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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723316/when-green-and-red-mycology-meet-impressions-from-an-interdisciplinary-forum-on-virulence-mechanisms-of-phyto-and-human-pathogenic-fungi
#1
Yidong Yu, Bernhard Hube, Jörg Kämper, Vera Meyer, Sven Krappmann
Fungal infections pose a constant threat to plants and humans, but detailed knowledge about pathogenesis, immunity, or virulence is rather scarce. Due to the fact that a certain overlap in the armoury of infection exists between plant- and human-pathogenic fungi, an interdisciplinary forum was held in October 2016 at the Institute for Clinical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene in Erlangen under the organisational umbrella from two special interest groups of German microbial societies. Scientific exchange and intense discussion of this timely topic was fostered by bringing together renowned experts in their respective fields to present their thoughts and recent findings in the course of a plenary lecture and six themed sessions, accompanied by oral and poster contributions of young researchers...
July 19, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722354/risk-factors-for-amputation-in-patients-with-diabetic-foot-infection-a-prospective-study
#2
Serhat Uysal, Bilgin Arda, Meltem I Taşbakan, Şevki Çetinkalp, Ilgın Y Şimşir, Anıl M Öztürk, Ayşe Uysal, İlgen Ertam
There is a variety of diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms for diabetic foot infections (DFIs). Some of them are too difficult to be applied in routine clinical approach. In the routine clinical approach, it is necessary to find new risk factors and end up with a quick and easy assessment of DFIs. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the independent risk factors for osteomyelitis, amputation and major amputation in patients with DFI using standard scoring procedures. We prospectively studied 379 patients with DFI...
July 19, 2017: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722286/fighting-fungus-with-a-laser-and-a-hose-management-of-a-giant-candida-albicans-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-lead-vegetation-with-simultaneous-angiovac-aspiration-and-laser-sheath-lead-extraction
#3
Brandon M Jones, Oussama Wazni, Susan J Rehm, Mehdi H Shishehbor
Infections involving internal cardiac devices can be very challenging to treat, and almost universally require complete device extraction for successful management. Of the pathogens that cause device-related endocarditis, fungi such as Candida albicans are notoriously difficult to manage because of their propensity to produce large vegetations and the need for long-term treatment with potentially toxic medications. Furthermore, individuals who develop fungal, device-associated endocarditis are typically among the most complex patients, with significant comorbidities that place them at high risk for open heart procedures such as surgical device extraction...
July 19, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721846/skin-fungi-from-colonization-to-infection
#4
Sybren de Hoog, Michel Monod, Tom Dawson, Teun Boekhout, Peter Mayser, Yvonne Gräser
Humans are exceptional among vertebrates in that their living tissue is directly exposed to the outside world. In the absence of protective scales, feathers, or fur, the skin has to be highly effective in defending the organism against the gamut of opportunistic fungi surrounding us. Most (sub)cutaneous infections enter the body by implantation through the skin barrier. On intact skin, two types of fungal expansion are noted: (A) colonization by commensals, i.e., growth enabled by conditions prevailing on the skin surface without degradation of tissue, and (B) infection by superficial pathogens that assimilate epidermal keratin and interact with the cellular immune system...
July 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721609/susceptibility-of-diaphorina-citri-hemiptera-liviidae-and-its-parasitoid-tamarixia-radiata-hymenoptera-eulophidae-to-entomopathogenic-fungi-under-laboratory-conditions
#5
K H Ibarra-Cortés, A W Guzmán-Franco, H González-Hernández, L D Ortega-Arenas, J A Villanueva-Jiménez, A Robles-Bermúdez
Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) is a global pest of citrus that transmits the bacteria associated with the disease, Huanglongbing. Entomopathogenic fungi and the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) are important biological control agents of this pest and likely to interact in D. citri populations. As a basis for interaction studies, we determined the susceptibility of nymphs and adults of D. citri and adults of the parasitoid T. radiata to six fungal isolates from the species Beauveria bassiana s.l. (Bals...
