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Artificial nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796799/differential-outcomes-of-zika-virus-infection-in-aedes-aegypti-orally-challenged-with-infectious-blood-meals-and-infectious-protein-meals
#1
Yan-Jang S Huang, Amy C Lyons, Wei-Wen Hsu, So Lee Park, Stephen Higgs, Dana L Vanlandingham
BACKGROUND: Infection of mosquitoes is an essential step for the transmission of mosquito-borne arboviruses in nature. Engorgement of infectious blood meals from viremic infected vertebrate hosts allows the entry of viruses and initiates infection of midgut epithelial cells. Historically, the infection process of arboviruses in mosquitoes has been studied through the engorgement of mosquitoes from viremic laboratory animals or from artificial feeders containing blood mixed with viruses harvested from cell cultures...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794309/enteral-formula-containing-egg-yolk-lecithin-improves-diarrhea
#2
Tetsuro Akashi, Ayano Muto, Yayoi Takahashi, Hiroshi Nishiyama
Diarrhea often occurs during enteral nutrition. Recently, several reports showed that diarrhea improves by adding egg yolk lecithin, an emulsifier, in an enteral formula. Therefore, we evaluated if this combination could improve diarrhea outcomes. We retrospectively investigated the inhibitory effects on watery stools by replacing a polymeric fomula with that containing egg yolk lecithin. Then, we investigated the emulsion stability in vitro. Next, we examined the lipid absorption using different emulsifiers among bile duct-ligated rats and assessed whether egg yolk lecithin, medium-chain triglyceride, and dietary fiber can improve diarrhea outcomes in a rat model of short bowel syndrome...
August 8, 2017: Journal of Oleo Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790921/fatty-acid-profile-of-neutral-and-polar-lipid-fraction-of-wild-eggs-and-hatchlings-from-wild-and-captive-reared-broodstock-of-octopus-vulgaris
#3
Juan Estefanell, Antonio Mesa-Rodríguez, Besay Ramírez, Antonio La Barbera, Juan Socorro, Carmen María Hernandez-Cruz, María Soledad Izquierdo
The culture of Octopus vulgaris is constrained by unsolved problems in paralarvae rearing, mainly associated to the unknown nutritional requirements of this species in early stages. In this article we studied the fatty acid profile (total, neutral, and polar lipid fractions) in wild eggs and wild hatchlings, collected in Gran Canaria (SW) (Spain) with artificial dens, in comparison to hatchlings obtained in captivity from broodstock fed on trash fish species. Total lipids were 11.5-13.5% dw, with the polar fraction representing a 70...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782989/longitudinal-modelling-of-the-exposure-of-young-uk-patients-with-pku-to-acesulfame-k-and-sucralose
#4
J Aaron O'Sullivan, Sandrine Pigat, Cian O'Mahony, Michael J Gibney, Aideen I McKevitt
Artificial sweeteners are used in protein substitutes intended for the dietary management of inborn errors of metabolism (Phenylketonuria, PKU) to improve the variety of medical foods available to patients and ensure dietary adherence to the prescribed course of dietary management. These patients can be exposed to artificial sweeteners from the combination of free and prescribed foods. Young children have a higher risk of exceeding acceptable daily intakes (ADI) for additives than adults due to higher food intakes per kg body weight...
August 7, 2017: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777356/health-effects-of-carotenoids-during-pregnancy-and-lactation
#5
REVIEW
Monika A Zielińska, Aleksandra Wesołowska, Beata Pawlus, Jadwiga Hamułka
Adequate nutrition is particularly important during pregnancy since it is needed not only for maintaining the health of the mother, but also determines the course of pregnancy and its outcome, fetus development as well as the child's health after birth and during the later period of life. Data coming from epidemiological and interventions studies support the observation that carotenoids intake provide positive health effects in adults and the elderly population. These health effects are the result of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties...
August 4, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771490/effect-of-growing-media-and-fertilization-on-sugarcane-flowering-under-artificial-photoperiod
#6
Anna L Hale, Paul M White, Charles L Webber, James R Todd
The USDA-ARS Sugarcane Variety Development Program in Houma, LA aims to maximize the number of panicles available for crossing through artificial manipulation of the environment. In a three-year study, the effect of growing media, fertilizer treatment, and their interaction on sugarcane flowering (% of panicles emerged), and number of days to flowering (DTF) under an artificial photoperiod treatment were assessed. The commercially-available sugarcane cultivar, 'HoCP 96-540' was planted in 2.8-L pots and subjected to the standard local photoperiod treatment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759601/prevalence-of-toxocara-species-infection-in-the-u-s-results-from-the-national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-2011-2014
#7
Aaron Farmer, Thomas Beltran, Young Sammy Choi
Toxocariasis is one of the most common neglected infections of poverty in the U.S. with a reported National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III (1988-1994) seroprevalence of 13.9% based on enzyme immunoassay testing. We reviewed NHANES data from 2011-2014 to assess current levels. Sera collected from NHANES 2011-2014 participants six years and older were tested for exposure using rTc-CTL-1 antigen, a more sensitive and specific recombinant antigen for IgG antibodies for Toxocara spp. These results were subdivided into children (age 6-17) and adults (age ≥ 18) and then compared between various sociodemographic characteristics...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738142/metabolomics-reveals-cu-oh-2-nanopesticide-activated-antioxidative-pathways-and-decreased-beneficial-antioxidants-in-spinach-leaves
#8
Lijuan Zhao, Yuxiong Huang, Adeyemi S Adeleye, Arturo A Keller
While the use of nanopesticides in modern agriculture continues to increase, their effects on crop plants are still poorly understood. Here, 4-week-old spinach plants grown in an artificial medium were exposed via foliar spray to Cu(OH)2 nanopesticide (0.18 and 18 mg/plant) or Cu ions (0.15 and 15 mg/plant) for 7 days. A gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry metabolomics approach was applied to assess metabolic alterations induced by Cu(OH)2 nanopesticide in spinach leaves. Exposure to Cu(OH)2 nanopesticide and copper ions induced alterations in the metabolite profiles of spinach leaves...
