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Fungal infections

Rui Santos, Catarina Costa, Dalila Mil-Homens, Daniela Romão, Carla C C R de Carvalho, Pedro Pais, Nuno P Mira, Arsénio M Fialho, Miguel C Teixeira
The mechanisms of persistence and virulence associated to Candida glabrata infections are poorly understood, limiting the ability to fight this fungal pathogen. In this study, the multidrug resistance transporters CgTpo1_1 and CgTpo1_2 are shown to play a role in C. glabrata virulence. The survival of the infection model Galleria mellonella, infected with C. glabrata, was found to increase upon the deletion of either CgTPO1_1 or CgTPO1_2. The underlying mechanisms were further explored. In the case of CgTpo1_1, this phenotype was found to be consistent with the observation that it confers resistance to antimicrobial peptides (AMP), such as the human AMP histatin-5...
October 25, 2016: Cellular Microbiology
Nandini Venkateswaran, Rachel A F Wozniak, Holly B Hindman
Purpose. To describe a unique case of O. anthropi keratitis associated with a rare manifestation of Descemet's membrane detachment and intracorneal hypopyon and to discuss challenges in diagnosis and management. Methods. Best-corrected visual acuity was measured with Snellen letters. Corneal scrapings were performed and aerobic, viral, herpetic, acid-fast bacilli, Acanthamoeba, and fungal stains and cultures were obtained. Following evisceration, tissue was evaluated for histologic features and again stained for bacteria, mycobacteria, Acanthamoeba, fungi, and viral particles...
2016: Case Reports in Ophthalmological Medicine
Silke Schelenz, Ferry Hagen, Johanna L Rhodes, Alireza Abdolrasouli, Anuradha Chowdhary, Anne Hall, Lisa Ryan, Joanne Shackleton, Richard Trimlett, Jacques F Meis, Darius Armstrong-James, Matthew C Fisher
BACKGROUND: Candida auris is a globally emerging multidrug resistant fungal pathogen causing nosocomial transmission. We report an ongoing outbreak of C. auris in a London cardio-thoracic center between April 2015 and July 2016. This is the first report of C. auris in Europe and the largest outbreak so far. We describe the identification, investigation and implementation of control measures. METHODS: Data on C. auris case demographics, environmental screening, implementation of infection prevention/control measures, and antifungal susceptibility of patient isolates were prospectively recorded then analysed retrospectively...
2016: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
José A L Fernandes, Tâmara H R Prandini, Maria da Conceiçao A Castro, Thales D Arantes, Juliana Giacobino, Eduardo Bagagli, Raquel C Theodoro
Inteins are invasive intervening sequences that perform an autocatalytic splicing from their host proteins. Among eukaryotes, these elements are present in many fungal species, including those considered opportunistic or primary pathogens, such as Candida spp. Here we reviewed and updated the list of Candida species containing inteins in the genes VMA, THRRS and GLT1 and pointed out the importance of these elements as molecular markers for molecular epidemiological researches and species-specific diagnosis, since the presence, as well as the size of these inteins, is polymorphic among the different species...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rie Nishibaba, Yuko Higashi, Yuko Goto, Masanori Hisaoka, Takuro Kanekura
BACKGROUND: Epithelioid sarcoma is a rare, high-grade malignant tumor of the soft tissue. The incidence of local recurrence, regional lymph node involvement, and distant metastases is high. Epithelioid sarcoma is most often seen in adolescents and young adults. In the early stage before the development of full clinical features, epithelioid sarcoma is often misdiagnosed as a benign disease such as granuloma. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 74-year-old Japanese woman whose epithelioid sarcoma was initially misdiagnosed as fungal infection...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Mark A Hanson, Phineas T Hamilton, Steve J Perlman
BACKGROUND: Drosophila is an important model for studying the evolution of animal immunity, due to the powerful genetic tools developed for D. melanogaster. However, Drosophila is an incredibly speciose lineage with a wide range of ecologies, natural histories, and diverse natural enemies. Surprisingly little functional work has been done on immune systems of species other than D. melanogaster. In this study, we examine the evolution of immune genes in the speciose subgenus Drosophila, which diverged from the subgenus Sophophora (that includes D...