July 18, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721123/aborted-fetal-sizes-of-thoroughbred-horses-in-hidaka-japan-between-2005-and-2015
#6
Harutaka Murase, Masaki Miyazawa, Takehiro Harada, Midori Ozawa, Fumio Sato, Tetsuro Hada
The degree of fetal growth restriction has been unclear in equine reproduction. In this study, 2,195 fetuses from 2,137 abortions during 11 seasons were examined to determine the causes of abortion, and fetal size dimensions (crown rump length and body weight) were measured. In total, 900 cases (42.1%) of abortion were identified as caused by viral infection (215, 10.1%), bacterial infection (156, 7.3%), fungal infection (25, 1.2%), circulation failure (406, 19.0%), multiple causes (66, 3.1%), deformity (13, 0...
2017: Journal of Equine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720735/a-nonredundant-phosphopantetheinyl-transferase-ppta-is-a-novel-antifungal-target-that-directs-secondary-metabolite-siderophore-and-lysine-biosynthesis-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-and-is-critical-for-pathogenicity
#7
Anna Johns, Daniel H Scharf, Fabio Gsaller, Hella Schmidt, Thorsten Heinekamp, Maria Straßburger, Jason D Oliver, Mike Birch, Nicola Beckmann, Katharine S Dobb, Jane Gilsenan, Bharatkumar Rash, Elaine Bignell, Axel A Brakhage, Michael J Bromley
Secondary metabolites are key mediators of virulence for many pathogens. Aspergillus fumigatus produces a vast array of these bioactive molecules, the biosynthesis of which is catalyzed by nonribosomal peptide synthetases (NRPSs) or polyketide synthases (PKSs). Both NRPSs and PKSs harbor carrier domains that are primed for acceptance of secondary metabolic building blocks by a phosphopantetheinyl transferase (P-pant). The A. fumigatus P-pant PptA has been shown to prime the putative NRPS Pes1 in vitro and has an independent role in lysine biosynthesis; however, its role in global secondary metabolism and its impact on virulence has not been described...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720730/drought-stress-results-in-a-compartment-specific-restructuring-of-the-rice-root-associated-microbiomes
#8
Christian Santos-Medellín, Joseph Edwards, Zachary Liechty, Bao Nguyen, Venkatesan Sundaresan
Plant roots support complex microbial communities that can influence plant growth, nutrition, and health. While extensive characterizations of the composition and spatial compartmentalization of these communities have been performed in different plant species, there is relatively little known about the impact of abiotic stresses on the root microbiota. Here, we have used rice as a model to explore the responses of root microbiomes to drought stress. Using four distinct genotypes, grown in soils from three different fields, we tracked the drought-induced changes in microbial composition in the rhizosphere (the soil immediately surrounding the root), the endosphere (the root interior), and unplanted soils...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720727/impact-of-paracoccin-gene-silencing-on-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-virulence
#9
Fabrício F Fernandes, Aline F Oliveira, Taise N Landgraf, Cristina Cunha, Agostinho Carvalho, Patrícia E Vendruscolo, Relber A Gonçales, Fausto Almeida, Thiago A da Silva, Fernando Rodrigues, Maria Cristina Roque-Barreira
Among the endemic deep mycoses in Latin America, paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM), caused by thermodimorphic fungi of the Paracoccidioides genus, is a major cause of morbidity. Disease development and its manifestations are associated with both host and fungal factors. Concerning the latter, several recent studies have employed the methodology of gene modulation in P. brasiliensis using antisense RNA (AsRNA) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (ATMT) to identify proteins that influence fungus virulence...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720726/mitochondrial-cochaperone-mge1-is-involved-in-regulating-susceptibility-to-fluconazole-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-and-candida-species
#10
Liesbeth Demuyser, Erwin Swinnen, Alessandro Fiori, Beatriz Herrera-Malaver, Kevin Vestrepen, Patrick Van Dijck
MGE1 encodes a yeast chaperone involved in Fe-S cluster metabolism and protein import into the mitochondria. In this study, we identified MGE1 as a multicopy suppressor of susceptibility to the antifungal fluconazole in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae We demonstrate that this phenomenon is not exclusively dependent on the integrity of the mitochondrial DNA or on the presence of the drug efflux pump Pdr5. Instead, we show that the increased dosage of Mge1 plays a protective role by retaining increased amounts of ergosterol upon fluconazole treatment...
