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Artificial nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429314/evolutionary-origin-of-euglena
#1
Bożena Zakryś, Rafał Milanowski, Anna Karnkowska
Euglenids (Excavata, Discoba, Euglenozoa, Euglenida) is a group of free-living, single-celled flagellates living in the aquatic environments. The uniting and unique morphological feature of euglenids is the presence of a cell covering called the pellicle. The morphology and organization of the pellicle correlate well with the mode of nutrition and cell movement. Euglenids exhibit diverse modes of nutrition, including phagotrophy and photosynthesis. Photosynthetic species (Euglenophyceae) constitute a single subclade within euglenids...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423745/reasoning-and-data-representation-in-a-health-and-lifestyle-support-system
#2
Sten Hanke, Karl Kreiner, Johannes Kropf, Marc Scase, Christian Gossy
Case-based reasoning and data interpretation is an artificial intelligence approach that capitalizes on past experience to solve current problems and this can be used as a method for practical intelligent systems. Case-based data reasoning is able to provide decision support for experts and clinicians in health systems as well as lifestyle systems. In this project we were focusing on developing a solution for healthy ageing considering daily activities, nutrition as well as cognitive activities. The data analysis of the reasoner followed state of the art guidelines from clinical practice...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410120/snp_tata_comparator-genomewide-landmarks-for-preventive-personalized-medicine
#3
Mikhail Ponomarenko, Dmitry Rasskazov, Irina Chadaeva, Ekaterina Sharypova, Petr Ponomarenko, Olga Arkova, Elena Kashina, Nikita Ivanisenko, Dmitry Zhechev, Ludmila Savinkova, Nikolay Kolchanov
Year after year, conditions, quality, and duration of human lives have been improving due to the progress of science, technology, education, and medicine, which however has a downside. Owing to improvement in children's nutrition, developmental acceleration occurs that imbalances a child's system. Because of virtual worlds of the Internet, social experience of teenagers expands and clashes with puberty of adolescents. Due to the comfort of cities, urbanization emerges and causes stress to adults because of artificial light, noise, pollution, violations of personal space, and family disruption...
June 1, 2017: Frontiers in Bioscience (Scholar Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396492/the-geometric-framework-for-nutrition-reveals-interactions-between-protein-and-carbohydrate-during-larval-growth-in-honey-bees
#4
Bryan R Helm, Garett Slater, Arun Rajamohan, George D Yocum, Kendra J Greenlee, Julia H Bowsher
In holometabolous insects, larval nutrition affects adult body size, a life history trait with a profound influence on performance and fitness. Individual nutritional components of larval diets are often complex and may interact with one another, necessitating the use of a geometric framework for elucidating nutritional effects. In the honey bee, Apis mellifera, nurse bees provision food to developing larvae, directly moderating growth rates and caste development. However, the eusocial nature of honey bees makes nutritional studies challenging, because diet components cannot be systematically manipulated in the hive...
April 10, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392206/nitrogen-nutrition-of-tomato-plant-alters-leafminer-dietary-intake-dynamics
#5
Victoire Coqueret, Jacques Le Bot, Romain Larbat, Nicolas Desneux, Christophe Robin, Stéphane Adamowicz
The leafminer Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) is a major pest of the tomato crop and its development rate is known to decline when nitrogen availability for crop growth is limited. Because N limitation reduces plant primary metabolism but enhances secondary metabolism, one can infer that the slow larval development arises from lower leaf nutritive value and/or higher plant defence. As an attempt to study the first alternative, we examined the tomato-T.absoluta interaction in terms of resource supply by leaves and intake by larvae...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386787/prospective-evaluation-of-systematic-use-of-peripherally-inserted-central-catheters-picc-lines-for-the-home-care-after-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cells-transplantation
#6
J Cornillon, J A Martignoles, E Tavernier-Tardy, M Gire, P Martinez, C Tranchan, A Vallard, K Augeul-Meunier, B Hacquard, D Guyotat
PURPOSE: Long-term catheters are often necessary for outpatient care after an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), However, there is paucity of data on the use of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) in post-HSCT setting. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the systematic use of PICC in 37 consecutive patients returning home after HSCT. RESULTS: In 6 out of 37 patients, the PICC was exclusively used for weekly blood controls...
April 6, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381001/potential-of-spectral-ratio-indices-derived-from-hyperspectral-lidar-and-laser-induced-chlorophyll-fluorescence-spectra-on-estimating-rice-leaf-nitrogen-contents
#7
Lin Du, Shuo Shi, Jian Yang, Wei Wang, Jia Sun, Biwu Cheng, Zhenbing Zhang, Wei Gong
Accurate estimation of leaf nitrogen contents (LNCs) is essential for nutrition management in monitoring crop growth status. The aim of this study was to compare the potential of hyperspectral LiDAR (HSL) and laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (LIF) data in accurately predicting rice LNC. First of all, the intensity values of HSL at 694 and 742 nm and LIF at ~685 and ~740 nm were selected as the characteristic variables to analyze rice LNC using data collected in 2014 and 2015, respectively. Second, spectral indices derived from HSL (only) and LIF (only) were utilized to estimate LNC of rice, respectively...
