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in vivo whole cell recording

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325900/orexin-b-modulates-synaptic-transmission-of-rod-bipolar-cells-in-rat-retina
#1
Gong Zhang, Xiao-Hua Wu, Guo-Zhong Xu, Shi-Jun Weng, Xiong-Li Yang, Yong-Mei Zhong
Orexin-A, -B play a crucial role in arousal and feeding by activating two G-protein-coupled receptors: orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) and orexin receptor 2 (OX2R). Orexins, along with orexin receptors, are expressed in retinal neurons, and they have been shown to differentially modulate excitatory AMPA receptors of amacrine and ganglion cells in the inner retina. In this work we report that orexin-B modulates the activity of rod bipolar cells (RBCs) located in the outer retina of rat. Intravitreal injection of orexin-B increased the amplitude of the scotopic electroretinographic b-wave, a reflection of RBC activity, recorded in vivo...
January 8, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324898/the-etomidate-analog-et-26-hcl-retains-superior-myocardial-performance-comparisons-with-etomidate-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#2
Xingxing Liu, Haibo Song, Jun Yang, Cheng Zhou, Yi Kang, Linghui Yang, Jin Liu, Wensheng Zhang
OBJECTIVE: (R)-2-methoxyethyl1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate hydrochloride (ET-26 HCl) is a novel etomidate analogue. The purpose of this study was to characterize whether ET-26 HCl could retain the superior myocardial performance of etomidate in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: In vivo, the influence of ET-26 HCl and etomidate on the cardiac function of dogs was confirmed using echocardiography and electrocardiogram. In vitro, a Langendorff preparation was used to examine direct myocardial performance in isolated rat hearts, and a whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to study effects on the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channel...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311742/simple-integration-of-fast-excitation-and-offset-delayed-inhibition-computes-directional-selectivity-in-drosophila
#3
Eyal Gruntman, Sandro Romani, Michael B Reiser
A neuron that extracts directionally selective motion information from upstream signals lacking this selectivity must compare visual responses from spatially offset inputs. Distinguishing among prevailing algorithmic models for this computation requires measuring fast neuronal activity and inhibition. In the Drosophila melanogaster visual system, a fourth-order neuron-T4-is the first cell type in the ON pathway to exhibit directionally selective signals. Here we use in vivo whole-cell recordings of T4 to show that directional selectivity originates from simple integration of spatially offset fast excitatory and slow inhibitory inputs, resulting in a suppression of responses to the nonpreferred motion direction...
January 8, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297466/multi-neuron-intracellular-recording-in-vivo-via-interacting-autopatching-robots
#4
Suhasa B Kodandaramaiah, Francisco J Flores, Gregory L Holst, Annabelle C Singer, Xue Han, Emery N Brown, Edward S Boyden, Craig R Forest
The activities of groups of neurons in a circuit or brain region are important for neuronal computations that contribute to behaviors and disease states. Traditional extracellular recordings have been powerful and scalable, but much less is known about the intracellular processes that lead to spiking activity. We present a robotic system, the multipatcher, capable of automatically obtaining blind whole-cell patch clamp recordings from multiple neurons simultaneously. The multipatcher significantly extends automated patch clamping, or 'autopatching', to guide four interacting electrodes in a coordinated fashion, avoiding mechanical coupling in the brain...
January 3, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239964/superior-efficacy-of-lipid-emulsion-infusion-over-serum-alkalinization-in-reversing-amitriptyline-induced-cardiotoxicity-in-guinea-pig
#5
Shogo Tsujikawa, Tadashi Matsuura, Kotaro Hori, Takashi Mori, Miyuki Kuno, Kiyonobu Nishikawa
BACKGROUND: Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a major cause of fatal drug poisoning due to their cardiotoxicity. Alkalinization by sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) administration, the first-line therapy for TCA-induced cardiotoxicity, can occasionally yield insufficient efficacy in severe cases. Because most TCAs are highly lipophilic, lipid emulsion may be more effective than alkalinization. However, it remains to be determined whether lipid emulsion is more beneficial than alkalinization in reversing amitriptyline-induced cardiotoxicity...
