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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338444/the-role-of-diet-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-review
#1
Sabrina Esposito, Simona Bonavita, Maddalena Sparaco, Antonio Gallo, Gioacchino Tedeschi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifactorial, inflammatory, and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system, where environmental factors interact with genetic susceptibility. The role of diet on MS has not been comprehensively elucidated; therefore, through an extensive search of relevant literature, this review reports the most significant evidence regarding nutrition as a possible co-factor influencing the inflammatory cascade by acting on both its molecular pathways and gut microbiota. Since nutritional status and dietary habits in MS patients have not been extensively reported, the lack of a scientific-based consensus on dietary recommendation in MS could encourage many patients to experiment alternative dietetic regimens, increasing the risk of malnutrition...
March 24, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332270/changes-in-elevated-cholesterol-in-the-era-of-tenofovir-in-south-africa-risk-factors-clinical-management-and-outcomes
#2
L Jamieson, D Evans, A T Brennan, F Moyo, D Spencer, K Mahomed, M Maskew, L Long, S Rosen, M P Fox
OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been associated with unfavourable lipid profile changes and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). With a growing population on ART in South Africa, there has been concern about the increase in noncommunicable diseases such as CVD. We determined risk factors associated with increased total cholesterol (TC) in a large cohort on ART and describe the clinical management thereof. METHODS: We conducted an observational cohort study of ART-naïve adults initiating standard first-line ART in a large urban clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa...
March 23, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332246/weight-management-in-adults-with-intellectual-and-developmental-disabilities-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-two-dietary-approaches
#3
Lauren T Ptomey, Richard R Saunders, Muriel Saunders, Richard A Washburn, Matthew S Mayo, Debra K Sullivan, Cheryl A Gibson, Jeannine R Goetz, Jeff J Honas, Erik A Willis, Jessica C Danon, Ron Krebill, Joseph E Donnelly
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity among individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) is equal to or greater than the general population. METHODS: Overweight/obese adults (BMI ≥25 kg/m(2) ) with mild-to-moderate intellectual and developmental disabilities were randomized to an enhanced stop light diet (eSLD = SLD + portion-controlled meals, n = 78) or a conventional diet (CD, n = 72) for an 18 months trial (6 months weight loss, 12 months maintenance)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320603/influence-of-dietary-and-physical-activity-restriction-on-pediatric-adenotonsillectomy-postoperative-care-in-brazil-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#4
Denise Manica, Leo Sekine, Larissa S Abreu, Michelle Manzini, Luísi Rabaioli, Marcel M Valério, Manoela P Oliveira, João A Bergamaschi, Luciano A Fernandes, Gabriel Kuhl, Cláudia Schweiger
INTRODUCTION: Although culturally food and physical activity restriction are part of the routine postoperative care of many Brazilian surgeons, current evidences from other countries support no such recommendations. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether dietary and physical restriction effectively lead to a decrease on postoperative complications of adenotonsillectomy in children when compared to no restriction. METHODS: We have designed a randomized clinical trial comparing two intervention: no specific counseling on diet or activity (Group A), and restriction recommendations on diet and physical activities (Group B)...
February 22, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318434/perceived-barriers-to-following-dietary-recommendations-in-hypertensive-patients
#5
Reza Mahdavi, Azadeh Bagheri Asl, Mohammad Asghari Jafar Abadi, Nazli Namazi
OBJECTIVE: Hypertension (HTN) is one of the most important public health problems in the world. Lifestyle modification including dietary changes such as following the Dietary to Stop Hypertension (DASH) plan is the first step to control HTN. The aim of the present study was to identify perceived barriers to following dietary recommendations in hypertensive patients in Zanjan, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 200 outpatients (161 women, 39 men) with essential HTN (systolic blood pressure [SBP] ≥ 140 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure [DBP] ≥ 90 mmHg) were recruited from August to November 2012...
March 20, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318298/factors-associated-with-compliance-to-increased-fluid-intake-and-urine-volume-following-dietary-counseling-in-first-time-kidney-stone-patients
#6
Aziz Khambati, Richard S Matulewicz, Kent T Perry, Robert B Nadler
OBJECTIVE: Increasing fluid intake to achieve a urine volume (UV) of >2.5 L/day decreases stone events. We assessed compliance rates and demographic and clinical variables associated with increased fluid intake and UV in patients with urolithiasis following dietary counseling. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a retrospective study, patients with a low baseline UV (<2.5 L/day) on an initial 24-hour urine collection during metabolic stone evaluation were identified between 2010 and 2015...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301962/overcoming-obesity
#7
Elaine Seaton Banerjee, Sharon J Herring, Katelyn E Hurley, Katherine Puskarz, Kyle Yebernetsky, Marianna LaNoue
PURPOSE: Low-income, African American women are disproportionately impacted by obesity. Little is known about the interactions between low-income, African American women who successfully lost weight and their primary care physicians (PCPs). DESIGN: Mixed methods, positive deviance study. SETTING: Urban university-based family medicine practice. PARTICIPANTS: The positive deviance group comprised low-income, African American women who were obese, lost 10% body weight, and maintained this loss for 6 months...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299612/dietary-self-management-in-heart-failure-high-tech-or-high-touch
#8
REVIEW
Eloisa Colin-Ramirez, JoAnne Arcand, Justin A Ezekowitz
Dietary management of heart failure (HF) has largely been focused on sodium and fluid restrictions. Although safety and efficacy of these interventions in HF remain unclear, a daily sodium intake between 2000 and 3000 mg/day appears to be safe in these patients. Ongoing clinical research will inform on the safety and efficacy of a more restrictive sodium intake to less than 1500 mg/day. Data shows that routine fluid restriction in HF regardless of symptoms may be unnecessary; however, in patients with signs of congestion, fluid restriction to 2...
