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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243813/antiepileptic-drug-monotherapy-for-epilepsy-a-network-meta-analysis-of-individual-participant-data
#1
REVIEW
Sarah J Nevitt, Maria Sudell, Jennifer Weston, Catrin Tudur Smith, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition with a worldwide prevalence of around 1%. Approximately 60% to 70% of people with epilepsy will achieve a longer-term remission from seizures, and most achieve that remission shortly after starting antiepileptic drug treatment. Most people with epilepsy are treated with a single antiepileptic drug (monotherapy) and current guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) in the United Kingdom for adults and children recommend carbamazepine or lamotrigine as first-line treatment for partial onset seizures and sodium valproate for generalised onset seizures; however a range of other antiepileptic drug (AED) treatments are available, and evidence is needed regarding their comparative effectiveness in order to inform treatment choices...
December 15, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243556/-preferences-of-aaa-aag-codon-recognition-by-modified-nucleosides-%C3%AF-m5s2u34-and-t6a37-present-in-trnalys
#2
Kailas D Sonawane, Asmita S Kamble, Prayagraj M Fandilolu
Deficiency of 5-taurinomethyl-2-thiouridine, τm5s2U at the 34th 'wobble' position in tRNALys causes MERRF (Myoclonic Epilepsy with Ragged Red Fibers), a neuromuscular disease. This modified nucleoside of mt tRNALys, recognizes AAA/AAG codons during protein biosynthesis process. Its preference to identify cognate codons has not been studied at the atomic level. Hence, multiple MD simulations of various molecular models of anticodon stem loop (ASL) of mt tRNALys in presence and absence of τm5s2U34 and N6-threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t6A37) along with AAA and AAG codons have been accomplished...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232569/source-analysis-of-epileptiform-discharges-in-absence-epilepsy-using-magnetoencephalography-meg
#3
Veeranna Gadad, Sanjib Sinha, Narayanan Mariyappa, Jayabal Velmurugan, G Chaitanya, Jitender Saini, Kandivel Thennarasu, Parthasarathy Satishchandra
PURPOSE: Magnetoencephalography (MEG) was used to record and localize the sources of the epileptiform discharges, in absence epilepsy, at three different time intervals to infer the sources of involvement during generation and propagation. METHODS: Twenty patients with absence epilepsy (M:F=1:1; age: 10.2±3.4years), which included 12 patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and 8 patients with juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE), were recruited in this prospective MEG based study...
December 5, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224250/multiple-autologous-bone-marrow-derived-cd271-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-overcomes-drug-resistant-epilepsy-in-children
#4
Olga Milczarek, Danuta Jarocha, Anna Starowicz-Filip, Stanislaw Kwiatkowski, Bogna Badyra, Marcin Majka
There is a need among patients suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) for more efficient and less toxic treatments. The objective of the present study was to assess the safety, feasibility, and potential efficacy of autologous bone marrow cell transplantation in pediatric patients with DRE. Two females and two males (11 months to 6 years) were enrolled and underwent a combined therapy consisting of autologous bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNCs) transplantation (intrathecal: 0.5 × 109 ; intravenous: 0...
December 10, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222216/development-of-forced-normalisation-psychosis-with-ethosuximide
#5
Sean Apap Mangion, Fergus Rugg-Gunn
A 50-year-old man with known multidrug resistant coexistent focal and generalised epilepsy was commenced on ethosuximide, with normalisation of his electroencephalogram and cessation of absence seizures. Within 3 weeks, he developed a rapidly worsening paranoid psychosis with visual and olfactory hallucinations. A month after the cessation of ethosuximide and concurrent treatment with olanzapine, his psychosis resolved and permitted reinitiation of ethosuximide at a lower dose without recurrence of psychotic symptoms...
December 7, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218702/deep-brain-stimulation-for-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#6
REVIEW
Michael C H Li, Mark J Cook
OBJECTIVES: To review clinical evidence on the antiepileptic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for drug-resistant epilepsy, its safety, and the factors influencing individual outcomes. METHODS: A comprehensive search of the medical literature (PubMed, Medline) was conducted to identify relevant articles investigating DBS therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Reference lists of these articles were used to source further articles. RESULTS: Stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) and hippocampus (HC) has been shown to decrease the frequency of refractory seizures...
