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primary motor cortex

Benjamin Dufour, François Thénault, Pierre-Michel Bernier
Activity in the primary motor cortex (M1) during reach planning is known to be correlated with the upcoming kinetics and kinematics of the hand. Yet recent work using visual-motor dissociation tasks suggests that M1 activity is also correlated with the visual consequences of an action, independent of the actual hand displacement. The goal of the present work was to investigate whether oscillatory activity over sensorimotor regions is modulated by the expectancy of visual reafferent feedback during reach planning...
June 12, 2018: Neuroscience
Amaia Muñoz-Lopetegi, Gorka Fernández García de Eulate, Jon Rodríguez-Antigüedad Muñoz, Alberto Bergareche, Juan José Poza
Opercular myoclonic-anarthric status epilepticus (OMASE) is a rare form of epilepsia partialis continua presenting as fluctuating dysarthria, or even anarthria. The condition is caused by an epileptogenic lesion involving the opercular cortex of either hemisphere. Speech impairment is secondary to bilateral epileptic activity affecting the glossopharyngeal muscles. This bilateral nature of the condition is due to the fact that innervation of cranial nerves V, VII, IX, X and XII from the opercular area of the primary motor cortex is bilateral...
June 15, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Jonathan H Hsu, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
PURPOSE: Review recent meta-analyses and clinical trials investigating the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for concurrent pain and depressive symptoms. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent meta-analyses have included both pain and depression outcomes in fibromyalgia and chronic pain. Randomized controlled trials have also been conducted in post-herpetic neuralgia, trauma-related headache, and neuropathic pain with attention to both pain and depressive symptoms...
June 14, 2018: Current Pain and Headache Reports
S Dall'Orso, J Steinweg, A G Allievi, A D Edwards, E Burdet, T Arichi
In the mature mammalian brain, the primary somatosensory and motor cortices are known to be spatially organized such that neural activity relating to specific body parts can be somatopically mapped onto an anatomical "homunculus". This organization creates an internal body representation which is fundamental for precise motor control, spatial awareness and social interaction. Although it is unknown when this organization develops in humans, animal studies suggest that it may emerge even before the time of normal birth...
July 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Matteo Bologna, Andrea Guerra, Giulia Paparella, Laura Giordo, Danilo Alunni Fegatelli, Anna Rita Vestri, John C Rothwell, Alfredo Berardelli
Many neurophysiological abnormalities have been described in the primary motor cortex of patients with Parkinson's disease. However, it is unclear whether there is any relationship between them and bradykinesia, one of the cardinal motor features of the condition. In the present study we aimed to investigate whether objective measures of bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease have any relationship with neurophysiological measures in primary motor cortex as assessed by means of transcranial magnetic stimulation techniques...
June 12, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Q Q Jin, G Q Wu, W W Peng, X L Xia, L Hu, G D Iannetti
There is now compelling evidence that selective stimulation of Aδ nociceptors eliciting first pain evokes robust responses in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). In contrast, whether the C-fiber nociceptive input eliciting second pain has an organized projection to S1 remains an open question. Here, we recorded the electrocortical responses elicited by nociceptive-specific laser stimulation of the four limbs in 202 humans (both males and females, using EEG) and 12 freely moving rats (all males, using ECoG)...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Aref-Ali Gharooni, Krishnan Padmakumari Sivaraman Nair, Debby Hawkins, Ian Scivill, Daniel Hind, Ram Hariharan
STUDY DESIGN: Single-blind, sham-controlled, crossover randomized feasibility study OBJECTIVES: (1) Assess the feasibility of a full-scale trial of intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) for upper-limb sensorimotor dysfunction following spinal cord injury (SCI). (2) Determine the safety and tolerability of iTBS over primary motor cortex on upper-limb function in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). SETTING: Large Tertiary Spinal Injuries Centre METHODS: Participants with incomplete SCI, suffering with upper-limb spasticity were recruited and randomized to receive active/sham iTBS over the hand representation of the primary motor cortex...
