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Artificial nutrition

Marco Artico, Daniela D'Angelo, Michela Piredda, Tommasangelo Petitti, Luciano Lamarca, Maria Grazia de Marinis, Angelo Dante, Maura Lusignani, Maria Matarese
CONTEXT: Patients with advanced illnesses show the highest prevalence for pressure ulcers. In the palliative care setting the ultimate goal is injury healing, but equally important is wound maintenance, wound palliation (wound-related pain and symptom management), and primary and secondary wound prevention. OBJECTIVES: To describe the course of healing for pressure ulcers in a home palliative care setting according to different end-points, and to explore patient and caregiver characteristics and specific care activities associated with their achievement...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
John W Wax, Amy W An, Nicole Kosier, Timothy E Quill
Voluntary stopping of eating and drinking (VSED) is a deliberate, self-initiated attempt to hasten death in the setting of suffering refractory to optimal palliative interventions or prolonged dying that a person finds intolerable. Individuals who consider VSED tend to be older, have a serious but not always imminently terminal illness, place a high value on independence, and have significant illness burden. VSED can theoretically be performed independent of clinician assistance and therefore avoids many of the ethical and legal concerns associated with physician-assisted dying or other palliative measures of last resort, However, VSED is an intense process fraught with new sources of somatic and emotional suffering for individuals and their caregivers, so VSED is best supervised by an experienced, well-informed clinician who can provide appropriate pre-intervention assessment, anticipatory guidance, medical treatment of symptoms, and emotional support...
March 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Roschelle Heuberger, Helen Wong
OBJECTIVE: Despite the growing evidence against artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) use among patients with advanced dementia, little is known about the perspectives of the health care team. This study examined the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of physicians and other health care providers regarding the use of ANH at the end of life (EOL). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey explored the provision of EOL care using a hypothetical case scenario of a patient with advanced dementia and dysphagia...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Aging and Health
Katharina Maria Lex, Firuzan Sari Kundt, Stefan Lorenzl
The inability to achieve adequate nutrition and weight loss are serious problems for patients with advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). To ensure the optimal intake of nutrition and fluids and to administer levodopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) (which patients need to increase or maintain their mobility as long as possible), different artificial feeding tubes can be used. Although percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tubes are frequently used in medical practice, there is little research that addresses key questions, including if and when to administer artificial fluids, nutrition and/or LCIG via tubes...
March 8, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
F P Martins-Celini, W A Gonçalves-Ferri, D C Aragon, J P Bernichi, C Calixto, E M F Sacramento, M A Santos, F E Martinez
The ideal feeding for premature babies has been the source of extensive debate. The aim of this study was to assess the association between type of feeding at discharge and the nutritional status of very low birth weight infants. This was a retrospective cohort of preterm babies with birth weight ≤1500 g, born between January 2006 and December 2013. The infants were divided into 3 groups according to type of feeding at discharge: exclusive breast milk (group 1), mixed feeding (group 2) and exclusive artificial formula (group 3)...
January 23, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Kumar Raja Puppala, V Ravi Kumar, Jayant Khire, Mahesh Dharne
Increase of undigested complexes of phytic acid in food is gaining serious attention to overcome nutritional challenges due to chelation effects. We investigated soil-borne yeast phytase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (NCIM 3662) for dephytinization of foods, probiotic properties, and process development. The strain produced 45 IU/DCG by cell-bound phytase in an unoptimized medium was increased fourfold (164 IU/DCG) in 12 h using statistical media optimization. The process was scaled-up up to 10-L fermenter scale with increased phytase productivity of 6...
March 5, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Nicolino Ambrosino, Michele Vitacca
Background: Progress in management has improved hospital mortality of patients admitted to the intensive care units, but also the prevalence of those patients needing weaning from prolonged mechanical ventilation, and of ventilator assisted individuals. The result is a number of difficult clinical and organizational problems for patients, caregivers and health services, as well as high human and financial resources consumption, despite poor long-term outcomes. An effort should be made to improve the management of these patients...
