keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

primary motor cortex

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053798/in-vivo-characterization-of-cortical-and-white-matter-neuroaxonal-pathology-in-early-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Tobias Granberg, Qiuyun Fan, Constantina Andrada Treaba, Russell Ouellette, Elena Herranz, Gabriel Mangeat, Céline Louapre, Julien Cohen-Adad, Eric C Klawiter, Jacob A Sloane, Caterina Mainero
Neuroaxonal pathology is a main determinant of disease progression in multiple sclerosis; however, its underlying pathophysiological mechanisms, including its link to inflammatory demyelination and temporal occurrence in the disease course are still unknown. We used ultra-high field (7 T), ultra-high gradient strength diffusion and T1/T2-weighted myelin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging to characterize microstructural changes in myelin and neuroaxonal integrity in the cortex and white matter in early stage multiple sclerosis, their distribution in lesional and normal-appearing tissue, and their correlations with neurological disability...
October 10, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052102/changes-in-cerebellar-functional-connectivity-and-autonomic-regulation-in-cancer-patients-treated-with-the-neuro-emotional-technique-for-traumatic-stress-symptoms
#2
Daniel A Monti, Anna Tobia, Marie Stoner, Nancy Wintering, Michael Matthews, Chris J Conklin, Feroze B Mohamed, Inna Chervoneva, Andrew B Newberg
PURPOSE: A growing number of research studies have implicated the cerebellum in emotional processing and regulation, especially with regard to negative emotional memories. However, there currently are no studies showing functional changes in the cerebellum as a result of treatment for traumatic stress symptoms. The Neuro Emotional Technique (NET) is an intervention designed to help improve symptoms related to traumatic stress using an integrative approach that combines emotional, cognitive, and motor processing, with a particular focus on autonomic nervous system regulation...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050894/long-term-effect-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-disability-in-patients-with-stroke
#3
Kyung Eun Nam, Leechan Jo, So Yeon Jun, Won Jin Sung, Joon Sung Kim, Bo Young Hong, Bomi Sul, Seong Hoon Lim
High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is widely used to improve motor function in stroke patients. However, the long-term effects of rTMS on disability and motor function are not clear. We investigated the effects of high-frequency rTMS administered within 1 month of stroke on disability and motor function 6 months after stroke onset. The study was conducted by an open-label longitudinal study, and were included 76 (38 rTMS and 38 control) subacute stroke patients. The rTMS group received 10 Hz stimulation over the primary motor cortex of the affected hemisphere for 10 days with a daily dose of 1000 pulses...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046427/different-contributions-of-primary-motor-cortex-reticular-formation-and-spinal-cord-to-fractionated-muscle-activation
#4
Boubker Zaaimi, Lauren R Dean, Stuart N Baker
Coordinated movement requires patterned activation of muscles. In this study we examined differences in selective activation of primate upper limb muscles by cortical and sub-cortical regions. Five macaque monkeys were trained to perform a reach and grasp task, and electromyogram (EMG) was recorded from 10-24 muscles while weak single-pulse stimuli were delivered through microelectrodes inserted in the motor cortex (M1), reticular formation (RF) or cervical spinal cord (SC). Stimulus intensity was adjusted to a level just above threshold...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044874/information-processing-from-the-motor-cortices-to-the-subthalamic-nucleus-and-globus-pallidus-and-their-somatotopic-organizations-revealed-electrophysiologically-in-monkeys
#5
Hirokazu Iwamuro, Yoshihisa Tachibana, Yoshikazu Ugawa, Nobuhito Saito, Atsushi Nambu
To understand how the information derived from different motor cortical areas representing different body parts is organized in the basal ganglia, we examined the neuronal responses in the subthalamic nucleus (STN), and the external (GPe) and internal (GPi) segments of the globus pallidus, input, relay, and output nuclei, respectively, to stimulation of the orofacial, forelimb, and hindlimb regions of the primary motor cortex (MI) and supplementary motor area (SMA) in macaque monkeys under awake state. Most STN and GPe/GPi neurons responded exclusively to stimulation of either the MI or SMA, and one-fourth to one-third of neurons responded to both...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031881/beyond-variability-subjective-timing-and-the-neurophysiology-of-motor-cognition
#6
David Perruchoud, Mirta Fiorio, Paola Cesari, Silvio Ionta
BACKGROUND: Movement simulation helps increasing the chances to reach goals. A cognitive task used to study the neuro-behavioral aspects of movement simulation is mental rotation: people mentally re-orient rotated pictures of hands. However, the involvement of the primary motor cortex (M1) in mental rotation is largely controversial. HYPOTHESIS: Such inconsistency could arise from potential methodological flaws in experimental procedures and data analysis. In particular, until now, the timing of M1 activity has been computed in absolute terms: from the onset of mental rotation (onset-locked), neglecting intra- and inter-subject variability...