June 12, 2018: Spinal Cord
Melanie Segado, Avrum Hollinger, Joseph Thibodeau, Virginia Penhune, Robert J Zatorre
This research uses an MR-Compatible cello to compare functional brain activation during singing and cello playing within the same individuals to determine the extent to which arbitrary auditory-motor associations, like those required to play the cello, co-opt functional brain networks that evolved for singing. Musical instrument playing and singing both require highly specific associations between sounds and movements. Because these are both used to produce musical sounds, it is often assumed in the literature that their neural underpinnings are highly similar...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ying-Zu Huang, Rou-Shayn Chen, Po-Yu Fong, John C Rothwell, Wen-Li Chuang, Yi-Hsin Weng, Wey-Yil Lin, Chin-Song Lu
KEY POINTS SUMMARY: Plasticity is involved in daily activities but abnormal plasticity may be deleterious. In this study, we found that motor plasticity could be modulated by suppressing the premotor cortex with the theta burst form of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Such changes in motor plasticity were associated with reduced learning of a simple motor task. We postulate that the premotor cortex adjusts the amount of motor plasticity to modulate motor learning through heterosynaptic metaplasticity...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Alberto Pisoni, Giulia Mattavelli, Alessandra Casarotti, Alessandro Comi, Marco Riva, Lorenzo Bello, Costanza Papagno
Data concerning the neural basis of noun and verb processing are inconsistent. Some authors assume that action-verb processing is based on frontal areas while nouns processing relies on temporal regions; others argue that the circuits processing verbs and nouns are closely interconnected in a predominantly left-lateralized fronto-temporal-parietal network; yet, other researchers consider that the primary motor cortex plays a crucial role in processing action verbs. In the present study, one hundred and two patients with a tumour either in the right or left hemisphere were submitted to picture naming of objects and actions before and after surgery...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Marine Bouyssi-Kobar, Marie Brossard-Racine, Marni Jacobs, Jonathan Murnick, Taeun Chang, Catherine Limperopoulos
Objectives: To compare regional cerebral cortical microstructural organization between preterm infants at term-equivalent age (TEA) and healthy full-term newborns, and to examine the impact of clinical risk factors on cerebral cortical micro-organization in the preterm cohort. Study design: We prospectively enrolled very preterm infants (gestational age (GA) at birth<32 weeks; birthweight<1500 g) and healthy full-term controls. Using non-invasive 3T diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics, we quantified regional micro-organization in ten cerebral cortical areas: medial/dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior/posterior cingulate cortex, insula, posterior parietal cortex, motor/somatosensory/auditory/visual cortex...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
M Bönstrup, R Schulz, G Schön, B Cheng, J Feldheim, G Thomalla, C Gerloff
Objective: Motor recovery after stroke shows a high inter-subject variability. The brain's potential to form new connections determines individual levels of recovery of motor function. Most of our daily activities require visuomotor integration, which engages parietal areas. Compared to the frontal motor system, less is known about the parietal motor system's reconfiguration related to stroke recovery. Here, we tested if functional connectivity among parietal and frontal motor areas undergoes plastic changes after stroke and assessed the behavioral relevance for motor function after stroke...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Lena K L Oestreich, Thomas J Whitford, Marta I Garrido
Predictive coding postulates that the brain continually predicts forthcoming sensory events based on past experiences in order to process sensory information and respond to unexpected events in a fast and efficient manner. Predictive coding models in the context of overt speech are believed to operate along auditory white matter pathways such as the arcuate fasciculus and the frontal aslant. The aim of this study was to investigate whether brain regions that are structurally connected via these white matter pathways are also effectively engaged when listening to externally-generated, temporally-predicable speech sounds...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Ricci Hannah, Lorenzo Rocchi, John C Rothwell