October 24, 2016: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Hirofumi Kato, Takuya Yamagishi, Tomoe Shimada, Tamano Matsui, Masayuki Shimojima, Masayuki Saijo, Kazunori Oishi
Although severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) was first reported from Japan in 2013, the precise clinical features and the risk factors for SFTS have not been fully investigated in Japan. Ninety-six cases of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) were notified through the national surveillance system between April 2013 and September 2014 in Japan. All cases were from western Japan, and 82 cases (85%) had an onset between April and August. A retrospective observational study of the notified SFTS cases was conducted to identify the clinical features and laboratory findings during the same period...
2016: PloS One
Stefano R Del Giacco, Arzu Bakirtas, Elizabeth Bel, Adnan Custovic, Zuzana Diamant, Eckard Hamelmann, Enrico Heffler, Ömer Kalayci, Sejal Saglani, Svetlana Sergejeva, Sven Seys, Angela Simpson, Leif Bjermer
It is well recognized that atopic sensitisation is an important risk factor for asthma, both in adults and in children. However, the role of allergy in severe asthma is still under debate. The term "Severe Asthma" encompasses a highly heterogeneous group of patients who require treatment on steps 4-5 of GINA guidelines to prevent their asthma from becoming "uncontrolled", or whose disease remains "uncontrolled" despite this therapy. Epidemiological studies on emergency room visits and hospital admissions for asthma suggest the important role of allergy in asthma exacerbations...
October 24, 2016: Allergy
Niranjan Nayak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Nepal journal of epidemiology
Ion N Mihailescu, Dorota Bociaga, Gabriel Socol, George E Stan, Mariana-Carmen Chifiriuc, Coralia Bleotu, Marius A Husanu, Gianina Popescu-Pelin, Liviu Duta, Catalin R Luculescu, Irina Negut, Claudiu Hapenciuc, Cristina Besleaga, Irina Zgura, Florin Miculescu
We report on the selection by combinatorial pulsed laser deposition of Silver-doped Carbon structures with reliable physical-chemical characteristics and high efficiency against microbial biofilms. The investigation of the films was performed by scanning electron microscopy, high resolution atomic force microscopy, energy dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, bonding strength "pull-out" tests, and surface energy measurements. In vitro biological assays were carried out using a large spectrum of bacterial and fungal strains, i...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Sharon Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
Graciliana Lopes, Eugénia Pinto, Lígia Salgueiro
The increased incidence of fungal infections, associated with the widespread use of antifungal drugs, has resulted in the development of resistance, making it necessary to discover new therapeutic alternatives. Among fungal infections, dermatophytoses constitute a serious public health problem, affecting 20-25 % of the world population. Medicinal plants represent an endless source of bioactive molecules, and their volatile and non-volatile extracts are clearly recognized for being the historical basis of therapeutic health care...
October 22, 2016: Mycopathologia
Nathan P Wiederhold
The echinocandins are important agents for the treatment of invasive fungal infections, especially those caused by Candida species. However, as with other antimicrobial agents, microbiologic resistance to this class of antifungal agents has emerged and can result in clinical failure. Several studies have recently reported an increase in echinocandin resistance in Candida glabrata isolates at various medical centers in different geographic regions of the USA. Recent studies have also reported that many of these isolates may also be fluconazole resistant, leaving few treatment options available for clinicians to use in patients with invasive candidiasis caused by this species...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
Ilona F Persoon, Mark J Buijs, Ahmet R Özok, Wim Crielaard, Bastiaan P Krom, Egija Zaura, Bernd W Brandt
OBJECTIVES: Bacterial infection of the root canal system causes apical periodontitis. Less is known about the role of fungi in these infections. This study aimed to assess the fungal prevalence, abundance, and diversity of root canal infections, as well as the relation between fungi and bacteria present in different parts of the root canal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-six teeth with primary apical periodontitis were extracted, split in apical and coronal root segments, and cryo-pulverized...