July 18, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720691/disseminated-cryptococcosis-in-an-immunocompetent-patient
#11
Pradeep Mada, Brad Nowack, Beth Cady, Andrew Stevenson Joel Chandranesan
Cryptococcosis is a fungal infection which is commonly associated with immune-compromised state. Disseminated infection in immunocompetent individuals is extremely rare. We present a case of a 56-year-old African American patient who presented with unilateral knee pain and swelling and was subsequently diagnosed with cryptococcal bone mass with dissemination of infection.
July 18, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719270/mycetoma-madura-foot-in-israel-recent-cases-and-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#12
Ohad Bitan, Yonit Wiener-Well, Rina Segal, Eli Schwartz
AbstractMycetoma is a chronic soft tissue infection caused by fungal or bacterial pathogens, and is endemic in tropical and subtropical regions. Cases in developed countries outside the mycetoma belt are rare and usually imported by immigrants. Sporadic cases have been reported in Israel. Unpublished cases in the participating medical centers are reported. In addition, a systematic review of the literature was performed. All published mycetoma cases diagnosed in Israel were included with relevant variables collected...
June 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717672/coccidioidomycosis-a-cause-of-sarcoidosis
#13
Tim Kuberski, Isaac Yourison
BACKGROUND: Sarcoidosis is a granulomatous disease of unknown etiology and coccidioidomycosis is a granulomatous fungal infection endemic to the southwestern United States. Clinical observations on patients with sarcoidosis and coccidioidomycosis simultaneously led to the hypothesis that sarcoidosis can be caused by the fungus Coccidioides. METHODS: Two patients with sarcoidosis and coccidioidomycosis were studied, one prospectively (ie, a patient with sarcoidosis was predicted to develop coccidioidomycosis) and the other retrospectively (ie, a patient with coccidioidomycosis develops sarcoidosis)...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717232/the-epichlo%C3%A3-festucae-antifungal-protein-has-activity-against-the-plant-pathogen-sclerotinia-homoeocarpa-the-causal-agent-of-dollar-spot-disease
#14
Zipeng Tian, Ruying Wang, Karen V Ambrose, Bruce B Clarke, Faith C Belanger
Epichloë spp. are naturally occurring fungal endophytic symbionts of many cool-season grasses. Infection by the fungal endophytes often confers biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to their hosts. Endophyte-mediated disease resistance is well-established in the fine fescue grass Festuca rubra subsp. rubra (strong creeping red fescue) infected with E. festucae. Resistance to fungal pathogens is not an established effect of endophyte infection of other grass species, and may therefore be unique to the fine fescues...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717130/polymicrobial-infections-in-brain-tissue-from-alzheimer-s-disease-patients
#15
Diana Pisa, Ruth Alonso, Ana M Fernández-Fernández, Alberto Rábano, Luis Carrasco
Several studies have advanced the idea that the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could be microbial in origin. In the present study, we tested the possibility that polymicrobial infections exist in tissue from the entorhinal cortex/hippocampus region of patients with AD using immunohistochemistry (confocal laser scanning microscopy) and highly sensitive (nested) PCR. We found no evidence for expression of early (ICP0) or late (ICP5) proteins of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in brain sections. A polyclonal antibody against Borrelia detected structures that appeared not related to spirochetes, but rather to fungi...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717123/fungal-infestation-boosts-fruit-aroma-and-fruit-removal-by-mammals-and-birds
#16
Josep E Peris, Ana Rodríguez, Leandro Peña, José María Fedriani
