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Clinical trial

Yassir A Yassir, Ahmed M El-Angbawi, Grant T McIntyre, Gavin F Revie, David R Bearn
Objective: To compare the quality of orthodontic treatment between 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch slot bracket systems. Subjects and methods: Eligible participants aged 12 years or over were allocated to the 0.018-inch or 0.022-inch slot MBT appliance (3M-Unitek, Monrovia, California, USA) using block randomization in groups of 10. Outcome measures included: 1. ABO cast-radiograph evaluation (CR-EVAL), 2. peer assessment rating (PAR) scores, 3. incisor inclination, and 4...
July 11, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
Ahmed M El-Angbawi, Yassir A Yassir, Grant T McIntyre, Gavin F Revie, David R Bearn
Objective: To compare orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR) and patient perception of pain during orthodontic treatment between 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch slot bracket systems. Subjects and methods: Eligible participants aged 12 years or above were allocated to treatment with the 0.018-inch or 0.022-inch slot MBT appliance (3M Unitek, Monrovia, California, USA) using block randomization in groups of 10. OIIRR was assessed radiographically using standardized periapical radiographs before and after 9 months from the start of treatment...
July 11, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
Andrew Zikic, Holger Schünemann, Teodora Wi, Ornella Lincetto, Nathalie Broutet, Nancy Santesso
Background: With the continued high prevalence of chlamydia worldwide and high risk of transfer from mothers to their infant during delivery, a need for safe and effective therapies for infants who acquire a chlamydial infection remains. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of antibiotic treatments, including oral erythromycin, azithromycin, and trimethoprim, for neonatal chlamydial conjunctivitis. Methods: We searched Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) from their inception to July 14, 2017...
July 10, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Anne Barmettler, Jessie Wang, Moonseong Heo, Geoffrey J Gladstone
Background: In some upper eyelid blepharoplasties, maximal skin removal may not result in desired outcomes and raising crease height can be considered. Currently, there is no method to determine the amount of skin to be excised and/or crease elevation required to achieve a specific outcome. Objective: This study extrapolates an equation to determine amount of skin excision and/or lid crease elevation needed to achieve a specific eyelid margin to fold distance (MFD)...
July 10, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Enny S Paixão, Laura C Rodrigues, Maria da Conceição N Costa, Martha Itaparica, Florisneide Barreto, Patrick Gérardin, Maria Glória Teixeira
Background: Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne disease caused by an arthritogenic alphavirus, with four genotypes: East Central South African (ECSA), West African, ECSA-diverged or Indian Ocean Lineage (IOL) and Asian lineage. Overall, the disease is self-limited; however, in some patients, joint pain and other non-specific symptoms can last for months or years. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to estimate the proportion of people that self-report chikungunya-related chronic non-specific symptoms...
July 11, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Yassir A Yassir, Ahmed M El-Angbawi, Grant T McIntyre, Gavin F Revie, David R Bearn
Objective: To compare treatment duration between 0.018-inch and 0.022-inch slot systems and determine factors influencing treatment duration. Subjects and methods: Eligible participants aged 12 years or over were allocated to the 0.018-inch or 0.022-inch slot MBT appliance (3M-Unitek, Monrovia, California, USA) using block randomization in groups of 10. Outcome measures included duration of: 1. overall treatment, 2. levelling and alignment, 3. working and finishing, and 4...
July 11, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
Esther J van Zuuren, Zbys Fedorowicz, Ton Kuijpers, Hanno Pijl
Background: It remains uncertain which diet is best for people with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Objective: We compared the effects of dietary carbohydrate restriction with fat restriction on markers of metabolic syndrome and quality of life in people with T2D. Design: This systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) compares the effects of a low-carbohydrate [≤40% of energy (%)] diet with those of a low-fat (≤30%) diet over a period of ≥4 wk in patients with T2D...
