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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432539/early-onset-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-patients-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-incidence-risk-factors-and-consequences-in-cerebral-oxygenation-and-outcome
#1
Pierre Esnault, Cédric Nguyen, Julien Bordes, Erwan D'Aranda, Ambroise Montcriol, Claire Contargyris, Jean Cotte, Philippe Goutorbe, Christophe Joubert, Arnaud Dagain, Henry Boret, Eric Meaudre
BACKGROUND: Early-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia (EOVAP) occurs frequently in severe traumatic brain-injured patients, but potential consequences on cerebral oxygenation and outcome have been poorly studied. The objective of this study was to describe the incidence, risk factors for, and consequences on cerebral oxygenation and outcome of EOVAP after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, observational study including all intubated TBI admitted in the trauma center...
April 21, 2017: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431858/third-trimester-preterm-and-term-premature-rupture-of-membranes-is-there-any-difference-in-maternal-characteristics-and-pregnancy-outcomes
#2
Ivana Chandra, Lizhou Sun
BACKGROUND: The clinical significance and management of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) remains a topic of a controversy. Although PROM is associated with a low rate of complications, PPROM may lead to significant neonatal and maternal morbidity. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 714 women who presented to Jiangsu Province Hospital with third trimester PPROM or PROM between January and December 2015. The data were analyzed by SPSS; the significance of maternal characteristics, and maternal and neonatal outcomes were tested using Student's t test and the χ(2) test...
April 18, 2017: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431848/epidemiology-of-device-associated-infections-in-an-intensive-care-unit-of-a-teaching-hospital-in-nepal-a-prospective-surveillance-study-from-a-developing-country
#3
Narayan Prasad Parajuli, Subhash Prasad Acharya, Santosh Dahal, Jaya Prasad Singh, Shyam Kumar Mishra, Hari Prasad Kattel, Basista Prasad Rijal, Bharat Mani Pokhrel
BACKGROUND: Device-associated health care-acquired infections (DA-HAIs) in intensive care unit patients are a major cause of morbidity, mortality, and increased health care costs. METHODS: A prospective, structured clinicomicrobiological surveillance was carried out for 3 common DA-HAIs: ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), and catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) present in the patients of an intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in Nepal...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430397/respiratory-virus-detection-during-hospitalisation-for-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-children-under-2-years-in-south-auckland-new-zealand
#4
Adrian A Trenholme, Emma J Best, Alison M Vogel, Joanna M Stewart, Charissa J Miller, Diana R Lennon
AIM: To describe respiratory virus detection in children under 2 years of age in a population admitted with lower respiratory infection and to assess correlation with measures of severity. METHODS: Nasopharyngeal aspirates from infants admitted with lower respiratory tract infection (n = 1645) over a 3-year time period were tested by polymerase chain reaction. We collected epidemiological and clinical data on all children. We assessed the correlation of presence of virus with length of hospital stay, intensive care admission and consolidation on chest X-ray...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429628/relationship-of-steroid-dosing-and-duration-of-mechanical-ventilation-in-adult-patients-with-acute-exacerbations-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#5
Jennifer McCann, Katherine Teare, Emily Cochard, Brent Toney
BACKGROUND: The optimal steroid dose for patients who require mechanical ventilation (MV) for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of the study is to describe the relationship between steroid doses prescribed and duration of MV. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of patients admitted between October 2013 and September 2014 who were prescribed steroids and received MV for ≥48 hours for AECOPD...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427745/how-to-approach-the-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-prevention-plan-and-prudence
#6
REVIEW
Younsuck Koh
The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is typically manifested by refractory hypoxemia with high mortality. A correct diagnosis is the first step to achieve better outcomes. An early intervention to manage modifiable risk factors of ARDS development and the avoidance of aggravating factors that increase disease severity and progression should be carefully addressed. A management plan is necessary at an early stage of ARDS to determine the level of intensive care. It should be carefully decided which therapeutic measures should be performed depending on the patient׳s underlying clinical condition...
May 2017: Respiratory Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427133/-effects-of-application-of-vancomycin-in-the-early-stage-of-patients-with-extremely-severe-burn
#7
Z Zhu, G W Cao, J J Bao, Z H Hu, Z Shen, H Tao, B Cao, F Xu
Objective: To evaluate the effects of application of vancomycin in the early stage of patients with extremely severe burn, in order to provide reference to drug for anti-infection treatment in the early stage of patients with extremely severe burn. Methods: Data of 15 patients of Kunshan explosion on August 2nd, 2014, admitted to the Department of Intensive Care in our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. The clinical efficacy of continuously intravenous dripping of vancomycin (combined with imipenem) in the early stage of burns (before and on post burn day 14) was analyzed...