December 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214312/transretinal-erg-in-studying-mouse-rod-phototransduction-comparison-with-local-erg-across-the-rod-outer-segments
#6
Teemu T Turunen, Ari Koskelainen
Purpose: Electroretinography (ERG) is the gold standard in clinical examinations of retinal function. Corneal ERG is widely used for diagnostics, but ERG components from the inner retina complicate quantitative investigations of the phototransduction cascade. Transretinal ERG (TERG) recorded ex vivo enables pharmacologic isolation of signals generated by photoreceptor cells, establishing an appealing electrophysiologic method for diverse studies of phototransduction. Pharmacologically isolated TERG, however, contains components arising in the photoreceptor inner segments...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209230/balanced-noise-evoked-excitation-and-inhibition-in-awake-mice-ca3
#7
Ningqian Wang, Xiong Gan, Yun Liu, Zhongju Xiao
The hippocampus is known as a neuronal structure involved in learning, memory and spatial navigation using multi-sensory cues. However, the basic features of its response to acoustic stimuli without any behavioral tasks (conditioning) remains poorly studied. Here, we investigated the CA3 response to auditory stimuli using in vivo loose-patch recordings in awake and anesthetized C57 mice. Different acoustic stimuli in addition to broadband noise such as click, FM sound and pure tone were applied to test the response of CA3 in awake animals...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205695/diminished-gastric-prokinetic-response-to-ghrelin-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#8
E M Besecker, A R White, G M Holmes
BACKGROUND: Patients with cervical or high-thoracic spinal cord injury (SCI) often present reduced gastric emptying and early satiety. Ghrelin provokes motility via gastric vagal neurocircuitry and ghrelin receptor agonists offer a therapeutic option for gastroparesis. We have previously shown that experimental high-thoracic injury (T3-SCI) diminishes sensitivity to another gastrointestinal peptide, cholecystokinin. This study tests the hypothesis that T3-SCI impairs the vagally mediated response to ghrelin...
December 5, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194563/cyclic-analogues-of-%C3%AE-conotoxin-vc1-1-inhibit-colonic-nociceptors-and-provide-analgesia-in-a-mouse-model-of-chronic-abdominal-pain
#9
Joel Castro, Luke Grundy, Annemie Deiteren, Andrea M Harrington, Tracey O'Donnell, Jessica Maddern, Jessi Moore, Sonia Garcia-Caraballo, Grigori Y Rychkov, Rilei Yu, Quentin Kaas, David J Craik, David J Adams, Stuart M Brierley
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome suffer from chronic visceral pain (CVP); however, limited analgesic therapeutic options are currently available. We have shown that α-conotoxin Vc1.1-induced activation of GABAB receptors on the peripheral endings of colonic afferents reduces nociceptive signalling from the viscera. However, the analgesic efficacy of more stable, cyclized versions of Vc1.1 on CVP remains to be determined. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Using ex vivo colonic afferent preparations, we determined the inhibitory actions of cyclized Vc1...
November 30, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193067/the-role-of-s-nitrosylation-of-kainate-type-of-ionotropic-glutamate-receptor-2-in-epilepsy-induced-by-kainic-acid
#10
Linxiao Wang, Yanyan Liu, Rulan Lu, Guoying Dong, Xia Chen, Wenwei Yun, Xianju Zhou
Epilepsy is a chronic brain disease affecting millions of individuals. Kainate receptors, especially kainate-type of ionotropic glutamate receptor 2 (GluK2), play an important role in epileptogenesis. Recent data showed that GluK2 could undergo post-translational modifications in terms of S-nitrosylation (SNO), and affect the signaling pathway of cell death in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. However, it is unclear whether S-nitrosylation of GluK2 (SNO-GluK2) contributes to cell death induced by epilepsy. Here, we report that kainic acid-induced SNO-GluK2 is mediated by GluK2 itself, regulated by neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and the level of cytoplasmic calcium in vivo and in vitro hippocampus neurons...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174617/mir-302-367-induced-neurons-reduce-behavioral-impairment-in-an-experimental-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Maryam Ghasemi-Kasman, Amir Shojaei, Mohammad Gol, Ali Akbar Moghadamnia, Hossein Baharvand, Mohammad Javan
In vivo reprogramming of reactive glial cells to neurons has opened a new horizon in regenerative medicine. Our previous study showed that astrocytes could be converted to neurons by the microRNA-302/367 (miR-302/367) cluster in adult brains. In this study, we investigated the possible contribution of miR-302/367-induced neurons in behavioral improvement and neural repair in an Alzheimer's disease (AD) animal model. The AD model was induced by an intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) injection of streptozotocin (STZ)...
