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Glycemic control and diet

Wanhee Suk, JiEun Kim, Do-Yeon Kim, Hyunjung Lim, Ryowon Choue
Recent trial results suggest that the consumption of a low glycemic index (GI) diet is beneficial in the prevention of high blood glucose levels. Identifying active hypoglycemic substances in ordinary foods could be a significant benefit to the management of blood glucose. It has been hypothesized that noodles with Bombyx mori powder are a low GI food. We evaluated GI and changes in postprandial glucose levels following consumption of those noodles and compared them with those following consumption of plain wheat flour noodles (control) and glucose (reference) in healthy subjects...
September 2016: Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
Viswanathan Mohan, Sunil Jain, Jothydev Kesavadev, Manoj Chawla, Abhay Mutha, Vijay Viswanathan, Banshi Saboo, Rajiv Kovil, Ambrish Mithal, Dharmen Punatar, John Shin
BACKGROUND: Retrospective continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) studies may provide healthcare professionals (HCPs) with better understanding of glycemic patterns in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and thereby support patient education and appropriate therapeutic interventions. METHODS: Adults with T2D and A1C values between 8% and 10% were eligible for this 3-month study. Patients were scheduled for 5 visits that included baseline and a month-2 retrospective CGM study (iPro2, Medtronic) followed by data review and therapy modifications...
April 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Eva Pedersen, Kylie Lange, Peter Clifton
BACKGROUND: People with type 2 diabetes are advised to consume an even meal distribution of carbohydrate. Whether this distribution is optimal is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to show that omitting carbohydrate in the first meal after a fast would lead to an augmented lunch response. DESIGN: Two diets of 1-d duration that differed only in the breakfast-meal composition (carbohydrate or no carbohydrate) were consumed on sequential days in a randomized crossover study...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Danxia Yu, Xianglan Zhang, Xiao-Ou Shu, Hui Cai, Honglan Li, Ding Ding, Zhen Hong, Yong-Bing Xiang, Yu-Tang Gao, Wei Zheng, Gong Yang
BACKGROUND: Epidemiologic evidence on dietary carbohydrates and stroke risk remains controversial. Very few prospective cohort studies have been conducted in Asian populations, who usually consume a high-carbohydrate diet and have a high burden of stroke. OBJECTIVE: We examined dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), and intakes of refined and total carbohydrates in relation to risks of total, ischemic, and hemorrhagic stroke and stroke mortality. DESIGN: This study included 64,328 Chinese women, aged 40-70 y, with no history of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, or cancer...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ayman S Abutair, Ihab A Naser, Amin T Hamed
BACKGROUND: Water-soluble dietary fibers intake may help control blood glucose and body weight. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine whether soluble fiber supplementation from psyllium improves glycemic control indicators and body weight in type 2 diabetic patients. METHOD: Forty type 2 diabetes patients, non-smoker, aged >35 years were stratified to different strata according to sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and fasting blood sugar level (FBS) and randomly assigned into two groups; The intervention group which consists of 20 participants was on soluble fiber (10...
October 12, 2016: Nutrition Journal
Raquel Del Pino-García, María D Rivero-Pérez, María L González-SanJosé, Pablo Castilla-Camina, Kevin D Croft, Pilar Muñiz
Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) is characterized by hyperglycemia resulting from insulin deficiency. This is usually accompanied by a pro-oxidative environment, dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction, thus leading to several micro- and macro-vascular complications. This study investigated the potential benefits of a seasoning obtained from seedless red wine pomace (RWPS) in protecting against oxidative damage and preserving endothelial function in Type 1 DM, and the underlying mechanisms involved at the level of gene expression...