October 22, 2016: Clinical Oral Investigations
Piotr Kurnatowski, Anna Wójcik, Joanna Błaszkowska, Katarzyna Góralska
The pathogenicity of fungi depends on, inter alia, the secretion of hydrolytic enzymes. The aim of this study was to determine the enzymatic activity of yeasts and yeast-like fungi isolated from children’s recreation areas, and compare the results with literature data of strains obtained from patients with mycoses. The enzymatic activity of 96 strains was assessed using an API ZYM kit (bioMerieux, France) and their biotypes were established. The fungal species were found to produce from 16 to 19 hydrolases: the most active were: leucine arylamidase (e5), acid phosphatase (e10), alkaline phosphatase (e1), naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase (e11), esterase – C4 (e2), β-galac - tosidase (e13) and β-glucosidase (e16)...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Parasitology
Dworecka-Kaszak Bożena, Dąbrowska Iwona, Kaszak Ilona
The organisms colonizing a living host create together with their host a holobiome. The holobioms are networks of mutualistic interactions between host`s cells and microorganisms communities. The fungi are among these microorganisms and have been also well known to infect human and animals. These organisms are associated with a wide range of diseases as superficial or systemic mycoses. Fungi as colonizers can also modify host physiology and metabolism, energy acquisition, vitamin-cofactor availability, development and function of immune system, and even host behavior...
October 1, 2016: Annals of Parasitology
M I Boguś, E Włóka, A Wrońska, A Kaczmarek, M Kazek, K Zalewska, M Ligęza-Żuber, M Gołębiowski
Entomopathogenic fungi infect insects via penetration through the cuticle, which varies remarkably in chemical composition across species and life stages. Fungal infection involves the production of enzymes that hydrolyse cuticular proteins, chitin and lipids. Host specificity is associated with fungus-cuticle interactions related to substrate utilization and resistance to host-specific inhibitors. The soil fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Constantin) (Entomophthorales: Ancylistaceae) shows virulence against susceptible species...
October 22, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Angélica Rossana Castro de Souza, Daiana Bortoluzzi Baldoni, Jessica Lima, Vitória Porto, Camila Marcuz, Carolina Machado, Rafael Camargo Ferraz, Raquel C Kuhn, Rodrigo J S Jacques, Jerson V C Guedes, Marcio A Mazutti
Production of a bioherbicide for biological control of weeds requires a series of steps, from selection of a suitable microbial strain to final formulation. Thus, this study aimed to select fungi for production of secondary metabolites with herbicidal activity using biological resources of the Brazilian Pampa biome. Phytopathogenic fungi were isolated from infected tissues of weeds in the Pampa biome. A liquid synthetic culture medium was used for production of metabolites. The phytotoxicity of fungal metabolites was assessed via biological tests using the plant Cucumis sativus L...
October 4, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Microbiology: [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology]
Ricardo Ferrer, Rafael Zaragoza, Alejandro H Rodríguez, Emilio Maseda, Pedro Llinares, Santiago Grau, Francisco Álvarez-Lerma, Guillermo Quindós, Miguel Salavert, Rafael Huarte
BACKGROUND: Although the management of invasive fungal infection (IFI) has improved, a number of controversies persist regarding the approach to invasive fungal infection in non-neutropenic medical ward patients. AIMS: To identify the essential clinical knowledge to elaborate a set of recommendations with a high level of consensus necessary for the management of IFI in non-neutropenic medical ward patients. METHODS: A prospective, Spanish questionnaire, which measures consensus through the Delphi technique, was anonymously answered and e-mailed by 30 multidisciplinary national experts, all specialists (intensivists, anesthesiologists, microbiologists, pharmacologists and specialists in infectious diseases) in IFI and belonging to six scientific national societies...
October 18, 2016: Revista Iberoamericana de Micología
Samantha Y L Ang, Victor W L Ng, Shree Dinesh Kumar, Sharon Y Y Low
Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection caused by Cryptococcus spp. that enters the body via inhalation. This ubiquitous yeast has gained notoriety as an opportunistic pathogen in the immunosuppressed population. The authors report a case of a previously-well adult male presented with left-sided weakness. Imaging demonstrated a pulmonary mass and 2 contrast-enhancing intracranial lesions-all features suggestive of a primary lung carcinoma with brain metastases. However, further investigations confirmed disseminated cryptococcosis, without evidence of malignancy...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
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