November 24, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158337/a-single-residue-mutation-in-the-g%C3%AE-q%C3%A2-subunit-of-the-g-protein-complex-causes-blindness-in-drosophila
#12
Jinguo Cao, Murali K Bollepalli, Yuhui Hu, Jin Zhang, Qiang Li, Hongmei Li, Hua Chang, Feng Xiao, Roger C Hardie, Yikang S Rong, Wen Hu
Heterotrimeric G proteins play central roles in many signaling pathways, including the phototransduction cascade in animals. However, the degree of involvement of the G protein subunit Gαq is not clear since animals with strong loss of function mutations previously reported remain responsive to light stimuli. We recovered a new allele of Gαq in Drosophila that abolishes light response in a conventional ERG assay, and reduces sensitivity in whole-cell recordings of dissociated cells by at least 5 orders of magnitude...
November 20, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121216/fast-inhibitory-decay-facilitates-adult-like-temporal-processing-in-layer-5-of-developing-primary-auditory-cortex
#13
Fenghua Xie, Ling You, Dongqin Cai, Miaomiao Liu, Yin Yue, Yiwei Wang, Kexin Yuan
The protracted maturational process of temporal processing in layer 4 (L4) of primary auditory cortex (A1) has been extensively studied. Accumulating evidences show that layer 5 (L5) receives direct thalamic inputs as well. How the temporal responses in L5 may developmentally emerge remains unclear. Using in vivo loose-patch recordings in rat A1, we found that putative pyramidal (Pyr) neurons in developing L5 exhibited adult-like stimulus-following ability but less bursting shortly after hearing onset. L5 Pyr neurons in adult A1 exhibited phase-locking similar to L4 neurons, while L5 fast-spiking (FS) neurons showed greater phase-locking at 7 and 12...
October 31, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109420/passage-dependent-accumulation-of-somatic-mutations-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-during-in-vitro-culture-revealed-by-whole-genome-sequencing
#14
Myungshin Kim, Je-Keun Rhee, Hayoung Choi, Ahlm Kwon, Jiyeon Kim, Gun Dong Lee, Dong Wook Jekarl, Seungok Lee, Yonggoo Kim, Tae-Min Kim
Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have served as a major cellular resource for cell-based immunomodulatory and regenerative therapies. However, genomic instability may accumulate during ex vivo expansion of MSCs, thereby increasing the potential of malignant transformation. Here, we performed whole genome sequencing of two peripheral blood-derived MSC lines (MSC1 and MSC2) at various passages (passage 1 [P1] to P9). The majority of single-nucleotide variations (SNVs) occurred in later passages; specifically, 90% and 70% of all SNVs in MSC1 and MSC2 were observed in P9 and P7/P9, respectively...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094727/a-pivotal-role-for-the-activation-of-trpv3-channel-in-itch-sensations-induced-by-the-natural-skin-sensitizer-carvacrol
#15
Ting-Ting Cui, Gong-Xin Wang, Ning-Ning Wei, KeWei Wang
Itching is an intricate, common symptom of dermatologic and systemic diseases, and both TRPV3 and TRPA1 channels have been suggested to function as downstream effector targets. But the relative contributions of TRPV3 and TRPA1 to itch sensation in vivo remain unclear. To dissect the role of TRPA1 or TRPV3 in the cutaneous sensation of itching, we took the advantage of a natural compound carvacrol from oregano, and examined its effect on the induction of scratching behavior in mice. We showed that the intradermal injection of carvacrol (0...
