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in vivo whole cell recording

Maria M Buckley, Dervla O'Malley
Background and Objectives: Bidirectional signaling between the gastrointestinal tract and the brain is vital for maintaining whole-body homeostasis. Moreover, emerging evidence implicates vagal afferent signaling in the modulation of host physiology by microbes, which are most abundant in the colon. This study aims to optimize and advance dissection and recording techniques to facilitate real-time recordings of afferent neural signals originating in the distal colon. New Protocol: This paper describes a dissection technique, which facilitates extracellular electrophysiological recordings from visceral pelvic, spinal and vagal afferent neurons in response to stimulation of the distal colon...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Yu-Zhang Liu, Yao Wang, Wei Tang, Jun-Yi Zhu, Zhiru Wang
Hippocampal processing of environmental information is critical for hippocampus-dependent brain functions that result from experience-induced hippocampal plasticity, such as memory acquisition and storage. Hippocampal responses to sensory stimulation have been extensively investigated, particularly with respect to spike activity. However, the synaptic mechanism for hippocampal processing of sensory stimulation has been much less understood. Here, we performed in vivo whole-cell recording on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs) from adult rodents to examine CA1 responses to a flash of visual stimulation...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Bojana Kokinovic, Paolo Medini
Recovery after stroke is mediated by plastic changes largely occurring in the lesion periphery. However, little is known on the microcircuit changes underlying recovery, at which extent perilesional plasticity occurs at synaptic input vs. spike output level, and on the connectivity behind such synaptic plasticity. We combined intrinsic imaging with extra- and intra-cellular recordings and pharmacological inactivation in a focal stroke in mouse somatosensory cortex (S1). In vivo whole-cell recordings in hindlimb S1 (hS1) showed synaptic responses also to forelimb stimulation in controls, and such responses were abolished by stroke of neighboring forelimb area (fS1), suggesting that in normal conditions they originate via horizontal connections from neighboring fS1...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Soumya Chatterjee, Heather A Sullivan, Bryan J MacLennan, Ran Xu, YuanYuan Hou, Thomas K Lavin, Nicholas E Lea, Jacob E Michalski, Kelsey R Babcock, Stephan Dietrich, Gillian A Matthews, Anna Beyeler, Gwendolyn G Calhoon, Gordon Glober, Jennifer D Whitesell, Shenqin Yao, Ali Cetin, Julie A Harris, Hongkui Zeng, Kay M Tye, R Clay Reid, Ian R Wickersham
Recombinant rabies viral vectors have proven useful for applications including retrograde targeting of projection neurons and monosynaptic tracing, but their cytotoxicity has limited their use to short-term experiments. Here we introduce a new class of double-deletion-mutant rabies viral vectors that left transduced cells alive and healthy indefinitely. Deletion of the viral polymerase gene abolished cytotoxicity and reduced transgene expression to trace levels but left vectors still able to retrogradely infect projection neurons and express recombinases, allowing downstream expression of other transgene products such as fluorophores and calcium indicators...
March 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Ana González-Rueda, Victor Pedrosa, Rachael C Feord, Claudia Clopath, Ole Paulsen
Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity is critical for cortical circuit refinement. The synaptic homeostasis hypothesis suggests that synaptic connections are strengthened during wake and downscaled during sleep; however, it is not obvious how the same plasticity rules could explain both outcomes. Using whole-cell recordings and optogenetic stimulation of presynaptic input in urethane-anesthetized mice, which exhibit slow-wave-sleep (SWS)-like activity, we show that synaptic plasticity rules are gated by cortical dynamics in vivo...
February 12, 2018: Neuron
Tânia C Gonçalves, Rachid Boukaiba, Jordi Molgó, Muriel Amar, Michel Partiseti, Denis Servent, Evelyne Benoit
The Chinese bird spider huwentoxin-IV (HwTx-IV) is well-known to be a highly potent blocker of NaV 1.7 subtype of voltage-gated sodium (NaV ) channels, a genetically validated analgesic target, and thus promising as a potential lead molecule for the development of novel pain therapeutics. In the present study, the interaction between HwTx-IV and NaV 1.6 channel subtype was investigated using multiscale (from in vivo to individual cell) functional approaches. HwTx-IV was approximatively 2 times more efficient than tetrodotoxin (TTX) to inhibit the compound muscle action potential recorded from the mouse skeletal neuromuscular system in vivo, and 30 times more effective to inhibit nerve-evoked than directly-elicited muscle contractile force of isolated mouse hemidiaphragms...
