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Elena Kilian, Jan S Suchodolski, Katrin Hartmann, Ralf S Mueller, Gerhard Wess, Stefan Unterer
BACKGROUND: Canine parvovirus (CPV) is the most important viral cause of acute canine enteritis leading to severe damage of the intestinal barrier. It has been speculated that dogs might develop chronic disorders after surviving CPV infection. However, no studies regarding the long-term implications of CPV infection have been published to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether dogs that have survived CPV infection will have an increased risk for developing chronic gastroenteritis, atopic dermatitis, or cardiac disease...
2018: PloS One
Ana Carla Peixoto Guissoni, Célia Maria Almeida Soares, Kareem R Badr, Fabiola Sousa Ficcadori, Ana Flávia Alves Parente, Juliana Alves Parente, Lilian Cristina Baeza, Menira Souza, Divina das Dores de Paula Cardoso
Human Adenoviruses (HAdVs) are etiological agents of different syndromes such as gastroenteritis, cystitis, ocular, and respiratory diseases, and infection by these viruses may cause alterations in cellular homeostasis. The objective of the study was the proteomic analysis of A-549 cells infected with HAdV-40 using LC-MS. At 30 h of infection, the quantitative analysis revealed 336 differentially expressed proteins. From them, 206 were induced (up-regulated) and 130 were suppressed (down-regulated). The majority of up-regulated proteins were related to energy, cellular organization, stress response, and apoptosis pathways...
March 15, 2018: Virus Genes
Gunta Laizane, Anda Kivite, Inese Stars, Marita Cikovska, Ilze Grope, Dace Gardovska
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus is the leading cause of severe diarrhea in young children and infants worldwide, representing a heavy public health burden. Limited information is available regarding the impact of rotavirus gastroenteritis on the quality of life of affected children and their families. The objectives of study were to estimate the impact of rotavirus infection on health-related quality of life (HRQL), to assess the social and emotional effects on the families of affected children...
March 15, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Carol Kelly, James D Chalmers, Iain Crossingham, Nicola Relph, Lambert M Felix, David J Evans, Stephen J Milan, Sally Spencer
BACKGROUND: Bronchiectasis is a chronic respiratory disease characterised by abnormal and irreversible dilatation and distortion of the smaller airways. Bacterial colonisation of the damaged airways leads to chronic cough and sputum production, often with breathlessness and further structural damage to the airways. Long-term macrolide antibiotic therapy may suppress bacterial infection and reduce inflammation, leading to fewer exacerbations, fewer symptoms, improved lung function, and improved quality of life...
March 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
N A Filatova, N A Knyazev, S O Skarlato, O V Anatskaya, A E Vinogradov
Cryptosporidiosis causes persistent diarrhea in infants, immunocompromised patients and elderly persons. Long-term consequences of the disease include increased risk of malignancy, cardiomyopathy and gastrointestinal inflammation. This study aimed to investigate prolonged effects of cryptosporidiosis on innate immunity and growth in neonatal C3HA mice. The disease was challenged by Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst inoculation into 7-days old animals. The mice whose intestine smears contained 3-5 or 6 and more oocysts per microscopic field at the day 5 after infection were considered as mildly or severely infected, correspondingly...
March 14, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Ngan Thi Kim Pham, Aksara Thongprachum, Quang Duy Trinh, Shoko Okitsu, Shihoko Komine-Aizawa, Hiroyuki Shimizu, Satoshi Hayakawa, Hiroshi Ushijima
Of 972 stool samples collected from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in six different regions (Hokkaido, Tokyo, Shizuoka, Kyoto, Osaka, and Saga) of Japan during 2-year period from July 2014 to June 2016, 63 samples (6.5%) determined to be positive for enterovirus by multiplex RT-PCR were subjected to genotype determination based on the partial VP1 region using the CODEHOP method. Sixty-two strains were succeeded in genotyping and seventeen EV types were identified. The majority of the studied strains belonged to EV-A (30 of 62; 48...
March 11, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Cristiana Maurella, Silvia Gallina, Giuseppe Ru, Daniela Adriano, Alberto Bellio, Daniela Manila Bianchi, Laura Chiavacci, Maria Ines Crescio, Margherita Croce, Valeria D'Errico, Maria Franca Dupont, Alessandro Marra, Ubaldo Natangelo, Francesco Pomilio, Angelo Romano, Stefano Stanzione, Teresa Zaccaria, Fabio Zuccon, Maria Caramelli, Lucia Decastelli
In May 2016, two separate clusters of febrile gastroenteritis caused by Listeria monocytogenes were detected by the local health authority in Piedmont, in northern Italy. We carried out epidemiological, microbiological and traceback investigations to identify the source. The people affected were students and staff members from two different schools in two different villages located in the Province of Turin; five of them were hospitalised. The epidemiological investigation identified a cooked beef ham served at the school canteens as the source of the food-borne outbreak...
