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primary motor cortex

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523425/characterization-of-electrocorticogram-high-gamma-signal-in-response-to-varying-upper-extremity-movement-velocity
#1
Po T Wang, Colin M McCrimmon, Christine E King, Susan J Shaw, David E Millett, Hui Gong, Luis A Chui, Charles Y Liu, Zoran Nenadic, An H Do
The mechanism by which the human primary motor cortex (M1) encodes upper extremity movement kinematics is not fully understood. For example, human electrocorticogram (ECoG) signals have been shown to modulate with upper extremity movements; however, this relationship has not been explicitly characterized. To address this issue, we recorded high-density ECoG signals from patients undergoing epilepsy surgery evaluation as they performed elementary upper extremity movements while systematically varying movement speed and duration...
May 18, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522223/relationship-between-the-changes-in-m1-excitability-after-motor-learning-and-arousal-state-as-assessed-by-short-latency-afferent-inhibition
#2
Yoshiki Koizume, Masato Hirano, Shinji Kubota, Shinya Tanaka, Kozo Funase
To examine the factors that influence the inter-individual differences in the changes in primary motor cortex (M1) excitability seen after motor learning, we investigated the relationship between the amplitude of transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor evoked potentials (MEP) and short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) after motor learning, based on the working hypothesis that SAI can be used to evaluate cortical acetylcholine (ACh) activity. To confirm this working hypothesis, we manipulated the arousal state of the subjects using a vigilance task, the outcomes of which might be correlated with cortical ACh activity, and investigated the effects of arousal state on SAI...
May 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520647/altered-brain-structure-and-function-associated-with-sensory-and-affective-components-of-classic-trigeminal-neuralgia
#3
Yuan Wang, Dong-Yuan Cao, Bethany Remeniuk, Samuel Krimmel, David A Seminowicz, Ming Zhang
Classic trigeminal neuralgia (CTN) is a chronic neuropathic pain state characterized by intense, piercing spasms of the orofacial region, and may be attributable to abnormal pain processing in the central nervous system. Our study investigated neuronal alterations using voxel-based morphometry (VBM), diffuse tensor imaging (DTI), and resting state functional connectivity in 38 CTN patients and 38 matched healthy controls. For VBM analyses, CTN patients displayed gray matter volume (GMV) reductions in the anterior and mid cingulate cortex (ACC and MCC), insula, secondary somatosensory cortex (S2), primary motor cortex (M1), premotor area (PMA), and several regions in the temporal lobe...
May 16, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512442/posterior-anterior-brain-maturation-reflected-in-perceptual-motor-and-cognitive-performance
#4
Patrícia Gerván, Péter Soltész, Orsolya Filep, Andrea Berencsi, Ilona Kovács
Based on several postmortem morphometric and in vivo imaging studies it has been postulated that brain maturation roughly follows a caudal to rostral direction. In this study, we linked this maturational pattern to psychological function employing a series of well-established behavioral tasks. We addressed three distinct functions and brain regions with a perceptual (contour integration, CI), motor (finger tapping, FT), and executive control (Navon global-local) task. Our purpose was to investigate basic visual integration functions relying on primary visual cortex (V1) in CI; motor coordination function related to primary motor cortex (M1) in FT, and the executive control component, switching, related to the dorsolateral prefrontal region of the brain in the Navon task...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510605/the-role-of-attention-in-human-motor-resonance
#5
Guglielmo Puglisi, Antonella Leonetti, Ayelet Landau, Luca Fornia, Gabriella Cerri, Paola Borroni
Observation of others' actions evokes in primary motor cortex and spinal circuits of observers a subliminal motor resonance response, which reflects the motor program encoding observed actions. We investigated the role of attention in human motor resonance with four experimental conditions, explored in different subject groups: in the first explicit condition, subjects were asked to observe a rhythmic hand flexion-extension movement performed live in front of them. In two other conditions subjects had to monitor the activity of a LED light mounted on the oscillating hand...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506878/pain-motor-integration-in-the-primary-motor-cortex-in-parkinson-s-disease
#6
A Suppa, C Leone, F Di Stasio, L Marsili, A Di Santo, A Biasiotta, S La Cesa, A Truini, G Cruccu, A Berardelli
BACKGROUND: In Parkinson's disease (PD), the influence of chronic pain on motor features has never been investigated. We have recently designed a technique that combines nociceptive system activation by laser stimuli and primary motor cortex (M1) activation through transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), in a laser-paired associative stimulation design (Laser-PAS). In controls, Laser-PAS induces long-term changes in motor evoked potentials reflecting M1 long-term potentiation-like plasticity, arising from pain-motor integration...