October 12, 2016: Food & Function
Anna Pham-Short, Kim C Donaghue, Geoffrey Ambler, Sarah Garnett, Maria E Craig
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate quality of life (QoL) and glycemic control in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and celiac disease vs T1D only. We hypothesized that QoL scores would be lower in youth with T1D and celiac disease and those nonadherent to the gluten-free diet (GFD). STUDY DESIGN: This case control study included 35 youth with T1D and 35 with T1D  and  celiac disease matched for age, sex, diabetes duration, and hemoglobin A1c level. QoL was assessed in participants and parents using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Generic Core Scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Diabetes Module...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
Catherine Hajmrle, Nancy Smith, Aliya F Spigelman, Xiaoqing Dai, Laura Senior, Austin Bautista, Mourad Ferdaoussi, Patrick E MacDonald
IL-1β is a well-established inducer of both insulin resistance and impaired pancreatic islet function. Despite this, findings examining IL-1 receptor deficiency or antagonism in in vivo animal models, as well as in clinical studies of type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients, have led to conflicting results, suggesting that the actions of IL-1β on glycemic control may be pleiotropic in nature. In the present work, we find that the ability of IL-1β to amplify glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from human islets correlates with donor BMI...
April 7, 2016: JCI Insight
Kirsten A Berk, Ranitha Vongpromek, Meizi Jiang, Wolfgang J Schneider, Reinier Timman, Adrie J M Verhoeven, Hideaki Bujo, Eric J G Sijbrands, Monique T Mulder
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major complication in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), especially in those with obesity. Plasma soluble low density lipoprotein receptor-relative with 11 ligand-binding repeats (sLR11) plays a role in the development of atherosclerosis and has been linked to the metabolism of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, adiposity, and vascular complications in T2D. We aimed to determine the effect of diet-induced weight loss on plasma sLR11 levels in overweight and obese individuals with T2D...
September 22, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Hitesh Soni
Diabesity is a new term for obesity-dependent diabetes, which is also associated with cardiovascular and other comorbidities with rising epidemic. Traditional treatments (sulfonylureas and thiazolidinediones) of diabetes are associated with weight gain, except metformin. Newer agents such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RAs) and Sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) are causing a modest weight reduction, whereas dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors (DPP-4i) are weight neutral...
October 2016: Medical Hypotheses
Jeffrey S Gonzalez, Molly L Tanenbaum, Persis V Commissariat
Diabetes is a chronic illness that places a significant self-management burden on affected individuals and families. Given the importance of health behaviors-such as medication adherence, diet, physical activity, blood glucose self-monitoring-in achieving optimal glycemic control in diabetes, interventions designed and delivered by psychologists hold promise in assisting children, adolescents, and adults with diabetes in improving their health status and lowering their risk of serious complications. This article first provides an overview of diabetes self-management and associated challenges and burdens...
October 2016: American Psychologist
Ghada Asaad, Diana C Soria-Contreras, Rhonda C Bell, Catherine B Chan
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients often find integrating a new dietary pattern into their lifestyle challenging; therefore, the PANDA (Physical Activity and Nutrition for Diabetes in Alberta) menu plan intervention was developed to help people incorporate the Canadian Diabetes Association (CDA) nutrition therapy guidelines into their daily lives. The menu plan focused on recipes and foods that were accessible, available and acceptable to Albertans. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention on blood glucose control and dietary adherence and quality among patients with T2D...
2016: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
Christopher D Morrison, Zheng Hao, Michael B Mumphrey, R Leigh Townsend, Heike Münzberg, Jianping Ye, Hans-Rudolf Berthoud
OBJECTIVE: The mechanisms by which bariatric surgeries so effectively and lastingly reduce body weight and normalize metabolic dysfunction are not well understood. Fibroblast growth fator-21 (FGF21) is a key regulator of metabolism and is currently considered for treatment of obesity. Although elevated by acute food deprivation, it is downregulated after weight loss induced by chronic calorie restriction but not after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to assess the role of FGF21-signaling in the beneficial effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB)...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Tracey J Smith, Marques A Wilson, James P Karl, Krista Austin, Asma Bukhari, Stefan M Pasiakos, Kristie L O'Connor, Harris R Lieberman
: Military personnel and some athlete populations endure short-term energy deficits from reduced energy intake and/or increased energy expenditure (EE) that may degrade physical and cognitive performance due to severe hypoglycemia (<3.1 mmol/L). The extent to which energy deficits alter normoglycemia (3.9-7.8 mmol/L) in healthy individuals is not known since prior studies measured glucose infrequently, not continuously. PURPOSE: To characterize the glycemic response to acute, severe energy deficit compared to fully fed control condition, using continuous glucose monitoring (CGM)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
R Barazzoni, N E P Deutz, G Biolo, S Bischoff, Y Boirie, T Cederholm, C Cuerda, N Delzenne, M Leon Sanz, O Ljungqvist, M Muscaritoli, C Pichard, J C Preiser, P Sbraccia, P Singer, L Tappy, B Thorens, A Van Gossum, R Vettor, P C Calder
Growing evidence underscores the important role of glycemic control in health and recovery from illness. Carbohydrate ingestion in the diet or administration in nutritional support is mandatory, but carbohydrate intake can adversely affect major body organs and tissues if resulting plasma glucose becomes too high, too low, or highly variable. Plasma glucose control is especially important for patients with conditions such as diabetes or metabolic stress resulting from critical illness or surgery. These patients are particularly in need of glycemic management to help lessen glycemic variability and its negative health consequences when nutritional support is administered...
