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Artificial nutrition

Céline Pasian, Raymond Azar, Denis Fouque
Protein energy wasting (PEW) is an independent factor associated with morbi-mortality in chronic kidney disease. Wasting is particularly common in chronic diseases of organs such as kidney disease with a major impact at the stage of dialysis. It covers 20 to 70% of patients diagnosed with chronic kidney disease according to the degree of evolution of the disease and the diagnostic method used patients. Mechanisms of PEW are based mainly on anorexia and metabolic abnormalities caused by kidney disease. Nutritional treatment differs depending on the stage of the kidney disease acute or chronic treated whether or not by dialysis...
October 17, 2016: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
Ricardo J Stein, Stephan Höreth, J Romário F de Melo, Lara Syllwasschy, Gwonjin Lee, Mário L Garbin, Stephan Clemens, Ute Krämer
Leaf mineral composition, the leaf ionome, reflects the complex interaction between a plant and its environment including local soil composition, an influential factor that can limit species distribution and plant productivity. Here we addressed within-species variation in plant-soil interactions and edaphic adaptation using Arabidopsis halleri, a well-suited model species as a facultative metallophyte and metal hyperaccumulator. We conducted multi-element analysis of 1972 paired leaf and soil samples from 165 European populations of A...
October 13, 2016: New Phytologist
Joseph Sacco, Rebecca Virata
The discontinuation of life sustaining medical treatment (LSMT) in severely and permanently impaired neonates, especially artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) is subject to uncertainty and controversy. Definitive clinical guidelines are lacking, clinical research is limited, ethical disagreement is commonplace, and while case and statutory law provide legal underpinning for the practice in defined circumstances, uncertainty in this realm likely influences clinical practice. We use the case of a neurologically devastated neonate to highlight and review these arenas, and show how, using available legal, ethical, and clinical standards and practice, the case of Baby O was resolved, and to underline the need for further research in neonatal palliative care...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Hospice & Palliative Care
Atsuko Miyagi, Hirofumi Uchimiya, Maki Kawai-Yamada
Carbon dioxide (CO2), nutrient supply, and light quality are amongst the major controlling factors to improve the biomass production and nutritional outputs in plant factory. The present study employed CE-MS to investigate the effects of high CO2, nutrient formulation, and LED on the accumulation of primary metabolites in head lettuce. Results suggested that high CO2 (1000ppm) and nutrient supply enhanced both the biomass and some amino acids. Hierarchical clustering analysis was used to evaluate effects of red LED in combination with high CO2 and Hoagland's formulation; distinctive cluster formation contained 14 amino acids (mostly branched-chain and aromatic amino acids, histidine and arginine)...
March 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Jari Rubbens, Joachim Brouwers, Jan Tack, Patrick Augustijns
This study investigated the impact of relevant gastrointestinal conditions on the intraluminal dissolution, supersaturation and precipitation behavior of the weakly basic drug indinavir. The influence of (i) concomitant PPI intake and (ii) the nutritional state on the gastrointestinal behavior of indinavir was assessed in order to identify the underlying mechanisms responsible for previously reported interactions. Five healthy volunteers were recruited into a cross-over study containing the following arms: fasted state, fed state and fasted state with concomitant proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use...
September 28, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Brian Clemency, Colleen Clemency Cordes, Heather A Lindstrom, Jeanne M Basior, Deborah P Waldrop
OBJECTIVES: What patients intend when they make health care choices and whether they understand the meaning of orders for life-sustaining treatment forms is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to analyze the directives from a sample of emergency department (ED) patients' MOLST forms. PROCEDURES: MOLST forms that accompanied 100 patients who were transported to an ED were collected and their contents analyzed. Data categories included age, gender, if the patient completed the form for themselves, medical orders for life-sustaining treatment including intubation, ventilation, artificial nutrition, artificial fluids or other treatment, and wishes for future hospitalization or transfer...
September 27, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Mitsuyoshi Yoshida, Junko Ikeda, Yukiko Urikane, Takashi Kashiwada, Yumiko Kaseda, Tatsuo Kohriyama
Some patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome require respiratory management by tracheotomy and/or nutritional management by tube feeding; however, few studies have reported the follow-up course in these patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the follow-up course of tracheotomy and gastrostomy in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome. The study subjects were 50 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome (25 males, 25 females; mean age, 51.1 ± 18.7 years) who were admitted to the Hiroshima City Rehabilitation Hospital during the period from April 2008 to December 2015...
September 29, 2016: Dysphagia
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Home Healthcare Now
Lenora Smith, Elaine J Amella, Lynne Nemeth
The purpose of this study was to explore perceptions of home healthcare nurses related to suffering, artificial nutrition and hydration in people with late-stage dementia, and if these perceptions influence care to people with dementia and their families. Part of a mixed-methods study, the qualitative portion examined perceptions of home healthcare nurses in a rural area in the southern United States. Seventeen home healthcare nurses participated in this study. Semistructured focus group interview questions were used...