April 20, 2017: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425571/clinical-factors-affecting-costs-in-patients-receiving-systemic-antifungal-therapy-in-intensive-care-units-in-greece-results-from-the-estimator-study
#8
A Armaganidis, S Nanas, E Antoniadou, K Mandragos, K Liakou, A Koutsoukou, G Baltopoulos, G Nakos, A Kounougeri, K Ganas, A Prekates, M Kompoti, D Georgopoulos, I Pneumatikos, E Zakynthinos
Invasive fungal infections are common in intensive care units (ICUs) but there is a great variability in factors affecting costs of different antifungal treatment strategies in clinical practice. To determine factors affecting treatment cost in adult ICU patients with or without documented invasive fungal infection receiving systemic antifungal therapy (SAT) we have performed a prospective, multicentre, observational study enrolling patients receiving SAT in participating ICUs in Greece. During the study period, 155 patients received SAT at 14 participating ICUs: 37 (23...
April 20, 2017: Mycoses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425261/central-line-associated-blood-stream-infections-characteristics-and-risk-factors-for-mortality-over-a-5-5-year-period
#9
Aynur Atilla, Zahide Doğanay, Hale Kefeli Çelik, Mehmet Derya Demirağ, Sırrı S Kiliç
BACKGROUND/AIM: Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality and the infection rates vary in a wide range1397645907(high: 62.5%; low: 20%) in developing countries. We aimed to investigate the characteristics and the risk factors for mortality in patients with CLABSIs in intensive care units (ICUs) and provide the relevant data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The electronic medical records database and file records obtained through active surveillance by an infection control committee of a hospital were screened to identify patients with CLABSIs hospitalized from January 2008 through July 2013...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425246/repeated-prevalence-studies-of-nosocomial-infections-in-one-university-hospital-in-serbia
#10
Milena Ilic, Ljiljana Markovic-Denic
BACKGROUND/AIM: Nosocomial infections occur worldwide and affect both developed and resource-poor countries. The aim of this paper was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for nosocomial infections in one Serbian hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-point prevalence surveys were conducted in the Clinical Center of Kragujevac (1240 beds). The standard definitions for nosocomial infections of the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention were used. The authors conducted surveys according to the same protocol...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424995/the-emergence-of-vancomycin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-in-an-intensive-care-unit-in-kerman-iran
#11
Yasser Fasihi, Fereshteh Saffari, Shahla Mansouri, Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a global threat to public health. This study is the first report of the emergence of vancomycin-resistant MRSA in Kerman, Iran. During a period of 15 months, a total of 205 clinical isolates of S. aureus were collected from three university hospitals affiliated with the Kerman University of Medical Science, Kerman, Iran. Screening of methicillin and vancomycin resistance was carried out by phenotypic methods. The resistance and virulence genes of vancomycin-resistant isolates were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
April 19, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423388/a-national-study-of-the-effect-of-race-socioeconomic-status-and-gender-on-burn-outcomes
#12
Hala Bedri, Kathleen S Romanowski, Junlin Liao, Ghassan Al-Ramahi, Jason Heard, Thomas Granchi, Lucy Wibbenmeyer
Age, burn size, and inhalation injury are the major contributing variables related to burn mortality. While the female gender has been linked to higher mortality, the impact of socioeconomic status has not been well studied. The interplay between these three factors is also unknown. This study sought to clarify the effects of these variables on outcomes in a national sample of patients with burns. A retrospective review of 172,640 patient records of the National Burn Repository (version 8, 2002-2011) data was conducted...
May 2017: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422948/beyond-the-uterine-environment-nonhuman-primate-model-to-investigate-maternal-fetal-and-neonatal-outcomes-following-chronic-intrauterine-infection
#13
Meredith A Kelleher, Zheng Liu, Xiaojie Wang, Christopher D Kroenke, Lisa A Houser, Brandy L Dozier, Lauren D Martin, Ken B Waites, Cindy McEvoy, Robert L Schelonka, Peta L Grigsby
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine infection is a significant cause of early preterm birth. We have developed a fetal-neonatal model in the rhesus macaque to determine the impact of chronic intrauterine infection with Ureaplasma parvum on early neonatal reflexes and brain development. METHODS: Time-mated, pregnant rhesus macaques were randomized to be inoculated with U. parvum (serovar 1; 10(5)cfu) or control media at ~120 dGA. Neonates were delivered by elective hysterotomy at 135-147 dGA (term=167d) stabilized and cared for in our nonhuman primate neonatal intensive care unit...
April 19, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422471/-epidemiological-surveillance-for-multidrug-resistant-microorganisms-in-a-general-icu
#14
A Fernández-Verdugo, J Fernández, D Escudero, L Cofiño, L Forcelledo, M Telenti, E García-Prieto, R Rodríguez-García, L Álvarez-García, A Pérez-García, C Rodríguez-Lucas, F Vazquez
OBJECTIVE: Multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms represent a threat for patients admitted in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). The objective of the present study is to analyse the results of epidemiological surveillance cultures for these microorganisms in one of these units. METHODS: General ICU. Retrospective analysis, descriptive statistics. Analysis of epidemiological surveillance cultures for MDR microorganisms in 2015. Studied microorganisms: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), ESBL-and/or carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (CESBL-KP) and MDR Acinetobacter baumannii (MDRAB)...