July 24, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733180/association-between-malnutrition-and-oral-health-in-dutch-nursing-home-residents-results-of-the-lpz-study
#9
Viviënne A L Huppertz, Gert-Jan van der Putten, Ruud J G Halfens, Jos M G A Schols, Lisette C P G M de Groot
INTRODUCTION: According to the World Health Organization (WHO) and FDI World Dental Federation (FDI), malnutrition and bad oral health are of great concern to global health, especially among the older population. This study aimed to assess the associations between oral health problems ([artificial] teeth problems, chewing problems, and xerostomia) and malnutrition in residents of somatic and psychogeriatric wards in Dutch nursing homes. METHODS: Data of the cross-sectional National Prevalence Measurement of Quality of Care study (Landelijke Prevalentiemeting Zorgproblemen study) in the Netherlands were used to evaluate nutritional status and oral health of 3220 residents, aged 65 or older and living in somatic or psychogeriatric wards in Dutch nursing homes...
July 18, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714216/contributions-of-the-oligopeptide-permeases-in-multistep-of-vibrio-alginolyticus-pathogenesis
#10
Wenjia Liu, Lixing Huang, Yongquan Su, Yingxue Qin, Lingmin Zhao, Qingpi Yan
Vibrio alginolyticus has been associated with several diseases of cultivated marine animals, and has led to considerable economic losses. The oligopeptide permease (Opp) has been proven to play a variety of important roles in nutrition and virulence in several bacteria. In our previous research, the opp gene cluster was identified in Vibrio alginolyticus with transcriptome sequence, which also indicated that the Opp system might play roles in the regulation of adhesion. In this study, the relationship between V...
July 17, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713814/application-of-artificial-neural-network-and-support-vector-machines-in-predicting-metabolizable-energy-in-compound-feeds-for-pigs
#11
Hamed Ahmadi, Markus Rodehutscord
BACKGROUND: In the nutrition literature, there are several reports on the use of artificial neural network (ANN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) approaches for predicting feed composition and nutritive value, while the use of support vector machines (SVM) method as a new alternative approach to MLR and ANN models is still not fully investigated. METHODS: The MLR, ANN, and SVM models were developed to predict metabolizable energy (ME) content of compound feeds for pigs based on the German energy evaluation system from analyzed contents of crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE), crude fiber (CF), and starch...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707849/malnutrition-after-bariatric-surgery
#12
Nicolas Taton, Anne-Laure Borel, Marine Chobert Bakouline, Jérôme Fauconnier, Catherine Arvieux, Fabian Reche
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is a rare but severe complication following obesity surgery. Our objective was to analyze these cases of malnutrition and their management at the Grenoble University Hospital. METHODS: Retrospective data between 2006 to 2016 was analyzed from Department of Medical Information, Severe Obesity Outcome Network, and register of the Department of Artificial Nutrition. Data collected concerned age, sex, anthropometric data, surgical procedures and history of obesity surgery, initial surgical follow-up, delay from surgery, nutritional characteristics, nutritional and surgical management, follow up and outcomes...
July 12, 2017: Minerva Chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705163/a-comprehensive-intervention-following-the-clinical-pathway-of-eating-and-swallowing-disorder-in-the-elderly-with-dementia-historically-controlled-study
#13
Masahisa Arahata, Makoto Oura, Yuka Tomiyama, Naoe Morikawa, Hatsue Fujii, Shinji Minani, Yukihiro Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Eating problems in patients with advanced dementia are strongly associated with their deteriorating survival. Food and drink intake in people with dementia may be supported by specific interventions, but the effectiveness of such interventions is backed by almost no evidence. However, comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) might potentially clarify the etiology of decreased oral intake in people with dementia; thus improving their clinical outcomes. METHODS: This study was a single-arm, non-randomized trial that included historically controlled patients for comparison...