For four decades, an influential hypothesis has posited that competition for food resources between microbes and vertebrates selects for microbes to alter these resources in ways that make them unpalatable to vertebrates. We chose an understudied cross kingdom interaction to experimentally evaluate the effect of fruit infection by fungi on both vertebrate (mammals and birds) fruit preferences and on ecologically relevant fruit traits (volatile compounds, toughness, etc). Our well-replicated field experiments revealed that, in contrast to previous studies, frugivorous mammals and birds consistently preferred infested over intact fruits...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715874/detection-of-bacterial-infection-by-a-technetium-99m-labeled-peptidoglycan-aptamer
#17
Iêda Mendes Ferreira, Camila Maria de Sousa Lacerda, Sara Roberta Dos Santos, André Luís Branco de Barros, Simone Odília Fernandes, Valbert Nascimento Cardoso, Antero Silva Ribeiro de Andrade
Nuclear medicine clinicians are still waiting for the optimal scintigraphic imaging agents capable of distinguishing between infection and inflammation, and between fungal and bacterial infections. Aptamers have several properties that make them suitable for molecular imaging. In the present study, a peptidoglycan aptamer (Antibac1) was labeled with (99m)Tc and evaluated by biodistribution studies and scintigraphic imaging in infection-bearing mice. Labeling with (99m)Tc was performed by the direct method and the complex stability was evaluated in saline, plasma and in the molar excess of cysteine...
July 13, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713557/yin-and-yang-of-interleukin-17-in-host-immunity-to-infection
#18
REVIEW
Shibali Das, Shabaana Khader
The interleukin-17 (IL-17) family cytokines, such as IL-17A and IL-17F, play important protective roles in host immune response to a variety of infections such as bacterial, fungal, parasitic, and viral. The IL-17R signaling and downstream pathways mediate induction of proinflammatory molecules which participate in control of these pathogens. However, the production of IL-17 can also mediate pathology and inflammation associated with infections. In this review, we will discuss the yin-and-yang roles of IL-17 in host immunity to pathogens...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713417/foliar-phenolic-compounds-in-norway-spruce-with-varying-susceptibility-to-chrysomyxa-rhododendri-analyses-of-seasonal-and-infection-induced-accumulation-patterns
#19
Andrea Ganthaler, Wolfgang Stöggl, Ilse Kranner, Stefan Mayr
Secondary phenolic metabolites are involved in plant responses to various biotic stress factors, and are apparently important for the defense against fungal pathogens. In this study, we investigated their role in defense against the rust Chrysomyxa rhododendri in Norway spruce. The fungal pathogen undergoes a seasonal lifecycle with host shift; after overwintering in rhododendron shrubs, it attacks the sprouting current-year spruce needles and causes needle fall in autumn. Repeated infections lead to reduced timber yield and severe problems with rejuvenation in subalpine Norway spruce forests...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713406/ultrastructural-and-cytological-studies-on-mycosphaerella-pinodes-infection-of-the-model-legume-medicago-truncatula
#20
Tomoko Suzuki, Aya Maeda, Masaya Hirose, Yuki Ichinose, Tomonori Shiraishi, Kazuhiro Toyoda
Ascochyta (Mycosphaerella) blight on cultivated peas is primarily caused by infection through asexual spores (pycnospores) of Mycosphaerella pinodes (Berk. et Blox.) Vestergren [recently renamed Peyronellaea pinodes (Berk. & A. Bloxam) Aveskamp, Gruyter & Verkley]. Using a model pathosystem involving Medicago truncatula and Mycosphaerella pinodes strain OMP-1, we examined the histology and ultrastructure of early infection events and fungal development including penetration by appressoria, vegetative growth of infection hyphae, and host responses...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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