September 19, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
S Kamil, N Finer, W P T James, I D Caterson, C Andersson, C Torp-Pedersen
AIMS: Weight loss is expected to improve glycemic control in patients with diabetes or at high risk hereof. Sibutramine causes weight loss and is associated with an increased risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in high risk patients. We examined the impact of sibutramine induced weight loss on glycemic control. METHODS AND RESULTS: 8192 obese patients with diabetes were randomized to sibutramine or placebo plus diet and exercise after a preliminary 6 weeks in which all patients received sibutramine...
September 27, 2016: European Heart Journal. Cardiovascular Pharmacotherapy
Lindsay Satterwhite Mayberry, Erin M Bergner, Rosette J Chakkalakal, Tom A Elasy, Chandra Y Osborn
Suboptimal glycemic control is more common among non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) and Hispanics than non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Disparities in the performance of self-care behaviors may contribute to this. To synthesize knowledge on current self-care disparities, we reviewed studies from January 2011-March 2016 that included NHWs, NHBs, and Hispanics with type 2 diabetes in the USA. Self-care behaviors included diet, exercise, medications, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG), self-foot exams, and not smoking...
November 2016: Current Diabetes Reports
Anastasiya Slyepchenko, Michael Maes, Rodrigo Machado-Veira, George Anderson, Marco Solmi, Yolanda Sanz, Michael Berk, Cristiano A Köhler, André F Carvalho
The comorbid prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) with obesity and type II diabetes mellitus reflects the existence of a subset of individuals with a complex common pathophysiology and overlapping risk factors. Such comorbid disease presentations imply a number of difficulties, including: decreased treatment responsivity and adherence; altered glycemic control and increased risk of wider medical complications. A number of factors link MDD to metabolic-associated disorders, including: higher rates of shared risk factors such as poor diet and physical inactivity and biological elements including increased inflammation; insulin resistance; oxidative and nitrosative stress; and mitochondrial dysfunction...
September 22, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
V Mohan, V Chopra, D Sanyal, S Jain, J Jayaprakashsai
OBJECTIVE: This study examines whether a new, scored and breakable once daily gliclazide tablet formulation, gliclazide XR 60 mg, that enables a simple 2-steps titration, can improve glycemic control rates in the community. METHODS: In a prospective multicenter study of 4 months duration, organised in the primary care setting of urban India, type 2 diabetes patients, uncontrolled with diet alone or metformin monotherapy, received 1 (60 mg), 1½ (90 mg), or 2 (120 mg) tablets of gliclazide XR 60 mg to achieve a target fasting plasma glucose of 126 mg/dl, or HbA1c of 7%...
December 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Karl J Neff, Jessie A Elliott, Caroline Corteville, Kathrin Abegg, Camilo Boza, Thomas A Lutz, Neil G Docherty, Carel W le Roux
BACKGROUND: Reductions in urinary protein excretion after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery in patients with diabetic kidney disease have been reported in multiple studies. OBJECTIVES: To determine the weight loss dependence of the effect of RYGB on urinary protein excretion by comparing renal outcomes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats undergoing either gastric bypass surgery or a sham operation with or without weight matching. SETTING: University laboratories...
August 18, 2016: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
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