November 2, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093172/a-computational-analysis-of-signal-fidelity-in-the-rostral-nucleus-of-the-solitary-tract
#16
Alison Boxwell, David Terman, Marion Frank, Yuchio Yanagawa, Joseph B Travers
Neurons in the rostral nucleus of the solitary tract (rNST) convey taste information to both local circuits and pathways destined for forebrain structures. This nucleus is more than a simple relay, however, since rNST neurons differ in response rates and tuning curves relative to primary afferent fibers. To systematically study the impact of convergence and inhibition on firing frequency and breadth of tuning (BOT) in rNST, we constructed a mathematical model of its two major cell types: projection neurons and inhibitory neurons...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069619/breakdown-of-excitability-by-attenuated-prv-152-infection-in-auditory-brainstem-neurons-of-mongolian-gerbils
#17
Christian P Porres, Benedikt Grothe, Felix Felmy
Pseudorabies virus (PRV), a neurovirulent α-herpesvirus, spreads between neurons at synaptic connections. PRV-infected neurons have been shown to exhibit functional deficits with the attenuated PRV152 Bartha strain negatively influencing neuronal functioning in in vitro model systems. However, the impact of this attenuated PRV152 Bartha strain on the native central nervous system has not been fully explored. Using a combination of in vivo stereotactic injections and post-hoc in vitro whole-cell recordings, we investigated the functional impact of PRV152 Bartha in the auditory system of juvenile Mongolian gerbils...
October 22, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066971/the-sigma-2-receptor-selective-agonist-siramesine-lu-28-179-decreases-cocaine-reinforced-pavlovian-learning-and-alters-glutamatergic-and-dopaminergic-input-to-the-striatum
#18
Anna M Klawonn, Anna Nilsson, Carl F Rådberg, Sarah H Lindström, Mia Ericson, Björn Granseth, David Engblom, Michael Fritz
Drug addiction is a chronic, debilitating disease that affects millions of people around the world causing a substantial societal burden. Despite decades of research efforts, treatment possibilities remain limited and relapse represents the most treatment-resistant element. Neurosteroid sigma-1 receptors have been meticulously studied in psychostimulant reinforced Pavlovian learning, while the sigma-2 receptor subtype has remained unexplored. Recent development of selective sigma-2 receptor ligands have now made it possible to investigate if the sigma-2 receptor system is a potential target to treat drug addiction...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055091/functional-interaction-of-junctophilin-2-with-small-conductance-ca-2-activated-potassium-channel-subtype-2-sk2-in-mouse-cardiac-myocytes
#19
Hong K Fan, Tian X Luo, Wei D Zhao, Yong H Mu, Yang Yang, Wen J Guo, Hui Y Tu, Qian Zhang
AIM: Junctophilins (JPs), a protein family of the junctional membrane complex, maintain the close conjunction between cell surface and intracellular membranes in striate muscle cells mediating the cross talk between extracellular Ca(2+) entry and intracellular Ca(2+) release. The small conductance Ca(2+) -activated K(+) channels are activated by the intracellular calcium and play an essential role in the cardiac action potential profile. Molecular mechanisms of regulation of the SK channels are still uncertain...
October 21, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049988/magnolia-officinalis-bark-extract-induces-depolarization-of-pacemaker-potentials-through-m2-and-m3-muscarinic-receptors-in-cultured-murine-small-intestine-interstitial-cells-of-cajal
#20
Hyun Jung Kim, Taewon Han, Yun Tai Kim, Insuk So, Byung Joo Kim
BACKGROUND: Magnolia officinalis Rehder and EH Wilson (M. officinalis) are traditional Chinese medicines widely used for gastrointestinal (GI) tract motility disorder in Asian countries. We investigated the effects of an ethanol extract of M. officinalis (MOE) on the pacemaker potentials of cultured interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) in vitro and its effects on GI motor functions in vivo. METHODS: We isolated ICCs from small intestines, and the whole-cell patch-clamp configuration was used to record the pacemaker potentials in cultured ICCs in vitro...
October 19, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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