October 2016: Home Healthcare Now
Reeba M Jacob, Austin T Mudd, Lindsey S Alexander, Chron-Si Lai, Ryan N Dilger
INTRODUCTION: Provision of adequate nutrients is critical for proper growth and development of the neonate, yet the impact of breastfeeding versus formula feeding on neural maturation has to be fully determined. Using the piglet as a model for the human infant, our objective was to compare neurodevelopment of piglets that were either sow-reared (SR) or artificially reared (AR) in an artificial setting. METHODS: Over a 25-day feeding study, piglets (1.5 ± 0...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Jenny Kitzinger, Celia Kitzinger
Life-extending treatment, in the form of artificial nutrition and hydration, is often provided to people in permanent vegetative states (PVS) in England and Wales for many years, even when their family believes the patient would not want it and despite the fact that no court in the UK has ever found in favour of continuing such treatment for a patient with a confirmed PVS diagnosis. The first half of this article presents a close analysis of the recent case of Cumbria NHS Clinical Commissioning Group v Miss S and Ors [2016] EWCOP 32...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Medical Ethics
Miho Ishimaru, Sachiko Ono, Sayaka Suzuki, Hiroki Matsui, Kiyohide Fushimi, Hideo Yasunaga
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of cetuximab-based radiotherapy (RT) with cisplatin-based concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) on artificial nutrition dependence in locoregional advanced head and neck cancer. METHODS: We identified patients treated with cetuximab-based RT or CCRT between 2012 and 2014 in a Japanese national database, and used propensity score-matched analyses to evaluate artificial nutrition dependence for 30 days after starting chemotherapy and at hospital discharge...
September 16, 2016: Head & Neck
Aaron J O'Sullivan, Sandrine Pigat, Cian O'Mahony, Michael J Gibney, Aideen I McKevitt
The choice of suitable normal foods is limited for individuals with particular medical conditions e.g. inborn errors of metabolism (phenylketonuria, PKU) or severe cow's milk protein allergy (CMPA). Patients may have dietary restrictions and exclusive or partial replacement of specific food groups with specially formulated products to meet particular nutrition requirements. Artificial sweeteners are used to improve the appearance and palatability of such food products to avoid food refusal and ensure dietary adherence...
September 9, 2016: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Ivan Tanasić, Tijana Radaković, Ljiljana Tihaček Šojić, Aleksandra Milić Lemić, Ivan Soldatović
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to find the correlation between the number, type, and placement of symmetric functional tooth units and the nutritional status using body mass index (BMI) and Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) in patients with both maxillary and mandibular removable partial dentures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A randomized study was conducted at the Clinic for Prosthodontics, School of Dentistry, University of Belgrade, Serbia, followed by determination of number of functional tooth units...
September 2016: International Journal of Prosthodontics
Morris Gordon, Sahira Isaji, Fiona Tyacke
AIM: To ascertain United Kingdom adherence to European society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition guidance (ESPGHAN). METHODS: A national cross sectional questionnaire study of neonatal units across England was completed between January and March 2014. All 174 units in the country were attempted to be contacted to complete a telephone survey. This included all level 1, 2 and 3 units. They were initially contacted by phone and asking any senior member of the team about their current practice and procedures...
August 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
Luis A J Mur, Catherine Simpson, Aprajita Kumari, Alok Kumar Gupta, Kapuganti Jagadis Gupta
BACKGROUND: Plants require nitrogen (N) for growth, development and defence against abiotic and biotic stresses. The extensive use of artificial N fertilizers has played an important role in the Green Revolution. N assimilation can involve a reductase series ([Formula: see text] → [Formula: see text] → [Formula: see text]) followed by transamination to form amino acids. Given its widespread use, the agricultural impact of N nutrition on disease development has been extensively examined...
September 4, 2016: Annals of Botany
Meltem Erdem, Ceyhun Küçük, Ender Büyükgüzel, Kemal Büyükgüzel
Gemifloxacin mesylate (GEM) is a synthetic, fourth-generation fluoroquinolone antibacterial antibiotic that has a broad spectrum of activity against bacteria. GEM inhibits DNA synthesis by inhibiting DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV activities. Recent research into insect nutrition and mass-rearing programs, in which antibiotics are incorporated into the culture media to maintain diet quality, raised a question of whether clinical antibiotics influence the health or biological performance of the insects that ingest these compounds...
September 2, 2016: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
Beau D Reilly, Craig E Franklin
Bone mass and skeletal muscle mass are controlled by factors such as genetics, diet and nutrition, growth factors and mechanical stimuli. Whereas increased mechanical loading of the musculoskeletal system stimulates an increase in the mass and strength of skeletal muscle and bone, reduced mechanical loading and disuse rapidly promote a decrease in musculoskeletal mass, strength and ultimately performance (i.e. muscle atrophy and osteoporosis). In stark contrast to artificially immobilised laboratory mammals, animals that experience natural, prolonged bouts of disuse and reduced mechanical loading, such as hibernating mammals and aestivating frogs, consistently exhibit limited or no change in musculoskeletal performance...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Denard Veshi
This study examines the decisions of the French Conseil d'Etat (Supreme Administrative Court) and the European Court of Human Rights in the Lambert case concerning the withdrawal of life-sustaining treatments. After presenting the facts of this case, the main legal question will be analyzed from an ethical and medical standpoint. The decisions of the Conseil d'État and then of the European Court of Human Rights are studied from a comparative legal perspective. This commentary focuses on the autonomous will of an unconscious patient and on the judicial interpretation of the right to life as recognized in article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights...
August 31, 2016: Medicine, Health Care, and Philosophy
Georg Bollig, Jan Henrik Rosland, Eva Gjengedal, Gerda Schmidt, Arnd T May, Andreas Heller
BACKGROUND: There are many existing ethical challenges in nursing homes. Although different methods and approaches to discussing the ethical challenges have been established, systematic ethics work is not yet a standard in all nursing homes. The aim of the present study was to explore ethical challenges and approaches to implementing systematic ethics work in nursing homes. METHODS: Data from five institutions in Austria, Germany and Norway were collected, and a mixed-methods two-tiered study approach was chosen...
August 26, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
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