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Fungal infections

Francesca Micoli, Paolo Costantino, Roberto Adamo
Cell surface carbohydrates have been proven optimal targets for vaccine development. Conjugation of polysaccharides to a carrier protein triggers a T-cell dependent immune response to the glycan moiety. Licensed glycoconjugate vaccines are produced by chemical conjugation of capsular polysaccharides to prevent meningitis caused by meningococcus, pneumococcus and Haemophilus influenzae type b. However, other classes of carbohydrates (O-antigens, exopolysaccharides, wall/teichoic acids) represent attractive targets for developing vaccines...
March 14, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Nicole M Revie, Kali R Iyer, Nicole Robbins, Leah E Cowen
Microorganisms have a remarkable capacity to evolve resistance to antimicrobial agents, threatening the efficacy of the limited arsenal of antimicrobials and becoming a dire public health crisis. This is of particular concern for fungal pathogens, which cause devastating invasive infections with treatment options limited to only three major classes of antifungal drugs. The paucity of antifungals with clinical utility is in part due to close evolutionary relationships between these eukaryotic pathogens and their human hosts, which limits the unique targets to be exploited therapeutically...
March 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
Amjad M Husaini, Aafreen Sakina, Souliha R Cambay
Fusarium oxysporum, a ubiquitous soil-borne pathogen causes devastating vascular wilt in more than 100 plant species and ranks fifth among top ten fungal plant pathogens. It has emerged as a human pathogen too, causing infections in immune-compromised patients. It is, therefore, important to gain insight into the molecular processes involved in the pathogenesis of this trans-kingdom pathogen. A complex network comprising of interconnected and over lapping signal pathways; mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways, Ras proteins, G-protein signaling components and their downstream pathways, components of the velvet (LaeA/VeA/VelB) complex and cAMP pathways, is involved in perceiving the host...
March 16, 2018: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
Bryan Markinson, Mahmoud Ghannoum, Tate Winter, Anthony Rycerz, Fernando Rock, Aditya K Gupta
Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail primarily caused by the dermatophytes Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The topical-based treatment of onychomycosis remains a challenge because of the difficulty associated with penetrating the dense, protective structure of the keratinized nail plate. Tavaborole is a novel small-molecule antifungal agent recently approved in the United States for the topical treatment of toenail onychomycosis. The low molecular weight, slight water solubility, and boron chemistry of tavaborole maximize nail penetration after topical application, allowing for effective targeting of the infection in the nail bed...
January 2018: Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
Tonya L Ward, Maria Gloria Dominguez-Bello, Tim Heisel, Gabriel Al-Ghalith, Dan Knights, Cheryl A Gale
With the advent of next-generation sequencing and microbial community characterization, we are beginning to understand the key factors that shape early-life microbial colonization and associated health outcomes. Studies characterizing infant microbial colonization have focused mostly on bacteria in the microbiome and have largely neglected fungi (the mycobiome), despite their relevance to mucosal infections in healthy infants. In this pilot study, we characterized the skin, oral, and anal mycobiomes of infants over the first month of life ( n = 17) and the anal and vaginal mycobiomes of mothers ( n = 16) by internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) amplicon sequencing...
May 2018: MSystems
Walid Korani, Ye Chu, C Corley Holbrook, Peggy Ozias-Akins
Post-harvest aflatoxin contamination is a challenging issue that affects peanut quality. Aflatoxin is produced by fungi belonging to the Aspergilli group, and is known as an acutely toxic, carcinogenic and immune-suppressing class of mycotoxins. Evidence for several host genetic factors that may impact aflatoxin contamination has been reported, e.g. , genes for lipoxygenase (PnLOX1 and PnLOX2/PnLOX3 that showed either positive or negative regulation with Aspergillus infection), ROS, and WRKY (highly associated with or differentially expressed upon infection of maize with A...