July 11, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Stephanie E Dreifuss, Danielle Minteer, Beth R Gusenoff, Jeffrey A Gusenoff
Background: Pedal fat grafting is a cosmetic procedure indicated to treat the functional and aesthetic sequelae of pedal fat pad atrophy. Fat grafting has been found to mitigate these symptoms, but the exact mechanism is unknown. Objectives: We hypothesize that pedal fat grafting may improve skin quality, accounting for prolonged symptomatic improvement despite loss of grafted fat. Methods: Patients with pedal atrophy were enrolled in a randomized crossover clinical trial...
July 10, 2018: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
Amira Elmadahm, Sarah J Lord, H Malcolm Hudson, Chee K Lee, Luke Buizen, Gelareh Farshid, Val J Gebski, P Grantley Gill
BACKGROUND: Sentinel lymph-node biopsy has reduced the need for extensive axillary surgery for staging. It still exposes women to associated morbidity. Risk models that use clinical and pathology information of the primary tumour to predict sentinel lymph-node metastasis may allow further improvements in care. This study assessed the performance of four published risk models for predicting sentinel lymph-node metastasis in Australian women with early breast cancer; including one model developed in an Australian population...
June 26, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Waqar Haque, Vivek Verma, Sandra Hatch, V Suzanne Klimberg, E Brian Butler, Bin S Teh
PURPOSE: Multiple ongoing randomized studies are assessing the impact of omission of chemotherapy (CT) in low-risk node-positive Luminal A breast. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate trends and practice patterns of adjuvant CT use in Luminal A pT1-3N1 breast cancer, along with determining the clinical benefit from adjuvant CT in this patient population. METHODS: The National Cancer Data Base was queried (2004-2014) for women with pT1-3N1 luminal A invasive ductal carcinoma receiving adjuvant hormonal therapy (HT)...
July 2, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Marco Possanzini, Carlo Greco
The treatment of metastatic breast cancer is largely focused on systemic therapy. However, over the past decades, there has been growing interest in the use of metastasis-directed therapy in selected cases presenting with an oligometastatic phenotype, i.e. low disease burden with a more indolent biology. Identification of the oligometastatic breast cancer population has, so far, proven elusive. Stereotactic radiotherapy offers an effective, non-invasive approach to ablate metastatic disease both in the brain and in extra-cranial settings...
June 28, 2018: Breast: Official Journal of the European Society of Mastology
Iñaki Lete, Nicolás Mendoza, Esther de la Viuda, Francisco Carmona
OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of an antioxidant preparation with N-acetyl cysteine, alpha lipoic acid and bromelain on endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter, open-label, non-comparative clinical trial in a representative sample of women with endometriosis-associated pelvic pain. RESULTS: In total, 398 patients with a mean age of 34.6 ± 7.2 years were treated with a combination of N-acetyl cysteine, alpha lipoic acid and bromelain for 6 months...
July 6, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Kevin R Duque, Alejandro L Escalaya, Willy Zapata, Jorge G Burneo, Javier A Bustos, Isidro Gonzales, Herbert Saavedra, E Javier Pretell, Hector H Garcia
OBJECTIVE: Discordances between imaging findings of parenchymal neurocysticercosis and seizure expression have been reported, and as such the possibility that neurocysticercosis and seizures may frequently coexist by chance has been raised. In this study, we evaluate the topographic relationship between seizure foci based on semiology and electroencephalography with the location of parenchymal neurocysticercotic lesions. METHODS: Seizure information, neuroimaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) and electroencephalographic data from three randomized clinical trials of individuals with parenchymal neurocysticercosis and focal seizures were analyzed...
June 28, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Hualong Xi, Xiangyu Meng, Tiejun Gu, Zhuang Li, Yue Cheng, Qing Sun, Kaixin Zhang, Wei Kong, Yongge Wu
Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are a unique and attractive class of biologics and are potential substitutes for post-exposure rabies prophylaxis. The safety, tolerance, and broad neutralization efficiency of a MAb cocktail called CL184, composed of the antibodies CR4098 and CR57, was confirmed in a phase I clinical trial. We have prepared a series of single-chain Fv fragments (scFvs) and leucine zipper Fv fragments (zipFvs) from CR57 and CR4098. In this study, we selected and formed scFv and zipFv cocktails and compared their protective effects against the rabies virus...