April 30, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506486/preoperative-and-intraoperative-neurophysiological-investigations-for-surgical-resections-in-functional-areas
#7
G Huberfeld, A Trébuchon, L Capelle, J-M Badier, S Chen, J-P Lefaucheur, M Gavaret
Brain regions are removed to treat lesions, but great care must be taken not to disturb or remove functional areas in the lesion and in surrounding tissue where healthy and diseased cells may be intermingled, especially for infiltrating tumors. Cortical functional areas and fiber tracts can be localized preoperatively by probabilistic anatomical tools, but mapping of functional integrity by neurophysiology is essential. Identification of the primary motor cortex seems to be more effectively performed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) than functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 12, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506002/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-combined-with-visuo-motor-training-as-treatment-for-chronic-stroke-patients
#8
Elena L Pavlova, Påvel Lindberg, Amirah Khan, Sigurd Ruschkowski, Michael A Nitsche, Jörgen Borg
BACKGROUND: Recent studies exploring the combined effect of motor learning and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for stroke rehabilitation have shown partially conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To test the efficacy of an optimized hand training approach combined with tDCS in stroke patients. METHODS: In the present pilot study we investigated motor effects of four-week training with a visuomotor grip force tracking task combined with tDCS in 11 chronic stroke patients...
May 9, 2017: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504971/robust-tactile-sensory-responses-in-finger-area-of-primate-motor-cortex-relevant-to-prosthetic-control
#9
Karen E Schroeder, Zachary Irwin, Autumn Bullard, David Thompson, Nicole Bentley, William Stacey, Parag Patil, Cynthia Chestek
OBJECTIVE:  Challenges in improving the performance of dexterous upper-limb brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) have prompted renewed interest in quantifying the amount and type of sensory information naturally encoded in primary motor cortex (M1). Previous single unit studies in monkeys showed M1 is responsive to tactile stimulation, as well as passive and active movement of the limbs. However, recent work in this area has focused primarily on proprioception. Here we examined instead how tactile somatosensation of the hand and fingers is represented in M1...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504723/cx3cr1-monocytes-modulate-learning-and-learning-dependent-dendritic-spine-remodeling-via-tnf-%C3%AE
#10
Juan Mauricio Garré, Hernandez Moura Silva, Juan J Lafaille, Guang Yang
Impaired learning and cognitive function often occurs during systemic infection or inflammation. Although activation of the innate immune system has been linked to the behavioral and cognitive effects that are associated with infection, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here we mimicked viral immune activation with poly(I:C), a synthetic analog of double-stranded RNA, and longitudinally imaged postsynaptic dendritic spines of layer V pyramidal neurons in the mouse primary motor cortex using two-photon microscopy...
May 15, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504643/exploiting-neurovascular-coupling-a-bayesian-sequential-monte-carlo-approach-applied-to-simulated-eeg-fnirs-data
#11
Pierpaolo Croce, Filippo Zappasodi, Arcangelo Merla, Antonio Chiarelli
OBJECTIVE: Electrical and hemodynamic brain activity are linked through the neurovascular coupling process and they can be simultaneously measured through integration of Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS). Thanks to the lack of electro-optical interference, the two procedures can be easily combined and, whereas EEG provides electrophysiological information, fNIRS can provide measurements of two hemodynamic variables, such as oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504121/corticospinal-excitability-during-the-processing-of-handwritten-and-typed-words-and-non-words
#12
Chelsea L Gordon, Michael J Spivey, Ramesh Balasubramaniam
A number of studies have suggested that perception of actions is accompanied by motor simulation of those actions. To further explore this proposal, we applied Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the left primary motor cortex during the observation of handwritten and typed language stimuli, including words and non-word consonant clusters. We recorded motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from the right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle to measure cortico-spinal excitability during written text perception...
May 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503804/neural-correlates-of-visuomotor-adjustments-during-scaling-of-human-finger-movements-fmri-during-visuomotor-scaling-of-finger-movements
#13
Johannes Brand, Lars Michels, Romy Bakker, Marie-Claude Hepp-Reymond, Daniel Kiper, Manfred Morari, Kynan Eng
Visually guided finger movements include online feedback of current effector position to guide target approach. This visual feedback may be scaled or otherwise distorted by unpredictable perturbations. Although adjustments to visual feedback scaling have been studied before, the underlying brain activation differences between upscaling (visual feedback larger than real movement) and downscaling (feedback smaller than real movement) are currently unknown. Brain activation differences between upscaling and downscaling might be expected because within-trial adjustments during upscaling require corrective backwards accelerations, whereas correcting for downscaling requires forward accelerations...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499145/human-dorsomedial-parieto-motor-circuit-specifies-grasp-during-the-planning-of-goal-directed-hand-actions
#14
Michael Vesia, Michael Barnett-Cowan, Behzad Elahi, Gaayathiri Jegatheeswaran, Reina Isayama, Jason L Neva, Marco Davare, W Richard Staines, Jody C Culham, Robert Chen
According to one influential view, two specialized parieto-frontal circuits control prehension: a dorsomedial stream for hand transport during reaching and a dorsolateral stream for preshaping the fingers during grasping. However, recent evidence argues that an area within the dorsomedial stream-macaque area V6A and, its putative human homolog, superior parietal occipital cortex (SPOC) - encodes both hand transport and grip formation. We tested whether planning varied hand actions modulates functional connectivity between left SPOC and ipsilateral primary motor cortex (M1) using a dual-site, paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm with two coils (dsTMS)...
