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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917324/targeted-anthelmintic-treatment-of-parasitic-gastroenteritis-in-first-grazing-season-dairy-calves-using-daily-live-weight-gain-as-an-indicator
#1
A Jackson, K A Ellis, J McGoldrick, N N Jonsson, M J Stear, A B Forbes
Control of parasitic gastroenteritis in cattle is typically based on group treatments with anthelmintics, complemented by grazing management, where feasible. However, the almost inevitable evolution of resistance in parasitic nematodes to anthelmintics over time necessitates a reappraisal of their use in order to reduce selection pressure. One such approach is targeted selective treatment (TST), in which only individual animals that will most benefit are treated, rather than whole groups of at-risk cattle. This study was designed to assess the feasibility of implementing TST on three commercial farms, two of which were organic...
September 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916693/use-of-antibiotics-in-dogs-with-aseptic-haemorrhagic-gastroenteritis
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 16, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916560/cmeabc-multidrug-efflux-pump-contributes-to-antibiotic-resistance-and-promotes-campylobacter-jejuni-survival-and-multiplication-in-acanthamoeba-polyphaga
#3
Ana Vieira, Amritha Ramesh, Alan M Seddon, Andrey V Karlyshev
Campylobacter jejuni is a foodborne pathogen recognized as the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis. The wide use of antibiotics in medicine and in animal husbandry has led to an increased incidence of antibiotic resistance in Campylobacter In addition to a role in multidrug resistance, the Campylobacter CmeABC RND-type efflux pump, which is associated with multidrug resistance (MDR), may also be involved in virulence. As a vehicle of pathogenic microorganisms, the protozoan Acanthamoeba is a good model for the investigation of bacterial survival in the environment and molecular mechanisms of pathogenicity...
September 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916313/virulence-of-thermolable-haemolysi-tlh-gastroenteritis-related-pathogenicity-tdh-and-trh-of-the-pathogens-vibrio-parahemolyticus-in-viable-but-non-culturable-vbnc-state
#4
Huamin Zhong, Yukui Zhong, Qiulian Deng, Zhenwen Zhou, Xiaoshan Guan, Muxia Yan, Tingting Hu, Mingyong Luo
In the Viable but Non-Culturable (VBNC) state, microorganisms may survive under severe external environment. In this study, the specificity and sensitivity of PMA-LAMP assay on the detection of Vibrio Parahemolyticus (V. parahemolyticus) has been developed and evaluated, with further application on a number of food-borne V. parahemolyticus strains. Six primers were designed for recognizing 8 distinct targeting on tlh, tdh and trh gene. Through specific penetration through the damaged cell membrane of dead cells and intercalating into DNA, PMA could prevent DNA amplification of dead bacteria from LAMP, which enabled the differentiation of bacteria between VBNC state and dead state...
September 12, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915725/distribution-of-rotavirus-genotypes-ccirculating-in-ahvaz-iran-in-2016
#5
Azarakhsh Azaran, Manoochehr Makvandi, Ali Teimoori, Saeedeh Ebrahimi, Farzad Heydari, Roya Nikfar
Background: Group A rotavirus (RVA) mainly causes acute gastroenteritis, exclusively in young children in developing countries. The prevalence and determination of the molecular epidemiology of rotavirus genotypes will determine the dominant rotavirus genotypes in the region and provide a strategy for the development of appropriate vaccines. Methods: A total of 100 fecal samples were collected from children below five years with acute gastroenteritis who referred to Aboozar Children’s Hospital of Ahvaz city during October 2015 to March 2016...
September 16, 2017: Iranian Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911830/norovirus-infection-in-older-adults-epidemiology-risk-factors-and-opportunities-for-prevention-and-control
#6
REVIEW
Cristina V Cardemil, Umesh D Parashar, Aron J Hall
Norovirus is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis. In older adults, it is responsible for an estimated 3.7 million illnesses; 320,000 outpatient visits; 69,000 emergency department visits; 39,000 hospitalizations; and 960 deaths annually in the United States. Older adults are particularly at risk for severe outcomes, including prolonged symptoms and death. Long-term care facilities and hospitals are the most common settings for norovirus outbreaks in developed countries. Diagnostic platforms are expanding...
September 12, 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910926/-survey-on-a-public-health-emergency-event-caused-by-norovirus
#7
Y Xing, C Jiang, W Y Hua, F Liu, Z Zhao, Y J Ding, L Wang, J Li
Objective: To study the epidemiological characteristics of an outbreak caused by norovirus infection in a school in Haidian district, Beijing. Methods: Basic information of the school and data related to patients in the fields survey were collected and analyzed descriptively. Laboratory tests were performed to test the stool and anal swab specimens of both patients and cooks as well as the environmental specimens. Risk factors related to the incidence were analyzed through a case-control study. Results: A total number of 119 patients were identified in the school...