October 3, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031601/enhancing-generalization-of-visuomotor-adaptation-by-inducing-use-dependent-learning
#7
Yuming Lei, Shancheng Bao, Monica A Perez, Jinsung Wang
Learning a motor task in one condition typically generalizes to another, although it is unclear why it generalizes substantially in certain situations, but only partially in other situations (e.g., across movement directions and motor effectors). Here, we demonstrate that generalization of motor learning across directions and effectors can be enhanced substantially by inducing use-dependent learning, that is, by having subjects experience motor actions associated with a desired trajectory repeatedly during reaching movements...
October 12, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030110/where-and-what-tms-activates-experiments-and-modeling
#8
Ilkka Laakso, Takenobu Murakami, Akimasa Hirata, Yoshikazu Ugawa
BACKGROUND: Despite recent developments in navigation and modeling techniques, the type and location of the structures that are activated by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) remain unknown. OBJECTIVE: We studied the relationships between electrophysiological measurements and electric fields induced in the brain to locate the TMS activation site. METHODS: The active and resting motor thresholds of the first dorsal interosseous muscle were recorded in 19 subjects (7 female, 12 male, age 22 ± 4 years) using anteromedially oriented monophasic TMS at multiple locations over the left primary motor cortex (M1)...
September 27, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030077/corticomuscular-coherence-reflects-somatosensory-feedback-gains-during-motor-adaptation
#9
Shoko Kasuga, Natsumi Momose, Junichi Ushiyama, Junichi Ushiba
Beta-band corticomuscular coherence (CMC) observed between the sensorimotor cortex activity and contracting muscle is declaratively described as a neurophysiological reflection of sensorimotor binding. However, much remains unknown about the functional meaning of 'sensorimotor binding.' The efficacy of information binding in the sensorimotor system is assumed to be influenced by the gain of the feedback controller, which is regulated through a process that may in part be implemented in the primary sensorimotor cortex (SM1)...
October 10, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028949/pyramidal-cell-subtypes-and-their-synaptic-connections-in-layer-5-of-rat-frontal-cortex
#10
Yasuo Kawaguchi
The frontal cortical areas make a coordinated response that generates appropriate behavior commands, using individual local circuits with corticostriatal and corticocortical connections in longer time scales than sensory areas. In secondary motor cortex (M2), situated between the prefrontal and primary motor areas, major subtypes of layer 5 corticostriatal cells are crossed-corticostriatal (CCS) cells innervating both sides of striatum, and corticopontine (CPn) cells projecting to the ipsilateral striatum and pontine nuclei...
September 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024235/topography-and-timing-of-activity-in-right-inferior-frontal-cortex-and-anterior-insula-for-stopping-movement
#11
Eleonora Bartoli, Adam R Aron, Nitin Tandon
Stopping incipient action activates both the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) and the anterior insula (rAI). Controversy has arisen as to whether these comprise a unitary cortical cluster-the rIFC/rAI-or whether rIFC is the primary stopping locus. To address this, we recorded directly from these structures while taking advantage of the high spatiotemporal resolution of closely spaced stereo-electro-encephalographic (SEEG) electrodes. We studied 12 patients performing a stop-signal task. On each trial they initiated a motor response (Go) and tried to stop to an occasional stop signal...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021749/phase-dependent-modulation-of-signal-transmission-in-cortical-networks-through-tacs-induced-neural-oscillations
#12
Kristoffer D Fehér, Masahito Nakataki, Yosuke Morishima
Oscillatory neural activity is considered a basis of signal transmission in brain networks. However, the causal role of neural oscillations in regulating cortico-cortical signal transmission has so far not been directly demonstrated. To date, due to methodological limitations, studies on the online modulatory mechanisms of transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS)-induced neural oscillations are confined to the primary motor cortex. To address the causal role of oscillatory activity in modulating cortico-cortical signal transmission, we have established a new method using concurrent tACS, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021744/posterior-thalamic-nucleus-modulation-of-tactile-stimuli-processing-in-rat-motor-and-primary-somatosensory-cortices
#13
Diana Casas-Torremocha, Francisco Clascá, Ángel Núñez
Rodents move rhythmically their facial whiskers and compute differences between signals predicted and those resulting from the movement to infer information about objects near their head. These computations are carried out by a large network of forebrain structures that includes the thalamus and the primary somatosensory (S1BF) and motor (M1wk) cortices. Spatially and temporally precise mechanorreceptive whisker information reaches the S1BF cortex via the ventroposterior medial thalamic nucleus (VPM). Other whisker-related information may reach both M1wk and S1BF via the axons from the posterior thalamic nucleus (Po)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018896/hypericum-perforatum-extract-modulates-cortical-plasticity-in-humans
#14
Carmen Concerto, Hyunji Boo, Charles Hu, Priam Sandilya, Anita Krish, Eileen Chusid, Diego Coira, Eugenio Aguglia, Fortunato Battaglia
BACKGROUND: Hypericum perforatum (HYP) extract is one of the most commonly used complementary alternative medicines (CAMs) for the treatment of mild-to-moderate depression. Non-invasive brain stimulation protocols can be used to investigate the effect of psychoactive substances on the human brain. In this study, we explored the effect of a single dose of HYP extract (WS 5570) intake on corticospinal excitability and plasticity in humans. METHODS: Twenty-eight healthy subjects were required to intake 900 mg of either HYP extract or placebo...