February 20, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Kaiyu Zheng, Thomas P Jensen, Dmitri A Rusakov
Nanomolar-range fluctuations of intracellular [Ca2+ ] are critical for brain cell function but remain difficult to measure. We have advanced a microscopy technique to monitor intracellular [Ca2+ ] in individual cells in acute brain slices (also applicable in vivo) using fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) of the Ca2+ -sensitive fluorescent indicator Oregon Green BAPTA1 (OGB-1). The OGB-1 fluorescence lifetime is sensitive to [Ca2+ ] within the 10-500 nM range but not to other factors such as viscosity, temperature, or pH...
March 2018: Nature Protocols
Jim Sellmeijer, Victor Mathis, Sylvain Hugel, Xu-Hui Li, Qian Song, Qi-Yu Chen, Florent Barthas, Pierre-Eric Lutz, Meltem Karatas, Andreas Luthi, Pierre Veinante, Michel Barrot, Min Zhuo, Ipek Yalcin
Pain associates both sensory and emotional aversive components, and often leads to anxiety and depression when it becomes chronic. Here, we characterized, in a mouse model, the long-term development of these sensory and aversive components as well as anxiodepressive-like consequences of neuropathic pain and determined their electrophysiological impact on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, cortical areas 24a/24b). We show that these symptoms of neuropathic pain evolve and recover in different time courses following nerve injury in male mice...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Leah B Gerrard, Malinda L S Tantirigama, John M Bekkers
The piriform cortex (PC), like other cortical regions, normally operates in a state of dynamic equilibrium between excitation and inhibition. Here we examined the roles played by pre- and postsynaptic GABAB receptors in maintaining this equilibrium in the PC. Using whole-cell recordings in brain slices from the anterior PC of mice, we found that synaptic activation of postsynaptic GABAB receptors hyperpolarized the two major classes of layer 2 principal neurons and reduced the intrinsic electrical excitability of these neurons...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Joanna Urban-Ciecko, Jean-Sebastien Jouhanneau, Stephanie E Myal, James F A Poulet, Alison L Barth
Sleep, waking, locomotion, and attention are associated with cell-type-specific changes in neocortical activity. The effect of brain state on circuit output requires understanding of how neuromodulators influence specific neuronal classes and their synapses, with normal patterns of neuromodulator release from endogenous sources. We investigated the state-dependent modulation of a ubiquitous feedforward inhibitory motif in mouse sensory cortex, local pyramidal (Pyr) inputs onto somatostatin (SST)-expressing interneurons...
February 7, 2018: Neuron
Teresa Guillamon-Vivancos, William A Tyler, Maria Medalla, Wayne Wei-En Chang, Mayumi Okamoto, Tarik F Haydar, Jennifer I Luebke
How the variety of neurons that organize into neocortical layers and functional areas arises is a central question in the study of cortical development. While both intrinsic and extrinsic cues are known to influence this process, whether distinct neuronal progenitor groups contribute to neuron diversity and allocation is poorly understood. Using in vivo genetic fate-mapping combined with whole-cell patch clamp recording, we show that the firing pattern and apical dendritic morphology of excitatory neurons in layer 4 of the barrel cortex are specified in part by their neural precursor lineage...
February 3, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Feng Gu, Isabel Parada, Tao Yang, Frank M Longo, David A Prince
Post-traumatic epilepsy is one of the most common and difficult to treat forms of acquired epilepsy worldwide. Currently, there is no effective way to prevent post-traumatic epileptogenesis. It is known that abnormalities of interneurons, particularly parvalbumin-containing interneurons, play a critical role in epileptogenesis following traumatic brain injury. Thus, enhancing the function of existing parvalbumin interneurons might provide a logical therapeutic approach to prevention of post-traumatic epilepsy...
February 2, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Roger Marek, Jingji Jin, Travis D Goode, Thomas F Giustino, Qian Wang, Gillian M Acca, Roopashri Holehonnur, Jonathan E Ploski, Paul J Fitzgerald, Timothy Lynagh, Joseph W Lynch, Stephen Maren, Pankaj Sah
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been implicated in the extinction of emotional memories, including conditioned fear. We found that ventral hippocampal (vHPC) projections to the infralimbic (IL) cortex recruited parvalbumin-expressing interneurons to counter the expression of extinguished fear and promote fear relapse. Whole-cell recordings ex vivo revealed that optogenetic activation of vHPC input to amygdala-projecting pyramidal neurons in the IL was dominated by feed-forward inhibition. Selectively silencing parvalbumin-expressing, but not somatostatin-expressing, interneurons in the IL eliminated vHPC-mediated inhibition...