December 7, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215453/generalized-periodic-discharges-with-and-without-triphasic-morphology
#7
Ayham M Alkhachroum, Haifa Al-Abri, Alok Sachdeva, Sarita Maturu, Jennifer Waldron, Han Wang, Macym Rizvi, Guadalupe Fernandez-Baca Vaca, Hans O Lüders
PURPOSE: Generalized periodic discharges (GPDs) with a triphasic morphology have been associated with nonepileptic encephalopathies. We conducted the study to assess the reliability in which electroencephalographers can differentiate triphasic from nontriphasic periodic discharges and to evaluate for the presence of electroencephalogram and clinical characteristics that are associated with a higher risk of seizures. METHODS: We studied prospectively 92 patients between May 2016 and February 2017...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213044/-the-course-and-development-of-epilepsy-in-patients-with-typical-variant-of-rett-syndrome-and-mutations
#8
M Yu Bobylova, I V Ivanova, I V Nekrasova, O A Pylaeva, K Yu Mukhin, A A Kholin, Ek S Iljina, A V Kulikov, El S Iljina, Yu E Nesterovsky
AIM: To study the anamnesis, clinical state, electro-encephalographic and brain MRI characteristics in patients with Rett syndrome (МЕСР2) and epilepsy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eleven female patients, aged from 3 to 23 years, with Rett syndrome and MeCP2 mutations were studied. The study continued for 10 years (2006-2015). Assessment of neurological and mental status, night sleep video-EEG monitoring, MRI were performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Epilepsy was diagnosed in six cases (54...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213041/-perampanel-in-the-treatment-of-patients-with-epilepsy
#9
F K Rider
Development of new antiepileptic drugs (AED) does not stop due to the fact that the number of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy remains at about 30%. One of the newest AEDs is perampanel (PER), a selective, non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist to target post-synaptic glutamate transmission. PER is approved in the Russian Federation as adjunctive treatment for focal seizures with or without secondarily generalized seizures and for primary generalized tonic-clonic (PGTC) seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) in patients with epilepsy aged ≥12 years...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213036/-pathomorphosis-of-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-juvenile-forms
#10
A S Kotov, Yu V Eliseev, Yu V Tokareva
AIM: To investigate the pathomorphosis of idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) in the aspect of prognosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved 1480 patients with epilepsy including 281 patients with IGE. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: 'Juvenile' forms were diagnosed in 228 patients. Relapse of seizures in anamnesis occurred in 19% out of 105 patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME). Remission was achieved in 59.2% out of 76 patients with long-term follow-up...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209390/the-mechanism-of-anti-epileptogenesis-by-levetiracetam-treatment-is-similar-to-the-spontaneous-recovery-of-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-during-adolescence
#11
Hiroki Kikuyama, Tadahito Hanaoka, Tetsufumi Kanazawa, Yasushi Yoshida, Takafumi Mizuno, Hirotaka Toyoda, Hiroshi Yoneda
Objective: The anti-epileptogenic drug levetiracetam has anticonvulsant and anti-epileptogenesis effects. Synergy between cell death and inflammation can lead to increased levels of apoptosis inhibitory factors and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, aberrant neurogenesis and extended axon sprouting. Once hyperexcitation of the neural network occurs, spontaneous seizures or epileptogenesis develops. This study investigated whether the anti-epileptogenic effect of levetiracetam is due to its alternate apoptotic activity...
November 2017: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201080/anticonvulsant-effects-of-new-1-4-dihydropyridinederivatives-containing-imidazolyl-moiety-against-seizures-induced-by-pentylenetetrazole-and-maximal-electroshock-in-mice
#12
Yasaman Rasouli, Asghar Davood, Armin Alaee, Golnoush Dehqani, Hamed Shafaroudi, Mahboubeh Lotfinia, Mohsen Amini, Abbas Shafiee
Epilepsy is a chronic disorder of the brain affecting around 50 million people in the world. Up to 30% of epileptic patients do not respond to available drugs and medical therapies. In this paper, anticonvulsant screening of 10 synthesized new derivatives of 1, 4-dihydropyridine-3, 5-dicarboxamides was performed. Anticonvulsant activity was evaluated by intravenous and intraperitoneal pentylenetetrazole and maximal electroshock induced seizures tests. Nifedipine was used as reference drug. Our pharmacological results revealing the compounds 2, 4, 5, and 6 can be effective in both absence and grandmal seizures in human...
2017: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194766/absence-seizures-as-a-feature-of-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy-in-rhodesian-ridgeback-dogs
#13
F Wielaender, F M K James, M A Cortez, G Kluger, J N Neßler, A Tipold, H Lohi, A Fischer
Myoclonic epilepsy in Rhodesian Ridgeback (RR) dogs is characterized by myoclonic seizures occurring mainly during relaxation periods, a juvenile age of onset and generalized tonic-clonic seizures in one-third of patients. An 8-month-old female intact RR was presented for myoclonic seizures and staring episodes that both started at 10 weeks of age. Testing for the DIRAS1 variant indicated a homozygous mutant genotype. Unsedated wireless video-electroencephalography (EEG) identified frequent, bilaterally synchronous, generalized 4 Hz spike-and-wave complexes (SWC) during the staring episodes in addition to the characteristic myoclonic seizures with generalized 4-5 Hz SWC or 4-5 Hz slowing...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179159/cntnap2-mutations-and-autosomal-dominant-epilepsy-with-auditory-features
#14
Emanuela Leonardi, Emanuela Dazzo, Maria Cristina Aspromonte, Francesco Tabaro, Stefano Pascarelli, Silvio C E Tosatto, Roberto Michelucci, Alessandra Murgia, Carlo Nobile
Autosomal dominant epilepsy with auditory features (ADEAF) is clinically characterized by focal seizures with prominent auditory or aphasic auras and absence of structural brain abnormalities. Mutations in LGI1 and RELN genes account for the disorder in about 50% of ADEAF families. In a recent paper, a heterozygous intragenic deletion in the CNTNAP2 gene has been associated to ADEAF in a single family. We screened 28 ADEAF families for mutations in CNTNAP2 by next generation sequencing and copy number variation analyses and found no likely pathogenic mutations segregating with the disease...