October 10, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017909/objectively-measuring-effects-of-electro-acupuncture-in-parkinsonian-rhesus-monkeys
#15
Rui Zhang, Anders H Andersen, Peter A Hardy, Eric Forman, April Evans, Yi Ai, Jin Yue, Guihua Yue, Don M Gash, Richard Grondin, Zhiming Zhang
Acupuncture has increasingly been used as an alternative therapy for treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the efficacy of acupunture for PD still remains unclear. The present study was designed to objectively and safely monitor anti-parkinsonian effects of electroacupuncture (EA) and brain activity in nonhuman primates modeling human PD. Six middle-aged rhesus monkeys were extensively studied by a computerized behavioral testing battery and by pharmacological MRI (phMRI) scans with specific dopaminergic drug stimulations...
October 7, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016867/the-response-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-to-neuromodulation-is-altered-in-chronic-low-back-pain-a-preliminary-study
#16
Siobhan M Schabrun, Emma Burns, Tribikram Thapa, Paul Hodges
Objective: Neuromodulation is increasingly investigated for the treatment of low back pain (LBP). However, the neurophysiological effects of common neuromodulatory techniques (anodal transcranial direct current stimulation [tDCS] and peripheral electrical stimulation [PES]) have not been investigated in people with chronic LBP. Here we aimed to compare the effect of three neuromodulatory protocols (anodal tDCS, high intensity PES, and a priming protocol of combined tDCS/PES) on primary motor cortex (M1) excitability in people with and without chronic LBP...
July 17, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994763/effects-of-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-on-the-primary-motor-cortex-by-online-combined-approach-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#17
Anna Shpektor, Maria Nazarova, Matteo Feurra
Transcranial Alternating Current Stimulation (tACS) is a neuromodulatory technique able to act through sinusoidal electrical waveforms in a specific frequency and in turn modulate ongoing cortical oscillatory activity. This neurotool allows the establishment of a causal link between endogenous oscillatory activity and behavior. Most of the tACS studies have shown online effects of tACS. However, little is known about the underlying action mechanisms of this technique because of the AC-induced artifacts on Electroencephalography (EEG) signals...
September 23, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992533/neural-correlates-of-affective-and-non-affective-cognition-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-a-meta-analysis-of-functional-imaging-studies
#18
A Rasgon, W H Lee, E Leibu, A Laird, D Glahn, W Goodman, S Frangou
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by intrusive thoughts and repetitive ritualistic behaviors and has been associated with diverse functional brain abnormalities. We sought to synthesize current evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies and examine their alignment to pathogenetic models of OCD. Following systematic review, we identified 54 task-fMRI studies published in the last decade comparing adults with OCD (n=1186) to healthy adults (n=1159) using tasks of affective and non-affective cognition...
September 1, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990645/-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-fibromyalgia-a-systematic-review
#19
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Fibromyalgia is a multisymptomatic diffuse chronic musculoskeletal pain syndrome with evidence of central nervous system dysfunction. Accordingly, non-invasive brain stimulation techniques such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be a complementary therapeutic resource to reduce pain perception. AIMS: To review the potential effectiveness of tDCS to reduce pain in fibromyalgia, to identify the most effective neurostimulation parameters and to delimit its safety...
October 16, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986816/effects-of-electroacupuncture-on-metabolic-changes-in-motor-cortex-and-striatum-of-6-hydroxydopamine-induced-parkinsonian-rats
#20
Min Li, Ke Wang, Wen-Ting Su, Jun Jia, Xiao-Min Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the possible underlying mechanism by investigating the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) treatment on the primary motor cortex and striatum in a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) induced rat Parkinson's disease (PD) model. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into sham group (n=16), model group (n=14), and EA group (n=14). EA stimulation at Dazhui (GV 14) and Baihui (GV20) was applied to PD rats in the EA group for 4 weeks...
October 6, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
keyword
keyword
90907
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"