March 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292616/strong-adherence-to-a-healthy-dietary-pattern-is-associated-with-better-semen-quality-especially-in-men-with-poor-semen-quality
#9
Elsje C Oostingh, Régine P M Steegers-Theunissen, Jeanne H M de Vries, Joop S E Laven, Maria P H Koster
OBJECTIVE: To study associations between periconceptional dietary patterns and semen quality parameters. DESIGN: Prospective periconception cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary hospital. PATIENT(S): One hundred and twenty-nine male partners of pregnant women who participated in the Rotterdam Periconception Cohort (Predict study). INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Semen quality parameters-ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, total sperm count, progressive motility, immotile sperm, and total motile sperm count (TMSC)...
March 11, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292282/metabolic-risk-management-physical-exercise-and-lifestyle-counselling-in-low-active-adults-controlled-randomized-trial-bellugat
#10
Assumpta Ensenyat, Gemma Espigares-Tribo, Leonardo Machado, Francisco José Verdejo, Rosa Rodriguez-Arregui, José Serrano, Marta Miret, Gisela Galindo, Alfonso Blanco, Josep-Ramon Marsal, Susana Sarriegui, Xenia Sinfreu-Bergues, Noemi Serra-Paya
BACKGROUND: The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of different doses (intensity) of supervised exercise training - concomitant with lifestyle counselling - as a primary care intervention tool for the management of metabolic syndrome risk factors in low-active adults with one or more such factors (programme name in Catalan: Bellugat de CAP a peus). METHODS/DESIGN: Three-arm, randomized controlled clinical trial implemented in the primary care setting, with a duration of 40 weeks (16 weeks intervention and 24-week follow-up)...
March 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271424/a-randomized-controlled-multisite-study-of-behavioral-interventions-for-veterans-with-mental-illness-and-antipsychotic-medication-associated-obesity
#11
Zachary D Erickson, Crystal L Kwan, Hollie A Gelberg, Irina Y Arnold, Valery Chamberlin, Jennifer A Rosen, Chandresh Shah, Charles T Nguyen, Gerhard Hellemann, Dixie R Aragaki, Charles F Kunkel, Melissa M Lewis, Neena Sachinvala, Patrick A Sonza, Joseph M Pierre, Donna Ames
BACKGROUND: Weight gain and other metabolic sequelae of antipsychotic medications can lead to medication non-adherence, reduced quality of life, increased costs, and premature mortality. Of the approaches to address this, behavioral interventions are less invasive, cost less, and can result in sustained long-term benefits. OBJECTIVE: We investigated behavioral weight management interventions for veterans with mental illness across four medical centers within the Veterans Affairs (VA) Healthcare System...
March 7, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267267/peripheral-neuropathy-in-prediabetes-and-the-metabolic-syndrome
#12
REVIEW
Amro M Stino, A Gordon Smith
Peripheral neuropathy is a major cause of disability worldwide. Diabetes is the most common cause of neuropathy, accounting for 50% of cases. Over half of people with diabetes develop neuropathy, and diabetic neuropathy (DPN) is a major cause of reduced quality of life due to pain, sensory loss, gait instability, fall related injury, and foot ulceration and amputation. Most patients with nondiabetic neuropathy have cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy (CSPN). A growing body of literature links prediabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) to risk of both DPN and CSPN (CSPN-MetS)...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264082/effects-of-advice-to-drink-8-cups-of-water-per-day-in-adolescents-with-overweight-or-obesity-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#13
Julia M W Wong, Cara B Ebbeling, Lisa Robinson, Henry A Feldman, David S Ludwig
Importance: Health care professionals commonly recommend increased water consumption, typically to 8 cups per day, as part of a weight-reducing diet. However, this recommendation is based on limited evidence and virtually no experimental data from the pediatric population. Objective: To compare 2 standardized weight-loss diets among adolescents with overweight or obesity, either with or without additional advice and behavioral support to increase habitual water intake to 8 cups per day...