July 14, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700645/overweight-in-young-males-reduce-fertility-in-rabbit-model
#14
Francisco Marco-Jiménez, José Salvador Vicente
Semen quality has certainly declined over the past few decades, possibly owing to modern lifestyle factors. In this sense, the role of overweight and obesity in the development of subfertility in males has generated a considerable amount of interest in recent years. However, there is no consensus on whether overweight or obesity impaired sperm quality. Thus, based on the ongoing debate about risk factors for subfertility associated with overweight and obesity in men, this study was designed to investigate the effect of overweight on sperm quality parameters and fertility success in randomized controlled trial in a rabbit model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697787/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analyses-of-the-impact-of-health-related-claims-on-dietary-choices
#15
REVIEW
Asha Kaur, Peter Scarborough, Mike Rayner
BACKGROUND: Health-related claims are statements regarding the nutritional content of a food (nutrition claims) and/or indicate that a relationship exists between a food and a health outcome (health claims). Their impact on food purchasing or consumption decisions is unclear. This systematic review measured the effect of health-related claims, on pre-packaged foods in retail settings, on adult purchasing decisions (real and perceived). METHODS: In September 2016, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CAB abstracts, Business Source Complete, and Web of Science/Science Citation Index & Social Science Citation Index for articles in English published in peer-review journals...
July 11, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692254/dissecting-the-disulfide-linkage-of-the-n-terminal-domain-of-hmw-1dx5-and-its-contributions-to-dough-functionality
#16
Jing Jing Wang, Guang Liu, Yan-Bo Huang, Qiao-Hui Zeng, Yi Hou, Lin Li, Shiyi Ou, Min Zhang, Song-Qing Hu
The N-terminal domain of HMW-GS 1Dx5 (1Dx5-N) contains three cysteine residues (Cys10, Cys25, Cys40), which are the basis of gluten network formation through disulfide bonds. Disulfide linkage in 1Dx5-N was dissected by site-directed mutagenesis and LC-MS/MS, and its contributions to structural and conformational stability of 1Dx5-N and dough functionality were investigated by circular dichroism, intrinsic fluorescence, surface hydrophobicity determination, size exclusion chromatography, nonreducing/reducing SDS-PAGE, atomic force microscopy, and farinographic analysis...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689121/young-calcareous-soil-chronosequences-as-a-model-for-ecological-restoration-on-alkaline-mine-tailings
#17
Adam T Cross, Hans Lambers
Tailings are artificial soil-forming substrates that have not been created by the natural processes of soil formation and weathering. The extreme pH environment and corresponding low availability of some macro- and micronutrients in alkaline tailings, coupled with hostile physical and geochemical conditions, present a challenging environment to native biota. Some significant nutritional constraints to ecosystem reconstruction on alkaline tailings include i) predominant or complete absence of combined nitrogen (N) and poor soil N retention; ii) the limited bioavailability of some micronutrients at high soil pH (e...
July 6, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667402/phylogenetic-structural-and-functional-characterization-of-amt3-1-an-ammonium-transporter-induced-by-mycorrhization-among-model-grasses
#18
Sally Koegel, Delphine Mieulet, Sefer Baday, Odile Chatagnier, Moritz F Lehmann, Andres Wiemken, Thomas Boller, Daniel Wipf, Simon Bernèche, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Pierre-Emmanuel Courty
In the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis, plants satisfy part of their nitrogen (N) requirement through the AM pathway. In sorghum, the ammonium transporters (AMT) AMT3;1, and to a lesser extent AMT4, are induced in cells containing developing arbuscules. Here, we have characterized orthologs of AMT3;1 and AMT4 in four other grasses in addition to sorghum. AMT3;1 and AMT4 orthologous genes are induced in AM roots, suggesting that in the common ancestor of these five plant species, both AMT3;1 and AMT4 were already present and upregulated upon AM colonization...
June 30, 2017: Mycorrhiza
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658293/green-design-of-a-paper-test-card-for-urinary-iodine-analysis
#19
Nicholas M Myers, Ivan C Leung, Sean W McGee, Kathleen Eggleson, Marya Lieberman
When young children do not receive adequate amounts of the micronutrient iodine in their diet, their growth and cognitive development can be impaired. Nearly every country in the world has programs in place to track iodine intake and provide supplemental iodine if needed, usually in the form of fortified salt. The iodine nutrition status of a population can be tracked by monitoring iodine levels in urine samples to see if the median value falls in the range of 100-300 micrograms of iodine per liter of urine (μg I/L), which indicates adequate or more than adequate iodine nutrition...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646035/a-matter-of-life-and-death
#20
Justice Baker
Cases concerning the withdrawal or withholding of artificial nutrition and hydration from patients in a vegetative or minimally conscious state raise difficult medical, legal and ethical questions including the diagnosis and classification of disorders of consciousness, the legal processes to be followed, and the legal and ethical principles to be applied when making decisions. There is also an issue as to whether it is necessary or appropriate for such decisions to be taken by judges. This article, based on a lecture given in Oxford in October 2016, considers a number of these issues and concludes that any consideration of the question from the patient's point of view must include an objective analysis of what is in his or her best interests, as well as subjective expressions of wishes and feelings...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
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