April 5, 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421643/empiric-antibiotic-regimens-for-neonatal-sepsis-in-australian-and-new-zealand-neonatal-intensive-care-units
#15
Jeremy P Carr, David P Burgner, Rohan S Hardikar, Jim P Buttery
AIM: Neonatal sepsis remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality, and requires prompt empiric treatment. However, only a minority of babies who receive antibiotics for suspected sepsis have an infection. Antimicrobial exposure in infancy has important short- and long-term consequences. There is no consensus regarding empirical antimicrobial regimens. METHODS: The study included a survey of empiric antimicrobial regimens in all tertiary neonatal intensive care units in Australia and New Zealand in 2013-2014...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421246/immunoglobulin-g-for-patients-with-necrotising-soft-tissue-infection-instinct-a-randomised-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#16
Martin B Madsen, Peter B Hjortrup, Marco B Hansen, Theis Lange, Anna Norrby-Teglund, Ole Hyldegaard, Anders Perner
PURPOSE: The aim of the INSTINCT trial was to assess the effect of intravenous polyspecific immunoglobulin G (IVIG) compared with placebo on self-reported physical function in intensive care unit (ICU) patients with necrotising soft tissue infection (NSTI). METHODS: We randomised 100 patients with NSTI 1:1 to masked infusion of 25 g of IVIG (Privigen, CSL Behring) or an equal volume of 0.9% saline once daily for the first 3 days of ICU admission. The primary outcome was the physical component summary (PCS) score of the 36-item short form health survey (SF-36) 6 months after randomisation; patients who had died were given the lowest possible score (zero)...
April 18, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421062/identification-of-rare-pb2-d701n-mutation-from-a-patient-with-severe-influenza-contribution-of-the-pb2-d701n-mutation-to-the-pathogenicity-of-human-influenza
#17
Amelia Nieto, Francisco Pozo, Matxalen Vidal-García, Manuel Omeñaca, Inmaculada Casas, Ana Falcón
Several amino acid changes have been previously implicated in adaptation of avian influenza viruses to human hosts, among them the D701N change in the PB2 polymerase subunit that also is the main determinant of avian virus pathogenesis in animal models. However, previous studies using recombinant viruses did not provide conclusive information of the contribution of this PB2 residue to pathogenicity in human influenza virus strains. We identified this mutation in an A(H1N1)pdm09-like human influenza virus isolated from an infected patient with pneumonia and acute respiratory failure, admitted to the intensive care unit...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420476/-mechanism-of-resolvins-in-reducing-the-inflammation-reaction-in-inflammatory-diseases
#18
Shunan Cui, Shanglong Yao, You Shang
Inflammation is an important mechanism for the host to resist external infection and injury. Under normal conditions, adaptive inflammatory response not only is conducive to the repair of damaged cells and tissues, but plays an important role to promote the internal environment to restored homeostasis. However, when the immune function is damaged, the unresolved and uncontrolled inflammation will cause non-specific tissue damage, which is linked to a variety of inflammatory diseases. In the acute inflammation, resolvins, a group of endogenous small molecular lipid mediators which are biosynthesized by polyunsaturated fatty acids, possess anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving actions, which are benefit for the repair of damaged tissue...
April 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419820/community-acquired-infections-among-the-refugees-leading-to-intensive-care-unit-admissions-in-turkey
#19
Mediha Turktan, Oznur Ak, Hakan Erdem, Dilek Ozcengiz, Sally Hargreaves, Safak Kaya, Emre Karakoc, Ozlem Ozkan-Kuscu, Gunay Tuncer-Ertem, Recep Tekin, Handan Birbicer, Gul Durmus, Canan Yilmaz, Funda Kocak, Edmond Puca, Jordi Rello
OBJECTIVES: Data on the impact of refugees on Intensive Care Units (ICUs) are lacking in the literature, in particular for community-acquired (CA) infectious diseases, for which they are known to be at higher risk. We did a descriptive, multicenter study to analyze CA infections among refugee patients requiring ICU admission. METHODS: Inclusion criteria were adult refugee patients admitted to an ICU due to CA infections. Anonymized data were collected between January 1, 2010 and December 30, 2015 across 10 referral centers...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418291/virulence-analysis-of-bacillus-cereus-isolated-after-death-of-preterm-neonates-nice-france-2013
#20
Romain Lotte, Anne-Laure Hérissé, Yasmina Berrouane, Laurène Lotte, Florence Casagrande, Luce Landraud, Sabine Herbin, Nalini Ramarao, Laurent Boyer, Raymond Ruimy
After the deaths of 2 preterm neonates with Bacillus cereus systemic infection in the same intensive care unit, we investigated the pathogenic potential of this bacterium. Genetic and virulence analysis indicated the neonates were infected with 2 different strains with a virulence potential similar to environmental strains, indicating likely patient immune response failure.
May 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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