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Artificial nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784067/yeast-derivatives-and-wheat-germ-in-the-adult-diet-modulates-fecundity-in-a-tephritid-pest
#1
L Goane, P M Pereyra, F Castro, M J Ruiz, M L Juárez, D F Segura, M T Vera
Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), a pest of great economic importance in South America, needs urgently to be controlled by environmentally friendly methods such as the sterile insect technique for which mass rearing of insects is required. Because oogenesis takes place during the adult stage, mass-rearing facilities should provide the females a diet that maximizes egg production at the lowest cost. Accordingly, we investigated the effect of artificial protein sources in the adult diet (yeast derivatives of different cost but with similar amino acids profiles, and the addition of wheat germ) on fecundity...
May 22, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776973/challenges-in-end-of-life-dementia-care
#2
REVIEW
Anne A Fetherston, Grace Rowley, Charlotte L Allan
Dementia is a chronic, progressive disease that is now much more widely recognised and treated. Patients with dementia may require palliative care when they reach the end stage of their illness, or they may have mild-moderate cognitive symptoms comorbid with a life-limiting illness. The variety of presentations necessitates a highly individual approach to care planning, and patients should be encouraged to set their own goals and contribute to advanced care planning where possible. Assessment and management of distressing symptoms at the end of life can be greatly helped by a detailed knowledge of the individuals' prior wishes, interdisciplinary communication and recognition of changes in presentation that may result from new symptoms, for example, onset of pain, nutritional deficits and infection...
May 18, 2018: Evidence-based Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771249/-new-italian-law-about-end-of-life-self-determination-and-shared-care-pathway
#3
Rosagemma Ciliberti, Matteo Gulino, Ilaria Gorini
The Italian Parliament has recently approved the Law n. 219/2017 concerning "Rules on informed consent and advance directives". The manuscript points out the main key points of the new law, in order to clarify the role of the advance directives and to provide clear operational guidelines for healthcare personnel. Taking into consideration the Italian deontological and juridical context, along with the main jurisprudential judgements, the law has been analysed. The Authors discussed the new rules and the bioethical issues also in relation to the provisions stated by the Convention on Human Rights and Biomedicine (Convention of Oviedo)...
May 2018: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756983/-endocrine-disruptors-in-artificial-nutrition
#4
Maria B Badia Tahull, Elisabet Leiva Badosa, Montserrat Colls González, Josep Llop Talaverón
Phthalates are chemical compounds classified as endocrine disruptors which are present in practically every environment of daily life. In the field of artificial nutrition, they are relevant because they are found as plasticizers in infusion lines made with PVC. They are lipophilic molecules which weakly pair with PVC and, therefore, they are easily extracted by the fatty compounds that are part of both the parenteral and enteral nutrition, as various studies show. As endocrine disruptors, they directly affect the reproductive organs because of their antiandrogenic and estrogenic effects...
February 27, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752731/metabolomic-comparison-between-wild-ophiocordyceps-sinensis-and-artificial-cultured-cordyceps-militaris
#5
Lin Chen, Yuetao Liu, Qingfeng Guo, Qingxia Zheng, Wancun Zhang
In this study, a systematic research on the metabolome differences between wild Ophiocordyceps sinensis (O. sinensis) and artificial cultured Cordyceps militaris (C. militaris) was conducted using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Principal components analysis (PCA) and Orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) results showed that C. militaris grown on solid rice medium (R-CM) and C. militaris grown on tussah pupa (T-CM) evidently separated and individually separated from wild O...
May 11, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739587/bioactive-evaluation-and-application-of-different-formulations-of-the-natural-colorant-curcumin-e100-in-a-hydrophilic-matrix-yogurt
#6
Heloísa H S Almeida, Lillian Barros, João C M Barreira, Ricardo C Calhelha, Sandrina A Heleno, Claudia Sayer, Cristiane Grella Miranda, Fernanda Vitória Leimann, Maria Filomena Barreiro, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Curcumin (E100) is a natural colorant that, besides conferring color, has bioactivity, serving as an alternative to some artificial colorants. As a hydrophobic colorant, its modification/compatibilization with the aqueous medium is required to improve stability and enable its application in hydrophilic food matrices. Herein, different formulations of curcumin (curcumin powder: PC, water-dispersible curcumin: DC: and nanoencapsulated curcumin: NC) were evaluated as yogurt colorants. PC showed the strongest bioactivity in all assays (EC50 values: 63 ± 2 to 7...