February 5, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Tzu-Tung Chang, Chia-Jung Yang, Yu-Chi Lee, Sheng-Nan Wu
Telmisartan (Tel) is recognized as a non-peptide blocker of angiotensin II type-1 receptor. Whether this agent has any direct effects on ion currents remains unexplored. In whole-cell current recordings, addition of Tel increased the peak amplitude of voltage-gated Na⁺ current (INa) accompanied by the increased time constant of INa inactivation in differentiated NSC-34 motor neuron-like cells. Tel-stimulated INa in these cells is unlinked to either blockade of angiotensin II receptors or activation of PPAR-γ...
January 29, 2018: Chinese Journal of Physiology
Dongze Zhang, Huiyin Tu, Liang Cao, Hong Zheng, Robert L Muelleman, Michael C Wadman, Yu-Long Li
BACKGROUND: Attenuated cardiac vagal activity is associated with ventricular arrhythmogenesis and related mortality in patients with chronic heart failure. Our recent study has shown that expression of N-type Ca2+ channel α-subunits (Cav2.2-α) and N-type Ca2+ currents are reduced in intracardiac ganglion neurons from rats with chronic heart failure. Rat intracardiac ganglia are divided into the atrioventricular ganglion (AVG) and sinoatrial ganglion. Ventricular myocardium receives projection of neuronal terminals only from the AVG...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Gong Zhang, Xiao-Hua Wu, Guo-Zhong Xu, Shi-Jun Weng, Xiong-Li Yang, Yong-Mei Zhong
Orexin-A, -B play a crucial role in arousal and feeding by activating two G-protein-coupled receptors: orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) and orexin receptor 2 (OX2R). Orexins, along with orexin receptors, are expressed in retinal neurons, and they have been shown to differentially modulate excitatory AMPA receptors of amacrine and ganglion cells in the inner retina. In this work we report that orexin-B modulates the activity of rod bipolar cells (RBCs) located in the outer retina of rat. Intravitreal injection of orexin-B increased the amplitude of the scotopic electroretinographic b-wave, a reflection of RBC activity, recorded in vivo...
January 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Xingxing Liu, Haibo Song, Jun Yang, Cheng Zhou, Yi Kang, Linghui Yang, Jin Liu, Wensheng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: (R)-2-methoxyethyl1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate hydrochloride (ET-26 HCl) is a novel etomidate analogue. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether ET-26 HCl could retain the superior myocardial performance of etomidate in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: In vivo, the influence of ET-26 HCl and etomidate on the cardiac function of dogs was confirmed using echocardiography and electrocardiogram. In vitro, a Langendorff preparation was used to examine direct myocardial performance in isolated rat hearts, and a whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to study effects on the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel...
2018: PloS One
Eyal Gruntman, Sandro Romani, Michael B Reiser
A neuron that extracts directionally selective motion information from upstream signals lacking this selectivity must compare visual responses from spatially offset inputs. Distinguishing among prevailing algorithmic models for this computation requires measuring fast neuronal activity and inhibition. In the Drosophila melanogaster visual system, a fourth-order neuron-T4-is the first cell type in the ON pathway to exhibit directionally selective signals. Here we use in vivo whole-cell recordings of T4 to show that directional selectivity originates from simple integration of spatially offset fast excitatory and slow inhibitory inputs, resulting in a suppression of responses to the nonpreferred motion direction...
January 8, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
Suhasa B Kodandaramaiah, Francisco J Flores, Gregory L Holst, Annabelle C Singer, Xue Han, Emery N Brown, Edward S Boyden, Craig R Forest
The activities of groups of neurons in a circuit or brain region are important for neuronal computations that contribute to behaviors and disease states. Traditional extracellular recordings have been powerful and scalable, but much less is known about the intracellular processes that lead to spiking activity. We present a robotic system, the multipatcher, capable of automatically obtaining blind whole-cell patch clamp recordings from multiple neurons simultaneously. The multipatcher significantly extends automated patch clamping, or 'autopatching', to guide four interacting electrodes in a coordinated fashion, avoiding mechanical coupling in the brain...
January 3, 2018: ELife
Shogo Tsujikawa, Tadashi Matsuura, Kotaro Hori, Takashi Mori, Miyuki Kuno, Kiyonobu Nishikawa
BACKGROUND: Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a major cause of fatal drug poisoning due to their cardiotoxicity. Alkalinization by sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) administration, the first-line therapy for TCA-induced cardiotoxicity, can occasionally yield insufficient efficacy in severe cases. Because most TCAs are highly lipophilic, lipid emulsion may be more effective than alkalinization. However, it remains to be determined whether lipid emulsion is more beneficial than alkalinization in reversing amitriptyline-induced cardiotoxicity...
December 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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