March 20, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378852/effects-of-non-nutritive-artificial-vs-natural-sweeteners-on-24-h-glucose-profiles
#8
S L Tey, N B Salleh, C J Henry, C G Forde
Replacing nutritive sweetener with non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS) has the potential to improve glycaemic control. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of consuming artificial NNS (that is, aspartame), natural NNS (that is, monk fruit and stevia), and sucrose-sweetened beverages on 24-h glucose profiles. Ten healthy males took part in this randomised, crossover study with the following four treatments: aspartame-, monk fruit-, stevia-, and sucrose- (65 g) sweetened beverages. Participants were asked to consume the test beverage as a preload mid-morning...
April 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376054/timing-of-the-initiation-of-parenteral-nutrition-in-critically-ill-children
#9
Lissette Jimenez, Nilesh M Mehta, Christopher P Duggan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the current literature evaluating clinical outcomes of early and delayed parenteral nutrition initiation among critically ill children. RECENT FINDINGS: Nutritional management remains an important aspect of care among the critically ill, with enteral nutrition generally preferred. However, inability to advance enteral feeds to caloric goals and contraindications to enteral nutrition often leads to reliance on parenteral nutrition. The timing of parenteral nutrition initiation is varied among critically ill children, and derives from an assessment of nutritional status, energy requirements, and physiologic differences between adults and children, including higher nutrient needs and lower body reserves...
May 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349656/equine-performance-genes-and-the-future-of-doping-in-horseracing
#10
Tessa Wilkin, Anna Baoutina, Natasha Hamilton
A horse's success on the racetrack is determined by genetics, training and nutrition, and their translation into physical traits such as speed, endurance and muscle strength. Advances in genetic technologies are slowly explaining the roles of specific genes in equine performance, and offering new insights into the development of novel therapies for diseases and musculoskeletal injuries that cause early retirement of many racehorses. Gene therapy approaches may also soon provide new means to artificially enhance the physical performance of racehorses...
March 27, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340307/genetic-diversity-analysis-of-asian-clam-corbicula-fluminea-in-the-hongze-lake-based-on-mitochondrial-cytochrome-b-gene
#11
Chuankun Zhu, Jin Li, Songguang Xie, Huaiyu Ding, Zhengjun Pan, Hui Wang, Guoliang Chang
The Asian clam Corbicula fluminea is a small bivalve with high nutritional and medical values. However, natural resources of C. fluminea have declined in many areas of China including the Hongze Lake. In this study, 119 individuals from 10 sites of this lake and 2 outgroups were analyzed using a 456 bp mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) gene segment. Totally, 19 polymorphic sites were detected, which defined 16 haplotypes. Polymorphism varied among the 10 populations with those at the water inlet being more polymorphic...
March 24, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332879/iodine-content-of-enteral-and-parenteral-nutrition-solutions
#12
Devina L Willard, Lorraine S Young, Xuemei He, Lewis E Braverman, Elizabeth N Pearce
BACKGROUND: Iodine is essential for thyroid hormone synthesis, and iodine deficiency may result in thyroid disorders including goiter and hypothyroidism. Patients on long-term enteral nutrition (EN) or parenteral nutrition (PN) may be at risk for micronutrient deficiencies. The recommended daily allowance for iodine intake is 150 μg for nonpregnant adults. However, there is no current consensus among scientific societies regarding the quantity of iodine to be added in adult EN and PN formulations...
March 23, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327493/noninvasive-ventilation-open-issues-for-nursing-research
#13
Stefano Bambi, Enrica Mati, Christian De Felippis, Alberto Lucchini
According to the current literature, Noninvasive Ventilation (NIV) is a well-recognized respiratory support technique for patients affected by Acute Respiratory Failure (ARF). As highlighted by recent meta-analysis, a tight adherence to protocols regarding patients' selection criteria, relative or absolute contraindications, plus highly skilled and experienced operators, can positively affect the NIV performance and mortality rates. Positive outcome from NIV respiratory support is dependent from: patient's clinical condition and education needs; confidence of the staff with NIV technology; choice and management of the most suitable interface available prevention of interface complications; nutritional assessment (artificial feeding if required) and conditioning of medical gas...