July 5, 2018: Molecular Immunology
Kendra Hargis, Heather M Buechel, Jelena Popovic, Eric M Blalock
Aging is associated with altered sleep architecture and worsened hippocampus-dependent cognition, highly prevalent clinical conditions that detract from quality of life for the elderly. Interestingly, exposure to psychosocial stress causes similar responses in young subjects, suggesting that age itself may act as a stressor. In prior work, we demonstrated that young animals show loss of deep sleep, deficits in cognition, and elevated body temperature after acute stress exposure, whereas aged animals are hyporesponsive on these measures...
June 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Claudia Balducci, Giulia Santamaria, Pietro La Vitola, Edoardo Brandi, Federica Grandi, Arturo Roberto Viscomi, Marten Beeg, Marco Gobbi, Mario Salmona, Simone Ottonello, Gianluigi Forloni
β-Amyloid oligomers (AβOs) and neuroinflammation are 2 main culprits to counteract in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Doxycycline (DOXY) is a second generation antibiotic of the tetracycline class that are promising drugs tested in many clinical trials for a number of different pathologies. DOXY is endowed with antiamyloidogenic properties and better crosses the blood-brain barrier, but its efficacy has never been tested in AD mice. We herein show that 15- to 16-month-old APP/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) AD mice receiving DOXY under different treatment regimens recovered their memory without plaque reduction...
June 12, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Nicole M Barcelos, Peter H Van Ness, Allison F Wagner, Martha G MacAvoy, Adam P Mecca, George M Anderson, Mark Trentalange, Keith A Hawkins, Mary Sano, Amy F T Arnsten, Christopher H van Dyck
This study evaluated the effect of the alpha-2A-adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine on prefrontally mediated cognitive functions, as well as quality of life and global function in healthy older participants. One hundred twenty-three participants aged 75 years and older were randomly assigned to guanfacine 0.5 mg, 0.1 mg, or placebo daily for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measure was the change in z-score for 6 prefrontal executive function tasks over 12 weeks (PEF6). Neither dose of guanfacine improved PEF6 z-score relative to placebo...
May 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Moeun Son
Induction of labour is one of the most common procedures performed in obstetrics. As such, many clinical trials have been undertaken to try to optimise induction strategies and interventions. Unfortunately, the wide variation in the measuring and reporting of outcomes across induction studies - as well as studies involving different topics - has hampered the process of data synthesis and effective translation into clinical practice. In an effort to mitigate these challenges, there has been a growing call for the development and use of core outcome sets in the field of obstetrics...
July 14, 2018: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
M Moteabbed, A Trofimov, F H Khan, Y Wang, G C Sharp, A L Zietman, J A Efstathiou, H-M Lu
PURPOSE: Hypofractionated radiotherapy of prostate cancer is gaining clinical acceptance given its potential increase in therapeutic ratio and evidence for noninferiority and lack of added late toxicities compared to conventional fractionation. However, concerns have been raised that smaller number of fractions might lead to larger dosimetric influence by interfractional motion. We aim to compare the effect of these variations on hypofractionated pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy and volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) for localized prostate cancer...
July 14, 2018: Medical Physics
Mohammad Hossein Moghimi, Seyed Nejat Hosseini, Vahid Salehi, Kourosh Kamali
Background Pregabalin is a gamma-aminobutyric acid analog which seems to be effective in different neuropathic pains, as well as in incisional and inflammatory injuries. This study evaluated the effectiveness and safety of pregabalin on pain relief post herniorrhaphy. Methods In this randomized clinical trial, 60 men were chosen for unilateral inguinal herniorrhaphy under spinal anesthesia. The participants were randomly divided into two groups. The investigation (pregabalin) group received 300 mg of oral pregabalin 2 h before and 150 mg of pregabalin 12 and 24 h after surgery in addition to routine postoperative medication and 1 mg/kg of pethidine as needed...
July 26, 2018: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
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