March 15, 2018: Genetics
Adilia Warris
The newly recognised and emerging fungal species, Candida auris , has caused worldwide invasive infections and has been implicated in difficult to control hospital outbreaks. Challenges are encountered in the correct identification of this fungus as commonly used phenotypic and biochemical methods fail to differentiate C. auris from other Candida species. Its resistance profile, over 90% of isolates are fluconazole resistant and 35% are resistant to amphotericin, confronts clinicians with the restricted arsenal of antifungals and concerns about optimal treatment...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood
N Gholinejad Ghadi, Z Seifi, T Shokohi, S R Aghili, M Nikkhah, L Vahedi Larijani, M Ghasemi, I Haghani
Mucormycosis is a rare but fulminant opportunistic fungal infection, which occurs most often in diabetic and immunocompromised patients. Dental extractions may create a portal of entry for the fungal infection. The mucormycosis may be the original cause of the pain and can be misdiagnosed as dental pain. In this paper, two cases of mucormycosis are reported after dental extractions and successfully treated with amphotericin B (case #1) and combined with posaconazole (case #2). The two cases we describe exemplify the fulminant mucormycosis of maxillary sinuses after dental extraction inpatients with uncontrolled diabetic support the findings that this predisposing condition created a suitable environment for the Mucorales growth...
March 12, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
T A Defosse, Y Le Govic, V Courdavault, M Clastre, P Vandeputte, D Chabasse, J-P Bouchara, N Giglioli-Guivarc'h, N Papon
Among the subdivision of Saccharomycotina (ascomycetes budding yeasts), the CTG clade (formerly the Candida clade) includes species that display a particular genetic code. In these yeasts, the CTG codon is predominantly translated as a serine instead of a leucine residue. It is now well-known that some CTG clade species have a major impact on human and its activities. Some of them are recognized as opportunistic agents of fungal infections termed candidiasis. In addition, another series of species belonging to the CTG clade draws the attention of some research groups because they exhibit a strong potential in various areas of biotechnology such as biological control, bioremediation, but also in the production of valuable biocompounds (biofuel, vitamins, sweeteners, industrial enzymes)...
March 12, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Gea Guerriero, Chinnoi Law, Ian Stokes, Katie L Moore, Christopher Exley
Horsetail (Equisetum arvense) plants grew healthily for 10 weeks under both Si-deficient and Si-replete conditions. After 10 weeks, plants grown under Si-deficient conditions succumbed to fungal infection. We have used NanoSIMS and fluorescence microscopy to investigate silica deposition in the tissues of these plants. Horsetail grown under Si-deficient conditions did not deposit identifiable amounts of silica in their tissues. Plants grown under Si-replete conditions accumulated silica throughout their tissues and especially in the epidermis of the outer side of the leaf and the furrow region of the stem where it was continuous and often, as a double layer suggestive of a barrier function...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Karen L Wozniak
The fungal pathogens Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii can cause life-threatening infections in immune compromised and immune competent hosts. These pathogens enter the host via inhalation, and respiratory tract innate immune cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) are one of the first host cells they encounter. The interactions between Cryptococcus and innate immune cells play a critical role in the progression of disease in the host. This review will focus specifically on the interactions between Cryptococcus and dendritic cells (DCs), including recognition/processing by DCs, effects of immune mediators on DC recruitment and activity, and the potential for DC vaccination against cryptococcosis...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Nilam Borah, Emad Albarouki, Jan Schirawski
Many plant-pathogenic fungi are highly host-specific. In most cases, host-specific interactions evolved at the time of speciation of the respective host plants. However, host jumps have occurred quite frequently, and still today the greatest threat for the emergence of new fungal diseases is the acquisition of infection capability of a new host by an existing plant pathogen. Understanding the mechanisms underlying host-switching events requires knowledge of the factors determining host-specificity. In this review, we highlight molecular methods that use a comparative approach for the identification of host-specificity factors...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Matthew K Gilbert, Rajtilak Majumdar, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Zhi-Yuan Chen, Qijian Wei, Christine M Sickler, Matthew D Lebar, Jeffrey W Cary, Bronwyn R Frame, Kan Wang
Expressing an RNAi construct in maize kernels that targets the gene for alpha-amylase in Aspergillus flavus resulted in suppression of alpha-amylase (amy1) gene expression and decreased fungal growth during in situ infection resulting in decreased aflatoxin production. Aspergillus flavus is a saprophytic fungus and pathogen to several important food and feed crops, including maize. Once the fungus colonizes lipid-rich seed tissues, it has the potential to produce toxic secondary metabolites, the most dangerous of which is aflatoxin...
March 14, 2018: Planta
Xueping Yue, Aiping Wang, Qing Li
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in the direct diagnosis of suspected onychomycosis with negative mycological test results. Methods: Outpatients diagnosed with suspected onychomycosis with negative mycological test results, including direct microscopic examination with 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) and fungal culture, on 3 separate occasions were recruited. A small piece of infected nail was obtained for SEM examination...