September 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910409/risk-of-acute-gastroenteritis-associated-with-human-bocavirus-infection-in-children-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Ri De, Liying Liu, Yuan Qian, Runan Zhu, Jie Deng, Fang Wang, Yu Sun, Huijin Dong, Liping Jia, Linqing Zhao
Human bocaviruses (HBoVs), which were first identified in 2005 and are composed of genotypes 1-4, have been increasingly detected worldwide in pediatric patients with acute gastroenteritis. To investigate if HBoV infection is a risk factor of acute gastroenteritis in children younger than 5 years old, we searched PubMed, Embase (via Ovid), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), and the Cochrane Library for studies assessing the prevalence of HBoVs in individuals from Oct 25, 2005 to Oct 31, 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910275/occupational-animal-exposure-among-persons-with-campylobacteriosis-and-cryptosporidiosis-nebraska-2005-2015
#9
Chia-Ping Su, Derry T Stover, Bryan F Buss, Anna V Carlson, Sara E Luckhaupt
Campylobacter and Cryptosporidium are two common causes of gastroenteritis in the United States. National incidence rates measured for these pathogens in 2015 were 17.7 and 3.0 per 100,000 population, respectively; Nebraska was among the states with the highest incidence for both campylobacteriosis (26.6) and cryptosporidiosis (≥6.01) (1). Although campylobacteriosis and cryptosporidiosis are primarily transmitted via consumption of contaminated food or water, they can also be acquired through contact with live animals or animal products, including through occupational exposure (2)...
September 15, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910247/pediatric-ambulatory-care-sensitive-conditions-birth-cohorts-and-the-socio-economic-gradient
#10
Leslie L Roos, Roxana Dragan, Robert J Schroth
OBJECTIVES: This study examines the socio-economic gradient in utilization and the risk factors associated with hospitalization for four pediatric ambulatory care sensitive conditions (dental conditions, asthma, gastroenteritis, and bacterial pneumonia). Dental conditions, where much care is provided by dentists and insurance coverage varies among different population segments, present special issues. METHODS: A population registry, provider registry, physician ambulatory claims, and hospital discharge abstracts from 28 398 children born in 2003-2006 in urban centres in Manitoba, Canada were the main data sources...
September 14, 2017: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906408/eosinophilic-gastroenteritis-presenting-as-upper-gastrointestinal-hematoma-and-ulcers-after-endoscopic-biopsy-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#11
Biqin Chen, Zhao Yang, Heng Lu, Cheng Wei, Fangyu Wang, Chang Liu
RATIONALE: Eosinphilic gastroenteritis (EG) is a gastrointestinal disorder characterized by eosinophilic infiltration with various manifestations. The diagnosis is usually confirmed by an endoscopic biopsy, which is considered a safe and routine procedure for the majority. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report a 54-year-old male who was presented with intermittent periumbilical pain and melena, and only revealed verrucous gastritis by endoscopy. DIAGNOSES: The patient's condition worsened two days after the endoscopic biopsy, and another endoscopy found hematoma and ulcers in upper gastrointestinal tract...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906158/prevalence-of-putative-virulence-genes-in-campylobacter-and-arcobacter-species-isolated-from-poultry-and-poultry-by-products-in-tunisia
#12
Hela Jribi, Hanen Sellami, Amal Ben Hassena, Radhouane Gdoura
Campylobacter and Arcobacter spp. are common causes of gastroenteritis in humans; these infections are commonly due to undercooked poultry. However, their virulence mechanism is still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of genotypic virulence markers in Campylobacter and Arcobacter species using PCR. The prevalence of virulence and cytolethal distending toxin (CDT) genes was estimated in 71 Campylobacteraceae isolates. PCR was used to detect the presence of virulence genes (iam, cadF, virB1, flaA, cdtA, cdtB, and cdtC) using specific primers for a total of 45 Campylobacter isolates, including 37 C...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905004/gastroenteritis-aggressive-versus-slow-treatment-for-rehydration-gastro-a-pilot-rehydration-study-for-severe-dehydration-who-plan-c-versus-slower-rehydration
#13
Kirsty A Houston, Jack G Gibb, Ayub Mpoya, Nchafatso Obonyo, Peter Olupot-Olupot, Margeret Nakuya, Jennifer A Evans, Elizabeth C George, Diana M Gibb, Kathryn Maitland
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) rehydration management guidelines (Plan C) for children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and severe dehydration are widely practiced in resource-poor settings, yet have never been formally evaluated in a clinical trial. A recent audit of outcome of AGE at Kilifi County Hospital, Kenya noted that 10% of children required high dependency care (20% mortality) and a number developed fluid-related complications. The fluid resuscitation trial, FEAST, conducted in African children with severe febrile illness, demonstrated higher mortality with fluid bolus therapy and raised concerns regarding the safety of rapid intravenous rehydration therapy...