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies of human primary motor cortex (M1) indicate an increase corticospinal excitability during the observation of another's action. This appears to be somewhat at odds with recordings of pyramidal tract neurons in primate M1 showing that there is a balance of increased and decreased activity across the population. TMS is known to recruit a mixed population of cortical neurons, and so one explanation for previous results is that TMS tends to recruit those excitatory output neurons whose activity is increased during action observation...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Reika Kubo, Atsu Aiba, Kouichi Hashimoto
Perioral tactile signals are transmitted via the infraorbital nerve (ION) to trigeminal nuclei. Each cerebellar Purkinje cell receives this signal as complex spikes (CSs) via a climbing fibre emerging from the inferior olive (IO). However, the anatomical pathway from the trigeminal nuclei to the IO is not clearly identified. In the present study, we recorded CSs from Purkinje cells in male mice by single unit recording, and examined the signal transduction pathway. CSs were evoked by electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral or contralateral ION with a latency of 20-70 ms...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Matthew J Fogarty
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron (MN) disease and is clinically characterised by the death of corticospinal motor neurons (CSMNs), spinal and brainstem MNs and the degeneration of the corticospinal tract. Degeneration of CSMNs and MNs leads inexorably to muscle wastage and weakness, progressing to eventual death within 3-5 years of diagnosis. The CSMNs, located within layer V of the primary motor cortex, project axons constituting the corticospinal tract, forming synaptic connections with brainstem and spinal cord interneurons and MNs...
June 2, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Annika Linke, Elizabeth Roach-Fox, Ellen Vriezen, Asuri Narayan Prasad, Rhodri Cusack
Mirror writing is often produced by healthy children during early acquisition of literacy, and has been observed in adults following neurological disorders or insults. The neural mechanisms responsible for involuntary mirror writing remain debated, but in healthy children, it is typically attributed to the delayed development of a process of overcoming mirror invariance while learning to read and write. We present an unusual case of sudden-onset, persistent mirror writing in a previously typical seven-year-old girl...
June 2, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Smriti Agarwal, Elizabeth Highton-Williamson, Jashelle Caga, José M Matamala, Thanuja Dharmadasa, James Howells, Margaret C Zoing, Kazumoto Shibuya, Nimeshan Geevasinga, Steve Vucic, John R Hodges, Rebekah M Ahmed, Matthew C Kiernan
AIM: To investigate whether primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) represents part of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD) spectrum of diseases. METHODS: Comprehensive assessment was taken on 21 patients with PLS and results were compared to patients diagnosed with pure motor ALS (n = 27) and ALS-FTD (n = 12). Clinical features, Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination (ACE) scores, Motor Neuron Disease Behaviour (Mind-B) scores, motor disability on the ALS functional rating scale (ALSFRS) and survival times were documented...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Neurology
Alexandra Badea, Alaa Kamnaksh, Robert J Anderson, Evan Calabrese, Joseph B Long, Denes V Agoston
A history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), particularly repeated mTBI (rmTBI), has been identified as a risk factor for late-onset neurodegenerative conditions. The mild and transient nature of early symptoms often impedes diagnosis in young adults who are disproportionately affected by mTBIs. A proportion of the affected population will incur long-term behavioral and cognitive consequences but the underlying pathomechanism is currently unknown. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides sensitive and quantitative assessment of TBI-induced structural changes, including white matter injury, and may be used to predict long-term outcome...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Chao Li, Mengshi Dong, Yi Yin, Kelei Hua, Shishun Fu, Guihua Jiang
Objective: Daytime cognitive impairment is an essential symptom of primary insomnia (PI). However, the underlying neural substrate remains largely unknown. Many studies have shown that the right anterior insula (rAI) as a key node of salience network (SN) plays a critical role in switching between the executive control network (ECN) and the default mode network (DMN) for better performance of cognitively demanding tasks. Aberrant effective connectivity (directional functional connectivity) of rAI with ECN or DMN may be one reason for daytime cognitive impairment in PI patients...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
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