms...
May 1, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470463/monitoring-intracellular-nanomolar-calcium-using-fluorescence-lifetime-imaging
#15
Kaiyu Zheng, Thomas P Jensen, Dmitri A Rusakov
Nanomolar-range fluctuations of intracellular [Ca2+ ] are critical for brain cell function but remain difficult to measure. We have advanced a microscopy technique to monitor intracellular [Ca2+ ] in individual cells in acute brain slices (also applicable in vivo) using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) of the Ca2+ -sensitive fluorescent indicator Oregon Green BAPTA1 (OGB-1). The OGB-1 fluorescence lifetime is sensitive to [Ca2+ ] within the 10-500 nM range but not to other factors such as viscosity, temperature, or pH...
March 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463643/hyperactivity-of-anterior-cingulate-cortex-areas-24a-24b-drives-chronic-pain-induced-anxiodepressive-like-consequences
#16
Jim Sellmeijer, Victor Mathis, Sylvain Hugel, Xu-Hui Li, Qian Song, Qi-Yu Chen, Florent Barthas, Pierre-Eric Lutz, Meltem Karatas, Andreas Luthi, Pierre Veinante, Ad Aertsen, Michel Barrot, Min Zhuo, Ipek Yalcin
Pain associates both sensory and emotional aversive components, and often leads to anxiety and depression when it becomes chronic. Here, we characterized, in a mouse model, the long-term development of these sensory and aversive components as well as anxiodepressive-like consequences of neuropathic pain and determined their electrophysiological impact on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, cortical areas 24a/24b). We show that these symptoms of neuropathic pain evolve and recover in different time courses following nerve injury in male mice...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459821/pre-and-postsynaptic-activation-of-gaba-b-receptors-modulates-principal-cell-excitation-in-the-piriform-cortex
#17
Leah B Gerrard, Malinda L S Tantirigama, John M Bekkers
The piriform cortex (PC), like other cortical regions, normally operates in a state of dynamic equilibrium between excitation and inhibition. Here we examined the roles played by pre- and postsynaptic GABAB receptors in maintaining this equilibrium in the PC. Using whole-cell recordings in brain slices from the anterior PC of mice, we found that synaptic activation of postsynaptic GABAB receptors hyperpolarized the two major classes of layer 2 principal neurons and reduced the intrinsic electrical excitability of these neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420933/precisely-timed-nicotinic-activation-drives-sst-inhibition-in-neocortical-circuits
#18
Joanna Urban-Ciecko, Jean-Sebastien Jouhanneau, Stephanie E Myal, James F A Poulet, Alison L Barth
Sleep, waking, locomotion, and attention are associated with cell-type-specific changes in neocortical activity. The effect of brain state on circuit output requires understanding of how neuromodulators influence specific neuronal classes and their synapses, with normal patterns of neuromodulator release from endogenous sources. We investigated the state-dependent modulation of a ubiquitous feedforward inhibitory motif in mouse sensory cortex, local pyramidal (Pyr) inputs onto somatostatin (SST)-expressing interneurons...
February 7, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415216/distinct-neocortical-progenitor-lineages-fine-tune-neuronal-diversity-in-a-layer-specific-manner
#19
Teresa Guillamon-Vivancos, William A Tyler, Maria Medalla, Wayne Wei-En Chang, Mayumi Okamoto, Tarik F Haydar, Jennifer I Luebke
How the variety of neurons that organize into neocortical layers and functional areas arises is a central question in the study of cortical development. While both intrinsic and extrinsic cues are known to influence this process, whether distinct neuronal progenitor groups contribute to neuron diversity and allocation is poorly understood. Using in vivo genetic fate-mapping combined with whole-cell patch clamp recording, we show that the firing pattern and apical dendritic morphology of excitatory neurons in layer 4 of the barrel cortex are specified in part by their neural precursor lineage...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408225/partial-trkb-receptor-activation-suppresses-cortical-epileptogenesis-through-actions-on-parvalbumin-interneurons
#20
Feng Gu, Isabel Parada, Tao Yang, Frank M Longo, David A Prince
Post-traumatic epilepsy is one of the most common and difficult to treat forms of acquired epilepsy worldwide. Currently, there is no effective way to prevent post-traumatic epileptogenesis. It is known that abnormalities of interneurons, particularly parvalbumin-containing interneurons, play a critical role in epileptogenesis following traumatic brain injury. Thus, enhancing the function of existing parvalbumin interneurons might provide a logical therapeutic approach to prevention of post-traumatic epilepsy...
May 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
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