September 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730978/-artificial-nutrition-a-multidisciplinary-task-the-role-of-the-nutrition-journals-in-its-diffusion
#7
Francisco José Sánchez-Muniz, Jesús M Culebras
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2018: Farmacia Hospitalaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713623/nutrition-intervention-through-interdisciplinary-medical-treatment-in-hospice-patients-from-admission-to-death
#8
Hyelim Kang, Yu Jin Yang, Juyeon Park, Gyu Jin Heo, Jeong-Im Hong, Hye-Jin Kim
The demand for hospice services as well as for 'well-dying' of terminal patients is increasing as patient financial burden is decreasing due to National Health Insurance coverage for hospice care. Hospice institutions utilize interdisciplinary teams comprising doctors, nurses, dietitians, and other health staffs to provide comprehensive patient management. This report examined the nutritional status of a hospice patient from admission to death as well as the nutrition management of this patient in the hospice ward through nutrition interventions performed by a dietitian in the interdisciplinary team...
April 2018: Clinical Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709380/calorie-intake-and-short-term-survival-of-critically-ill-patients
#9
Wolfgang H Hartl, Andreas Bender, Fabian Scheipl, David Kuppinger, Andrew G Day, Helmut Küchenhoff
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The association between calorie supply and outcome of critically ill patients is unclear. Results from observational studies contradict findings of randomized studies, and have been questioned because of unrecognized confounding by indication. The present study wanted to re-examine the associations between the daily amount of calorie intake and short-term survival of critically ill patients using several novel statistical approaches. METHODS: 9661 critically ill patients from 451 ICUs were extracted from an international database...
April 18, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664905/erythritol-at-insecticidal-doses-has-harmful-effects-on-two-common-agricultural-crop-plants
#10
Sara E Scanga, Bilal Hasanspahič, Edin Zvorničanin, Jasmina Samardžić Koženjić, Andrew K Rahme, Jessica H Shinn-Thomas
Erythritol, a non-nutritive polyol, is the main component of the artificial sweetener Truvia®. Recent research has indicated that erythritol may have potential as an organic insecticide, given its harmful effects on several insects but apparent safety for mammals. However, for erythritol to have practical use as an insecticide in agricultural settings, it must have neutral to positive effects on crop plants and other non-target organisms. We examined the dose-dependent effects of erythritol (0, 5, 50, 500, 1000, and 2000 mM) on corn (Zea mays) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) seedling growth and seed germination...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657013/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-activity-of-hydrolyzed-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-against-goat-nematodes
#11
Naylene C S Silva, Aldilene S Lima, Carolina R Silva, Danilo R B Brito, José A A Cutrim-Junior, Marlise N Milhomem, Livio M Costa-Junior
Haemonchus contortus is the most prevalent nematode in tropical and subtropical regions and is responsible for significant losses in small ruminant production systems. Control of this parasite is based on the use of synthetic anthelmintics; although effective, prolonged and indiscriminate use can select for populations of resistant nematodes. Hydrolyzed yeast can help prevent populations of nematodes and is low in cost. The present study aimed to evaluate the preventive effect of hydrolyzed yeast on H. contortus through in vitro and in vivo assays...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651366/height-and-weight-estimation-from-anthropometric-measurements-using-machine-learning-regressions
#12
Diego Rativa, Bruno J T Fernandes, Alexandre Roque
Height and weight are measurements explored to tracking nutritional diseases, energy expenditure, clinical conditions, drug dosages, and infusion rates. Many patients are not ambulant or may be unable to communicate, and a sequence of these factors may not allow accurate estimation or measurements; in those cases, it can be estimated approximately by anthropometric means. Different groups have proposed different linear or non-linear equations which coefficients are obtained by using single or multiple linear regressions...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650256/impact-of-route-and-adequacy-of-nutritional-intake-on-outcomes-of-allogeneic-haematopoietic-cell-transplantation-for-haematologic-malignancies
#13
Julie Beckerson, Richard M Szydlo, Mary Hickson, Catriona E Mactier, Andrew J Innes, Ian H Gabriel, Renuka Palanicawandar, Edward J Kanfer, Donald H Macdonald, Dragana Milojkovic, Amin Rahemtulla, Aristeidis Chaidos, Anastasios Karadimitris, Eduardo Olavarria, Jane F Apperley, Jiri Pavlu
BACKGROUND: Allogeneic haematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is often associated with poor oral intake due to painful mucositis and gastrointestinal sequalae that occur following a preparative regimen of intensive chemotherapy and/or total body radiation. Although attractive to assume that optimal nutrition improves HCT outcomes, there are limited data to support this. It is also unclear whether artificial nutrition support should be provided as enteral tube feeding or parenteral nutrition (PN)...