2017: Wellcome Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904188/characterization-of-antigenic-relatedness-between-gii-4-and-gii-17-noroviruses-using-serum-samples-from-norovirus-infected-patients
#14
Ying-Chun Dai, Ming Xia, Qiong Huang, Ming Tan, Lin Qin, Ya-Li Zhuang, Yan Long, Jian-Dong Li, Xi Jiang, Xu-Fu Zhang
A novel GII.17 norovirus variant caused major gastroenteritis epidemics in China in 2014 -2016. To explore the host immune factors in selection of the emergence of this new variant, we characterized its antigenic relatedness with the GII.4 noroviruses that have dominated in China for decades. Through ELISA and histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) blocking assays using sera from GII.4 and the GII.17 variant-infected patients, respectively, we observed limited cross immune reactivity by the ELISA but little reactivity by the HBGA blocking assay between GII...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902863/identification-of-vaccine-derived-rotavirus-strains-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-japan-2012-2015
#15
Mei Kaneko, Sayaka Takanashi, Aksara Thongprachum, Nozomu Hanaoka, Tsuguto Fujimoto, Koo Nagasawa, Hirokazu Kimura, Shoko Okitsu, Masashi Mizuguchi, Hiroshi Ushijima
Two live attenuated oral rotavirus vaccines, Rotarix and RotaTeq, have been introduced as voluntary vaccination in Japan since 2011 and 2012, respectively. Effectiveness of the vaccines has been confirmed, whereas concerns such as shedding of the vaccine strains and gastroenteritis cases caused by vaccine strains are not well assessed. We aimed to identify the vaccine strains in children with acute gastroenteritis (AGE) to investigate the prevalence of AGE caused by vaccination or horizontal transmission of vaccine strains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901254/therapeutics-and-immunoprophylaxis-against-noroviruses-and-rotaviruses
#16
Souvik Ghosh, Yashpal Singh Malik, Nobumichi Kobayashi
Noroviruses and rotaviruses are important viral etiologies of severe gastroenteritis. Noroviruses are the primary cause of non-bacterial diarrheal outbreaks in humans, whilst rotaviruses are a major cause of childhood diarrhea. Although both enteric pathogens substantially impact human health and economies, there are no approved drugs against noroviruses and rotaviruses, so far. On the other hand, whilst the currently licensed rotavirus vaccines have been successfully implemented in over 100 countries, the most advanced norovirus vaccine has recently completed phase-I and II trials...
September 12, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898264/assessment-of-listeria-monocytogenes-virulence-in-the-galleria-mellonella-insect-larvae-model
#17
Mira Rakic Martinez, Martin Wiedmann, Martine Ferguson, Atin R Datta
Several animal models have been used to understand the molecular basis of the pathogenicity, infectious dose and strain to strain variation of Listeria monocytogenes. The greater wax worm Galleria mellonella, as an alternative model, provides some useful advantages not available with other models and has already been described as suitable for the virulence assessment of various pathogens including L. monocytogenes. The objectives of this study are: 1) confirming the usefulness of this model with a wide panel of Listeria spp...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893475/impact-of-five-years-of-rotavirus-vaccination-in-finland-and-the-associated-cost-savings-in-secondary-healthcare
#18
Tuija Leino, Ulrike Baum, Peter Scott, Jukka Ollgren, Heini Salo
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to estimate the impact of the national rotavirus (RV) vaccination programme, starting 2009, on the total hospital-treated acute gastroenteritis (AGE) and severe RV disease burden in Finland during the first five years of the programme. This study also evaluated the costs saved in secondary healthcare by the RV vaccination programme. METHODS: The RV related outcome definitions were based on ICD10 diagnostic codes recorded in the Care Register for Health Care...
September 8, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892295/transcriptome-and-proteome-dynamics-in-chemostat-culture-reveal-how-campylobacter-jejuni-modulates-metabolism-stress-responses-and-virulence-factors-upon-changes-in-oxygen-availability
#19
Edward J Guccione, John J Kendall, Andrew Hitchcock, Nitanshu Garg, Michael A White, Francis Mulholland, Robert K Poole, David J Kelly
Campylobacter jejuni, the most frequent cause of food-borne bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide, is a microaerophile that has to survive high environmental oxygen tensions, adapt to oxygen limitation in the intestine and resist host oxidative attack. Here, oxygen-dependent changes in C. jejuni physiology were studied at constant growth rate using carbon (serine)-limited continuous chemostat cultures. We show that a perceived aerobiosis scale can be calibrated by the acetate excretion flux, which becomes zero when metabolism is fully aerobic (100% aerobiosis)...
September 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892173/prevalence-and-diversity-of-rotavirus-a-genotypes-cirulating-in-turkey-during-a-two-year-sentinel-surveillance-period-2014-2016
#20
Riza Durmaz, Zekiye Bakkaloglu, Ozlem Unaldi, Alper Karagoz, Gulay Korukluoglu, Atila Taner Kalaycioglu, Sumeyra Acar, Selcuk Kilic
Human rotavirus A (RVA) is the main etiological agent of watery diarrhea among children under 5 years of age worldwide. The aims of this study were to investigate the prevalence and diversity of RVA genotypes circulating in Turkey during a two-year sentinel surveillance study. A total of 1639 rotavirus antigen-positive stool samples were obtained from children younger than 5 years of age hospitalized with acute gastroenteritis. Rotavirus G and P genotypes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with consensus primers for the VP7 and VP4 genes, followed by semi-nested type-specific multiplex PCR...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
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