November 21, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176325/cav2-3-r-type-calcium-channels-are-critical-for-mediating-anticonvulsive-and-neuroprotective-properties-of-lamotrigine-in-vivo
#15
Maxine Dibué-Adjei, Marcel A Kamp, Serdar Alpdogan, Etienne E Tevoufouet, Wolfram F Neiss, Jürgen Hescheler, Toni Schneider
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lamotrigine (LTG) is a popular modern antiepileptic drug (AED), however, its mechanism of action has yet to be fully understood, as it is known to modulate many members of several ion channel families. In heterologous systems, LTG inhibits Cav2.3 (R-type) calcium currents, which contribute to kainic-acid- (KA) induced epilepsy in vivo. To gain insight into the role of R-type currents in LTG drug action in vivo, we compared the effects of LTG to topiramate and lacosamide in Cav2...
November 24, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171593/corrigendum-synchronicity-and-rhythmicity-of-purkinje-cell-firing-during-generalized-spike-and-wave-discharges-in-a-natural-mouse-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#16
Lieke Kros, Sander Lindeman, Oscar H J Eelkman Rooda, Pavithra Murugesan, Lorenzo Bina, Laurens W J Bosman, Chris I De Zeeuw, Freek E Hoebeek
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fncel.2017.00346.].
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171397/crossing-the-lines-between-epilepsy-syndromes-a-myoclonic-epilepsy-variant-with-prominent-eyelid-myoclonia-and-atonic-components
#17
Pinelopi Dragoumi, Jacqueline Emery, Fiona Chivers, Megan Brady, Archana Desurkar, J Helen Cross, Krishna B Das
Accurate diagnosis of a distinct epilepsy syndrome is based on well-defined electroclinical features that differentiate separate nosological entities. In clinical practice, however, syndromes may overlap and cases may present with unusual manifestations posing a diagnostic challenge. This heterogeneity has been documented in several cases presenting with eyelid myoclonia with or without absences (EMA) diagnosed either as Jeavons syndrome (JS) variants or as genetic generalised epilepsies defined by the presence of this unique clinical entity...
November 24, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163057/synchronicity-and-rhythmicity-of-purkinje-cell-firing-during-generalized-spike-and-wave-discharges-in-a-natural-mouse-model-of-absence-epilepsy
#18
Lieke Kros, Sander Lindeman, Oscar H J Eelkman Rooda, Pavithra Murugesan, Lorenzo Bina, Laurens W J Bosman, Chris I De Zeeuw, Freek E Hoebeek
Absence epilepsy is characterized by the occurrence of generalized spike and wave discharges (GSWDs) in electrocorticographical (ECoG) recordings representing oscillatory activity in thalamocortical networks. The oscillatory nature of GSWDs has been shown to be reflected in the simple spike activity of cerebellar Purkinje cells and in the activity of their target neurons in the cerebellar nuclei, but it is unclear to what extent complex spike activity is implicated in generalized epilepsy. Purkinje cell complex spike firing is elicited by climbing fiber activation and reflects action potential firing in the inferior olive...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160210/exceptional-response-to-brivaracetam-in-a-patient-with-refractory-idiopathic-generalized-epilepsy-and-absence-seizures
#19
Alberto Grande-Martín, David Sopelana-Garay, José Manuel Pardal-Fernández, Rosa María Sánchez-Honrubia, Álvaro Abelardo Sánchez-Larsen
Brivaracetam is currently indicated as adjunctive therapy for patients with focal-onset seizures with or without secondary generalization. However, it has been suggested that it could provide broad-spectrum efficacy given its similarity to levetiracetam and based on the results from preclinical studies and others of patients with generalized epilepsy. We present the case of a woman with refractory idiopathic generalized epilepsy and absence seizures with dramatic response to brivaracetam. Our report supports a consideration of treatment with this new antiepileptic drug on a case-by-case basis in patients with refractory generalized epilepsy, while we await further studies on this topic...
November 21, 2017: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156220/the-epilepsy-phenotype-in-adult-patients-with-intellectual-disability-and-pathogenic-copy-number-variants
#20
Giuseppe d'Orsi, Tommaso Martino, Orazio Palumbo, Maria Grazia Pascarella, Pietro Palumbo, Maria Teresa Di Claudio, Carlo Avolio, Massimo Carella
PURPOSE: To characterize the electroclinical features of epilepsy associated with intellectual disability and pathogenic copy number variations (CNVs) METHODS: we prospectively investigated 61 adult patients with epilepsy and intellectual disability or other neurodevelopmental disorders. We performed high resolution SNP-Array analysis in order to detect clinical relevant chromosomal microdeletions and microduplications. An ordinal logistic regression model was fitted with 34 demographic, clinical and EEG-related variables in order to identify the epilepsy phenotype of patients with pathogenic CNVs...
November 14, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
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