March 6, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239404/impact-of-a-6-week-non-energy-restricted-ketogenic-diet-on-physical-fitness-body-composition-and-biochemical-parameters-in-healthy-adults
#14
Paul Urbain, Lena Strom, Lena Morawski, Anja Wehrle, Peter Deibert, Hartmut Bertz
BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet (KD) is a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat and adequate-protein diet that without limiting calories induces different metabolic adaptations, eg, increased levels of circulating ketone bodies and a shift to lipid metabolism. Our objective was to assess the impact of a 6-week non-energy-restricted KD in healthy adults beyond cohorts of athletes on physical performance, body composition, and blood parameters. METHODS: Our single arm, before-and-after comparison study consisted of a 6-week KD with a previous preparation period including detailed instructions during classes and individual counselling by a dietitian...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228332/calorically-restricted-diets-decrease-pcsk9-in-overweight-adolescents
#15
A E Levenson, C E Milliren, S B Biddinger, C B Ebbeling, H A Feldman, D S Ludwig, S D de Ferranti
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nutritional therapy is the first line approach to treatment of hyperlipidemia in childhood. Proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a key regulator of plasma cholesterol levels and a target of novel lipid-lowering pharmacotherapies. We examined the effects of an intensive nutritional intervention on PCSK9 levels in overweight adolescents with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty seven obese and overweight adolescents with CVD risk factors were assigned to either a low fat or low glycemic load diet...
January 3, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228134/the-impact-of-community-health-worker-led-home-delivery-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-virological-suppression-a-non-inferiority-cluster-randomized-health-systems-trial-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#16
Pascal Geldsetzer, Joel M Francis, Nzovu Ulenga, David Sando, Irene A Lema, Eric Mboggo, Maria Vaikath, Happiness Koda, Sharon Lwezaula, Janice Hu, Ramadhani A Noor, Ibironke Olofin, Elysia Larson, Wafaie Fawzi, Till Bärnighausen
BACKGROUND: Home delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) by community health workers (CHWs) may improve ART retention by reducing the time burden and out-of-pocket expenditures to regularly attend an ART clinic. In addition, ART home delivery may shorten waiting times and improve quality of care for those in facility-based care by decongesting ART clinics. This trial aims to determine whether ART home delivery for patients who are clinically stable on ART combined with facility-based care for those who are not stable on ART is non-inferior to the standard of care (facility-based care for all ART patients) in achieving and maintaining virological suppression...
February 22, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225052/building-better-bones-in-childhood-a-randomized-controlled-study-to-test-the-efficacy-of-a-dietary-intervention-program-to-increase-calcium-intake
#17
D R Weber, L J Stark, R F Ittenbach, V A Stallings, B S Zemel
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Many children do not consume the recommended daily allowance of calcium. Inadequate calcium intake in childhood may limit bone accrual. The objective of this study was to determine if a behavioral modification and nutritional education (BM-NE) intervention improved dietary calcium intake and bone accrual in children. SUBJECTS/METHODS: 139 (86 female) healthy children, 7-10 years of age, were enrolled in this randomized controlled trial conducted over 36 months...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218628/childhood-obesity-screening-and-treatment-practices-of-pediatric-healthcare-providers
#18
Amanda Staiano, Arwen Marker, Michelle Liu, Ellery Hayden, Daniel Hsia, Stephanie Broyles
This study evaluated physicians' childhood obesity screening and treatment practices. A 26-question survey was delivered to pediatric providers in-person or via mail, e-mail, or fax throughout Louisiana. Fifty-seven providers completed the survey, the majority in primary care clinics. Five providers met at least four of seven clinical guidelines, but no provider met all of the guidelines. Whereas 88% of providers screened for obesity, 7% met guidelines for referring patients with obesity to weight management services...
January 2017: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216282/smoking-cessation-improves-cardiometabolic-risk-in-overweight-and-obese-subjects-treated-with-varenicline-and-dietary-counseling
#19
E Heggen, M Svendsen, S Tonstad
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Weight gain after stopping smoking potentially counteracts improvements in cardiometabolic risks. We investigated changes in metabolic syndrome (MetS) components and homeostasis assessment model insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in smokers given dietary counseling during their quit attempt. METHODS AND RESULTS: Smokers (≥10 cigarettes/day) with BMI 25-40 kg/m(2) were randomized to a low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet and treated with a standard course of varenicline for 12 weeks...
January 4, 2017: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209636/a-randomized-crossover-trial-of-dietary-sodium-restriction-in-stage-3-4-ckd
#20
Rajiv Saran, Robin L Padilla, Brenda W Gillespie, Michael Heung, Scott L Hummel, Vimal Kumar Derebail, Bertram Pitt, Nathan W Levin, Fansan Zhu, Samer R Abbas, Li Liu, Peter Kotanko, Philip Klemmer
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are often volume expanded and hypertensive. Few controlled studies have assessed the effects of a sodium-restricted diet (SRD) in CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: We conducted a randomized crossover trial to evaluate the effect of SRD (target <2 g sodium per day) versus usual diet on hydration status (by bioelectrical impedance spectroscopy) and blood pressure (BP) between May of 2009 and May of 2013...
March 7, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
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