2018: Scanning
Wilfried Posch, Michael Blatzer, Doris Wilflingseder, Cornelia Lass-Flörl
The polyene antifungal amphotericin B (AmB) exerts a powerful and broad activity against a vast array of fungi and in general displays a remarkably low rate of antimicrobial resistance. Aspergillus terreus holds an exceptional position among the Aspergilli due to its intrinsic AmB resistance, in vivo and in vitro. Until now, the underlying mechanisms of polyene resistance were not well understood. This review will highlight the molecular basis of A. terreus and AmB resistance recently gained and will display novel data on the mode of action of AmB...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Carsten Schwarz, Patrick Vandeputte, Amandine Rougeron, Sandrine Giraud, Thomas Dugé de Bernonville, Ludovic Duvaux, Amandine Gastebois, Ana Alastruey-Izquierdo, Maria Teresa Martín-Gomez, Estrella Martin Mazuelos, Amparo Sole, Josep Cano, Javier Pemán, Guillermo Quindos, Françoise Botterel, Marie-Elisabeth Bougnoux, Sharon Chen, Laurence Delhaès, Loïc Favennec, Stéphane Ranque, Ludwig Sedlacek, Joerg Steinmann, Jose Vazquez, Craig Williams, Wieland Meyer, Solène Le Gal, Gilles Nevez, Maxime Fleury, Nicolas Papon, Françoise Symoens, Jean-Philippe Bouchara
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the major genetic inherited disease in Caucasian populations. The respiratory tract of CF patients displays a sticky viscous mucus, which allows for the entrapment of airborne bacteria and fungal spores and provides a suitable environment for growth of microorganisms, including numerous yeast and filamentous fungal species. As a consequence, respiratory infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality in this clinical context. Although bacteria remain the most common agents of these infections, fungal respiratory infections have emerged as an important cause of disease...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Sandra de M G Bosco, Sybren de Hoog, Frank Ebel, Daniel Elad, Renata R Gomes, Ilse D Jacobsen, An Martel, Bernard Mignon, Frank Pasmans, Elena Piecková, Anderson Messias Rodrigues, Karuna Singh, Vania A Vicente, Gudrun Wibbelt, Nathan P Wiederhold, Jacques Guillot
The importance of fungal infections in both human and animals has increased over the last decades. This article represents an overview of the different categories of fungal infections that can be encountered in animals originating from environmental sources without transmission to humans. In addition, the endemic infections with indirect transmission from the environment, the zoophilic fungal pathogens with near-direct transmission, the zoonotic fungi that can be directly transmitted from animals to humans, mycotoxicoses and antifungal resistance in animals will also be discussed...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Xin Li, Shengfu Zhong, Wanquan Chen, Syeda Akash Fatima, Qianglan Huang, Qing Li, Feiquan Tan, Peigao Luo
Fusarium head blight (FHB), mainly caused by Fusarium graminearum , is one of the most destructive fungal diseases of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). Because of the quantitative nature of FHB resistance, its mechanism is poorly understood. We conducted a comparative transcriptome analysis to identify genes that are differentially expressed in FHB-resistant and FHB-susceptible wheat lines grown under field conditions for various periods after F. graminearum infection and determined the chromosomal distribution of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs)...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Raza Aly, Tate Winter, Steve Hall, Tracey Vlahovic
Dermatophytoma is a little-known, difficult to treat fungal infection that complicates onychomycosis. First described by Roberts and Evans in the late 1990's, dermatophytoma presents as a dense concentration of fungal hyphae within or under the nail plate and is generally white or yellow/brown in color, and linear (streaks) or round (patches) in shape; primary etiologic organisms are dermatophytes. Oral antifungals have limited success in treating dermatophytoma owing to difficulties accessing and penetrating what is hypothesized to be a fungal biofilm...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
Sam Hanna, Anneke Andriessen, Jennifer Beecker, Martin Gilbert, Eric Goldstein, Sunil Kalia, Aaron King, John Kraft, Carrie Lynde, Davindra Singh, Irina Turchin, Catherine Zip
BACKGROUND: Recently, experience and knowledge have been gained using effective topical treatment for onychomycosis, a difficult-to-treat infection. METHODS: This project aims to help understand and improve patient-focused quality of care for fungal nail infections. A panel of dermatologists who treat onychomycosis convened on several occasions to review and discuss recent learnings in the treatment of onychomycosis. The panel developed and conducted a survey on diagnosis, treatment and prevention, discussed the results, and provided recommendations...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
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