2018: Multidisciplinary Respiratory Medicine
Subramanian Vijayalakshmi, Shanmugam Nadanasabhapathi, Ranganathan Kumar, S Sunny Kumar
The presence of aflatoxin, a carcinogenic and toxigenic secondary metabolite produced by Aspergillus species, in food matrix has been a major worldwide problem for years now. Food processing methods such as roasting, extrusion, etc. have been employed for effective destruction of aflatoxins, which are known for their thermo-stable nature. The high temperature treatment, adversely affects the nutritive and other quality attributes of the food, leading to the necessity of application of non-thermal processing techniques such as ultrasonication, gamma irradiation, high pressure processing, pulsed electric field (PEF), etc...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Rachel A Crockett, Sarah E King, Theresa M Marteau, A T Prevost, Giacomo Bignardi, Nia W Roberts, Brendon Stubbs, Gareth J Hollands, Susan A Jebb
BACKGROUND: Nutritional labelling is advocated as a means to promote healthier food purchasing and consumption, including lower energy intake. Internationally, many different nutritional labelling schemes have been introduced. There is no consensus on whether such labelling is effective in promoting healthier behaviour. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of nutritional labelling for food and non-alcoholic drinks on purchasing and consumption of healthier items. Our secondary objective was to explore possible effect moderators of nutritional labelling on purchasing and consumption...
February 27, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Astrid Ruiz-Margáin, Alessandra Pohlmann, Patrick Ryan, Robert Schierwagen, Luis A Chi-Cervera, Christian Jansen, Osvely Mendez-Guerrero, Nayelli C Flores-García, Jennifer Lehmann, Aldo Torre, Ricardo Ulises Macías-Rodríguez, Jonel Trebicka
OBJECTIVE: Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) develops in acute decompensation of cirrhosis and shows high mortality. In critically ill patients, early diagnosis of ACLF could be important for therapeutic decisions (e.g. renal replacement, artificial liver support, liver transplantation). This study evaluated fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), as a marker of mitochondrial dysfunction in the context of ACLF. DESIGN: The study included 154 individuals (112 critically patients and 42 healthy controls) divided into a training and a validation cohort...
February 24, 2018: Liver Transplantation
D Y Zou, T A Coudron, L S Zhang, X S Gu, W H Xu, X L Liu, H H Wu
An artificial diet formulated for continuous rearing of the predator Arma chinensis was inferior to natural prey when evaluated using life history parameters. A transcriptome analysis identified differentially expressed genes in diet-fed and prey-fed A. chinensis that were suggestive of molecular mechanisms underlying the nutritive impact of the artificial diet. Changes in the diet formulation were made based on the transcriptome analysis and tested using life history parameters. The quantity of pig liver, chicken egg, tuna fish, biotin, nicotinamide, vitamin B6, thiamine, riboflavin, vitamin C, L-glutamine, and sucrose was reduced, and wheat germ oil, calcium pantothenate and folic acid were increased...
February 21, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Chao Qi, Jia Liu, Yang Jin, Luming Xu, Guobin Wang, Zheng Wang, Lin Wang
Millions of patients worldwide suffer from cartilage injury and age/disease-related cartilage degeneration. However, cartilage, such as articular cartilage, is poor at self-regeneration. Current treatments are often invasive with limited efficacy. Developing minimal invasive strategies for effective cartilage repair is highly desired. Here, we report an injectable, photo-crosslinkable sericin hydrogel as a biomimetic extracellular matrix for minimal invasively repairing cartilage. Sericin was functionalized to be sericin methacryloyl (SerMA), which formed an in situ hydrogel upon UV light irradiation via photo-crosslinking...
February 9, 2018: Biomaterials
Andreas Bender, Fabian Scheipl, Wolfgang Hartl, Andrew G Day, Helmut Küchenhoff
We propose a novel approach for the flexible modeling of complex exposure-lag-response associations in time-to-event data, where multiple past exposures within a defined time window are cumulatively associated with the hazard. Our method allows for the estimation of a wide variety of effects, including potentially smooth and smoothly time-varying effects as well as cumulative effects with leads and lags, taking advantage of the inference methods that have recently been developed for generalized additive mixed models...
February 12, 2018: Biostatistics
Julia Weiss, Marta I Terry, Marina Martos-Fuentes, Lisa Letourneux, Victoria Ruiz-Hernández, Juan A Fernández, Marcos Egea-Cortines
BACKGROUND: Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an important source of protein supply for animal and human nutrition. The major storage globulins VICILIN and LEGUMIN (LEG) are synthesized from several genes including LEGA, LEGB, LEGJ and CVC (CONVICILIN). The current hypothesis is that the plant circadian core clock genes are conserved in a wide array of species and that primary metabolism is to a large extent controlled by the plant circadian clock. Our aim was to investigate a possible link between gene expression of storage proteins and the circadian clock...