April 19, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487249/combining-tdcs-with-prismatic-adaptation-for-non-invasive-neuromodulation-of-the-motor-cortex
#15
Martina Bracco, Giuseppa Renata Mangano, Patrizia Turriziani, Daniela Smirni, Massimiliano Oliveri
BACKGROUND: Prismatic adaptation (PA) shifts visual field laterally and induces lateralized deviations of spatial attention. Recently, it has been suggested that prismatic goggles are also able to modulate brain excitability, with cognitive after-effects documented even in tasks not necessarily spatial in nature. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to test whether neuromodulatory effects obtained from tDCS and prismatic goggles could interact and induce homeostatic changes in corticospinal excitability...
May 6, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486594/apathy-and-impulsivity-in-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-syndromes
#16
Claire J Lansdall, Ian T S Coyle-Gilchrist, P Simon Jones, Patricia Vázquez Rodríguez, Alicia Wilcox, Eileen Wehmann, Katrina M Dick, Trevor W Robbins, James B Rowe
Apathy and impulsivity are common and disabling consequences of frontotemporal lobar degeneration. They cause substantial carer distress, but their aetiology remains elusive. There are critical limitations to previous studies in this area including (i) the assessment of either apathy or impulsivity alone, despite their frequent co-existence; (ii) the assessment of behavioural changes within single diagnostic groups; and (iii) the use of limited sets of tasks or questions that relate to just one aspect of these multifactorial constructs...
May 9, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483659/the-long-non-coding-rna-neat1-is-an-important-mediator-of-the-therapeutic-effect-of-bexarotene-on-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#17
Jianjun Zhong, Li Jiang, Zhijian Huang, Hongrong Zhang, Chongjie Cheng, Han Liu, Junchi He, Jingchuan Wu, Rami Darwazeh, Yue Wu, Xiaochuan Sun
OBJECTIVE: Bexarotene treatments exert neuroprotective effects on mice following traumatic brain injury (TBI). The present study aims to investigate the potential roles of the long noncoding RNA Neat1 in the neuroprotective effects of bexarotene. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male C57BL/6J mice (n=80) and newborn mice (within 24 h after birth) (n=20) were used to generate a "controlled cortical impact" (CCI) model and harvest primary cortex neurons, respectively...
May 5, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483654/validity-of-robot-based-assessments-of-upper-extremity-function
#18
Alison McKenzie, Lucy Dodakian, Jill See, Vu Le, Erin Burke Quinlan, Claire Bridgford, Daniel Head, Vy L Han, Steven C Cramer
OBJECTIVE: To examine the validity of 5 robot-based assessments of arm motor function post-stroke. DESIGN: Cross sectional. SETTING: Outpatient clinical research center. PARTICIPANTS: Volunteer sample of 40 participants, age >18 years, 3-6 months post-stroke, with arm motor deficits that had plateaued. INTERVENTION: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical standards included the Fugl-Meyer Arm Motor Scale (FMA), and 5 secondary motor outcomes: hand/wrist subsection of the FMA; Action Research Arm Test (ART); Box & Blocks test (B/B); hand subscale of Stroke Impact Scale-2 (SIS); and the Barthel Index (BI)...
May 5, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475998/refractory-focal-motor-seizures-controlled-with-intramuscular-botulinum-toxin
#19
Wei-I Lee, Patrick W Carney, Andrew J Hughes, John S Archer
Patients with recurrent focal motor seizures present a management dilemma, as anti-convulsants are often ineffective, and resective surgery poses a high risk of motor deficit. We describe three patients with recurrent focal motor seizures that remained refractory despite numerous anti-convulsant trials. All patients showed either hyperperfusion on Single-Photon Emission Computerised Tomography (SPECT) or hypermetabolism on Positron Emission Tomography (PET) in primary motor cortex during periods of sustained jerking, although EEG abnormalities were uncommon...
April 10, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474539/induced-neural-activity-promotes-an-oligodendroglia-regenerative-response-in-the-injured-spinal-cord-and-improves-motor-function-after-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Qun Li, Thierry Houdayer, Su Liu, Visar Belegu
Myelination in central nervous system (CNS) is a dynamic process that includes birth of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), their differentiation into oligodendrocytes, and ensheathment of axons. Regulation of myelination by neuronal activity has emerged as a new mechanism of CNS plasticity. Indeed, activity-dependent myelination has been shown to regulate sensory, motor and cognitive functions. In this work, we aimed to employ this mechanism of CNS plasticity by utilizing induced neuronal activity to promote remyelination and functional recovery in a subchronic model of SCI...
May 5, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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