March 28, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609095/a-comparative-proteomic-characterization-and-nutritional-assessment-of-naturally-and-artificially-cultivated-cordyceps-sinensis
#14
Xu Zhang, Qun Liu, Wei Zhou, Ping Li, Raphael N Alolga, Zhenming Qian, Wenjia Li, Lian-Wen Qi, Xiaojian Yin
Cordyceps sinensis has gained increasing attention due to its nutritional and medicinal properties. Herein, we employed label-free quantitative mass spectrometry to explore the proteome differences between naturally- and artificially-cultivated C. sinensis. A total of 22,829 peptides with confidence ≥95%, corresponding to 2541 protein groups were identified from the caterpillar bodies/stromata of 12 naturally- and artificially-cultivated samples of C. sinensis. Among them, 341 proteins showed significant differences between the samples of natural and artificial cultivation...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606595/-informative-predation-towards-a-new-species-concept
#15
Philippe Lherminier
We distinguish two types of predations: the predation of matter-energy equals the food chain, and the informative predation is the capture of the information brought by the sexual partners. The cell or parent consumes energy and matter to grow, multiply and produce offspring. A fixed amount of resources is divided by the number of organisms, so individual growth and numerical multiplication are limited by depletion resources of the environment. Inversely, fertilization does not destroy information, but instead produces news...
March 29, 2018: Comptes Rendus Biologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605330/effects-of-nutrition-on-the-fertility-of-lactating-dairy-cattle
#16
R M Rodney, P Celi, W Scott, K Breinhild, J E P Santos, I J Lean
This meta-analysis of 39 experiments containing 118 treatments explored the effects of diet interventions in early lactation on the proportion of dairy cows pregnant to artificial insemination (AI; pregnancy to AI) and on calving to pregnancy interval. It also identified factors that may explain variation in these responses. The objectives were to identify effects of diet on reproduction, rather than differences between specific dietary interventions. The examination of calving to pregnancy interval used the more traditional method of analyzing differences between a treatment and the reference treatment used for comparison within a given experiment...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605266/gastrointestinal-mucosal-development-and-injury-in-premature-lambs-supported-by-the-artificial-placenta
#17
Jennifer S McLeod, Joseph T Church, Prathusha Yerramilli, Megan A Coughlin, Elena M Perkins, Raja Rabah, Robert H Bartlett, Alvaro Rojas-Pena, Joel K Greenson, Erin E Perrone, George B Mychaliska
BACKGROUND: An Artificial Placenta (AP) utilizing extracorporeal life support (ECLS) could revolutionize care of extremely premature newborns, but its effects on gastrointestinal morphology and injury need investigation. METHODS: Lambs (116-121days GA, term=145; n=5) were delivered by C-section, cannulated for ECLS, had total parenteral nutrition (TPN) provided, and were supported for 7days before euthanasia. Early and Late Tissue Controls (ETC, n=5 and LTC, n=5) delivered at 115-121days and 125-131days, respectively, were immediately sacrificed...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604994/a-new-method-for-laboratory-rearing-of-galba-truncatula-the-intermediate-host-of-fasciola-hepatica
#18
Mohammad Moazeni, Amin Ahmadi, Amir Mootabi Alavi
In this study a relatively large and open top aquarium was designed, constructed and introduced as a suitable habitat for nutrition, growth and development as well as for egg laying and breeding of Galba truncatula under laboratory conditions. The soil and water used in the aquarium were collected from the locality in which the snails were collected. The aquarium was placed in a laboratory with temperature of 18-32 ºC and relative humidity of 22-37% respectively, according to the season. The artificial light was controlled by a light timer, giving 12 h of light and 12 h of darkness...
April 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599427/a-new-artificial-diet-for-western-corn-rootworm-larvae-is-compatible-with-and-detects-resistance-to-all-current-bt-toxins
#19
Dalton C Ludwick, Lisa N Meihls, Man P Huynh, Adriano E Pereira, B Wade French, Thomas A Coudron, Bruce E Hibbard
Insect resistance to transgenic crops is a growing concern for farmers, regulatory agencies, the seed industry, and researchers. Since 2009, instances of field-evolved Bt resistance or cross resistance have been documented for each of the four Bt proteins available for western corn rootworm (WCR), a major insect pest. To characterize resistance, WCR populations causing unexpected damage to Bt maize are evaluated in plant and/or diet toxicity assays. Currently, it is not possible to make direct comparisons of data from different Bt proteins due to differing proprietary artificial diets...
March 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595870/law-on-advance-health-care-directives-a-medical-perspective
#20
A di Luca, G Y Cisale, M Bosco, N M di Luca
The paper's authors aim to elaborate on law 22 dicembre 2017, n. 219 , designed to regulate informed consent practices and advance health care directives", which has sparked a passionate debate centered on the substantial innovation achieved over the past decades in bio-medical science and at the same time, the noteworthy accomplishments made in enforcing human and personal rights. Within the paper, article three is delved into, which covers the creation of the so-called DAT ("Disposizioni anticipate di trattamento", advance health care directives), by which patients, in light of possible future incapacity to choose, can express their convictions and decisions on how to be treated and their consent or dissent to undergo treatments and procedures, including artificial nutrition and hydration...
March 2018: La Clinica Terapeutica
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