February 14, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
G Curtis, C McGregor Argo, D Jones, D Grove-White
Contentious issues in calf rearing include milk feeding practices and single versus group housing. The current study was performed on a high producing 170 Holstein cow dairy farm, to investigate the impact of nutrition and housing on growth and reproduction. Heifer calves (n = 100) were allocated in birth order to one of two commonly used management strategies. All calves received 3-4 litres of dam specific colostrum within 6 hours of birth. Group A calves were group housed from birth and fed milk replacer (MR) ad libitum via a computerised machine utilising a single teat, with weaning commencing at 63 days of age...
2018: PloS One
K W DeGregory, P Kuiper, T DeSilvio, J D Pleuss, R Miller, J W Roginski, C B Fisher, D Harness, S Viswanath, S B Heymsfield, I Dungan, D M Thomas
Rich sources of obesity-related data arising from sensors, smartphone apps, electronic medical health records and insurance data can bring new insights for understanding, preventing and treating obesity. For such large datasets, machine learning provides sophisticated and elegant tools to describe, classify and predict obesity-related risks and outcomes. Here, we review machine learning methods that predict and/or classify such as linear and logistic regression, artificial neural networks, deep learning and decision tree analysis...
February 9, 2018: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Taku Oshima, Marco Ragusa, Séverine Graf, Yves Marc Dupertuis, Claudia-Paula Heidegger, Claude Pichard
INTRODUCTION: The international ICALIC initiative aims at developing a new indirect calorimeter according to the needs of the clinicians and researchers in the field of clinical nutrition and metabolism. The project initially focuses on validating the calorimeter for use in mechanically ventilated acutely ill adult patient. However, standard methods to validate the accuracy of calorimeters have not yet been established. This paper describes the procedures for the in-vitro tests to validate the accuracy of the new indirect calorimeter, and defines the ranges for the parameters to be evaluated in each test to optimize the validation for clinical and research calorimetry measurements...
December 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Sam LaMagna, Kerstin Olsson, Deena Warshaw, Gabriela Fazilov, Ben Iskhakov, Agata Buras, Richard J Bodnar
Murine genetic variance affects sucrose's ability to condition flavor preferences (CFP) relative to saccharin. Whereas BALB/c mice display robust sucrose- and fructose-CFP, C57BL/6 mice only display sucrose-CFP. Prior exposure to sucrose or saccharin solutions alters subsequent food choice responsiveness. The present study examined whether pre-exposure for one month to 10% sucrose or 0.2% saccharin altered subsequent sucrose-CFP in male and female BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Two weeks later, food-restricted mice were exposed to 10 CFP training trials with uniquely flavored 16% sucrose and 0...
February 7, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Donald F Kirby, Sulieman Abdal Raheem, Mandy L Corrigan
Although chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare disorder, it presents a wide spectrum of severity that ranges from abdominal bloating to severe gastrointestinal dysfunction. In the worst cases, patients may become dependent upon artificial nutrition via parenteral nutrition or choose to have an intestinal transplant. However, whatever the severity, a patient's quality of life can be seriously compromised. This article defines the disorder and discusses the spectrum of disease and challenges to providing adequate nutrition to help improve a patient's quality of life...
March 2018: Gastroenterology Clinics of North America
Zhongliang Yang, Guoqiang Tao, Meifeng Guo, Baoling Sun, Liang Gong, Yong Ding, Shuming Ye, Weidong Liu, Xiuyun Yang
OBJECTIVE: To explore efficacy and safety of simulated artificial pancreas in modulating stress hyperglycemia in critically ill patients. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled study was performed. Seventy-two critically ill patients with stress hyperglycemia, aged 18-85 years, acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score over 15, two consecutive random blood glucose 11.1 mmol/L or higher, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) below 0.065, unable to eat food for 3 days after inclusion, or only accepting parenteral nutrition, admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) in Shanghai Punan Hospital of Pudong New District from January 1st, 2015 to June 30th, 2017 were enrolled...
February 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
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