March 14, 2017: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326461/toxicity-and-detoxification-mechanism-of-black-pepper-and-its-major-constituent-in-controlling-rhynchophorus-ferrugineus-olivier-curculionidae-coleoptera
#14
A Hussain, M Rizwan-Ul-Haq, H Al-Ayedh, A M Aljabr
The survival, feeding response, and detoxification mechanism of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier, a key pest responsible for destruction of date palm, was examined with different extracts of Piper nigrum and its major constituent (piperine) identified by GC-MS. In the present study, toxicity of different extracts of black pepper was evaluated by incorporating diffferent doses of extracts into the artificial diet of red palm weevil larvae. All extracts showed dose-dependent insecticidal activity to the tested eighth-instar red palm weevil larvae...
March 21, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299927/supramolecular-hydrogels-based-on-dna-self-assembly
#15
Yu Shao, Haoyang Jia, Tianyang Cao, Dongsheng Liu
Extracellular matrix (ECM) provides essential supports three dimensionally to the cells in living organs, including mechanical support and signal, nutrition, oxygen, and waste transportation. Thus, using hydrogels to mimic its function has attracted much attention in recent years, especially in tissue engineering, cell biology, and drug screening. However, a hydrogel system that can merit all parameters of the natural ECM is still a challenge. In the past decade, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) has arisen as an outstanding building material for the hydrogels, as it has unique properties compared to most synthetic or natural polymers, such as sequence designability, precise recognition, structural rigidity, and minimal toxicity...
March 16, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296287/bio-inspired-nanomedicine-strategies-for-artificial-blood-components
#16
REVIEW
Anirban Sen Gupta
Blood is a fluid connective tissue where living cells are suspended in noncellular liquid matrix. The cellular components of blood render gas exchange (RBCs), immune surveillance (WBCs) and hemostatic responses (platelets), and the noncellular components (salts, proteins, etc.) provide nutrition to various tissues in the body. Dysfunction and deficiencies in these blood components can lead to significant tissue morbidity and mortality. Consequently, transfusion of whole blood or its components is a clinical mainstay in the management of trauma, surgery, myelosuppression, and congenital blood disorders...
March 15, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289851/withdrawal-of-artificial-nutrition-and-hydration-in-neonatal-intensive-care-parents-and-healthcare-practitioners-views
#17
Véronique Fournier, Elisabeth Belghiti, Laurence Brunet, Marta Spranzi
Withdrawing Artificial Nutrition and Hydration (WANH) in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) has long been controversial. In France, the practice has become a legal option since 2005. But even though, the question remains as to what the stakeholders' experience is, and whether they consider it ethically appropriate. In order to contribute to the debate, we initiated a study in 2009 to evaluate parental and health care professionals (HCP) perspectives, after they experienced WAHN for a newborn. The study included 25 cases from 5 different clinical neonatology departments...
March 13, 2017: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283691/-modulation-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-by-nutritional-interventions
#18
S Derer, H Lehnert, C Sina, A E Wagner
Humans live in symbiosis with billions of commensal bacteria. The so-called microbiota live on different biological interfaces such as the skin, the urogenital tract and the gastrointestinal tract. Commensal bacteria replace potentially pathogenic microbes, synthesize vitamins and ferment dietary fibre. An imbalance in the bacterial composition of the intestinal microbiota has been associated with various diseases including gut-associated disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases, colorectal cancer and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease...
March 10, 2017: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278186/comparative-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-different-tissues-between-the-cultivated-and-wild-tomato
#19
Qi Dai, Lili Geng, Minjia Lu, Weibo Jin, Xuying Nan, Ping-An He, Yuhua Yao
Although domesticated tomato is cultivated by wild tomato, there are a lot of differences between cultivated tomato and wild tomato, such as shape, physiological function and life history. Many studies show that wild tomato has better salt resistance and drought resistance. In addition to, domesticated tomato's fruit is bigger and has more nutritious than wild tomato. The different features are closely related to differentially expressed genes. We identified 126 up-regulated differentially expressed genes and 87 down-regulated differentially expressed genes in cultivated tomato and wild tomato by RNA-Seq...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277180/simultaneous-determination-of-sodium-saccharin-aspartame-acesulfame-k-and-sucralose-in-food-consumed-in-korea-using-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-and-evaporative-light-scattering-detection
#20
Youngsun Lee, Byungkyung Do, Gunyoung Lee, Ho Soo Lim, Sang Soon Yun, Hoonjeong Kwon
Four artificial sweeteners, i.e., sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K and sucralose, are permitted for use in Korea, and recent regulatory changes have expanded the number of food categories in which they may be used. Four artificial sweeteners were determined simultaneously in more than 900 food items from 30 food categories that are commercially available in Korean markets, including both domestic and imported products, using high-performance liquid chromatography and evaporative light-scattering detection (ELSD)...
February 17, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
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