March 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Yanhong Yang, Na Zhang, Kundong Li, Juan Chen, Lang Qiu, Jufeng Zhang
Purpose: Berberine (BBR) is a traditional Chinese medicine normally used for gastroenteritis, and recent research found that it could fight against tumors. In this study, we focused on integrating miRNA sequencing and RNA sequencing of SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells treated by BBR to elucidate their underlying mechanisms. Materials and methods: WST-1 assay and flow cytometry were used to check the effects of BBR on SGC-7901. miRNA sequencing and RNA sequencing were used to establish the miRNA and mRNA profiles of BBR-treated SGC-7901...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
A Esteves, J Nordgren, C Tavares, F Fortes, R Dimbu, N Saraiva, C Istrate
Norovirus (NoV) is a major cause of acute gastroenteritis (AGE). In this study, we investigated the genetic diversity of NoV strains identified in children under 5 years of age with AGE in four provinces of Angola. Faecal samples from 343 children were screened for NoV by an in house real-time PCR assay and genotyping was performed by partial capsid gene sequencing. NoV was detected in 17.4% (58/334) of the samples, with high detection rates in children <6 months old (19%) and in children aged 12-24 months (23%)...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Na Jiang, Lei Shi, Jieping Lin, Lifang Zhang, Yanxia Peng, Huiying Sheng, Ping Wu, Qingjun Pan
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus (RV) and enteric adenovirus (AdV) mainly cause infantile infectious gastroenteritis. Several separate test methods for the detection of RV or AdV are currently available, but few tests are able to simultaneously detect both RV and AdV viruses, especially in primary medical institutions. METHODS: The present study was mainly designed to compare the performance of two combined test strips for the detection of RV and AdV: a rotavirus-adenovirus strip with fluorescent microspheres for tracers (FMT); and the CerTest rotavirus-adenovirus blister strip with colored microspheres for tracers (CMT)...
March 13, 2018: Virology Journal
Marjorie M Walker, Michael Potter, Nicholas J Talley
Under normal physiological conditions, eosinophils are present throughout the gastrointestinal tract distal to the squamous oesophagus. Increases in their numbers signify primary and secondary eosinophilic conditions. The rare primary eosinophilic diseases eosinophilic gastroenteritis and eosinophilic colitis affect fewer than ten in 100 000 people, and are characterised by numerous mucosal eosinophils, distributed in sheets and sometimes extending from the mucosa into the submucosa. Pathogenesis of these diseases is poorly understood, but food allergies and intestinal dysbiosis have been implicated...
April 2018: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Mohammed Qadori, Elmira Flem, Terese Bekkevold, Henrik Døllner, Ann Marit Gilje, Astrid Rojahn, Ketil Størdal
AIM: Using routine blood sampling in a gastroenteritis diagnostic work-up is debatable. This study examined the relationship between the severity of acute gastroenteritis and blood test abnormalities. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled children under five years referred for outpatient or inpatient management for gastroenteritis from February 2014 to April 2016. The four study hospitals cared for 30% of Norwegian children. The severity of gastroenteritis was assessed using Vesikari scores...
March 13, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Mitsutaka Kitano, Myra Hosmillo, Edward Emmott, Jia Lu, Ian Goodfellow
Human norovirus (HuNoV) is a major cause of nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide yet, despite their impact on society, vaccines and antivirals are currently lacking. A HuNoV replicon system has been widely applied to the evaluation of antiviral compounds and has thus accelerated the process of drug discovery against HuNoV infection. Rupintrivir, an irreversible inhibitor of the human rhinovirus 3C protease, has been reported to inhibit the replication of the Norwalk virus replicon via the inhibition of the norovirus protease...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Daniel Enosi Tuipulotu, Natalie E Netzler, Jennifer H Lun, Jason M Mackenzie, Peter A White
Norovirus infections are a significant health and economic burden globally, accounting for hundreds of millions of cases of acute gastroenteritis every year. In the absence of an approved norovirus vaccine, there is an urgent need to develop antivirals to treat chronic infections, and provide prophylactic therapy to limit viral spread during epidemics and pandemics. Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists have been explored widely for their antiviral potential and several are progressing through clinical trials for the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and as adjuvants for norovirus virus-like particle (VLP) vaccines...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Frank G Sandmann, Laura Shallcross, Natalie Adams, David J Allen, Pietro G Coen, Annette Jeanes, Zisis Kozlakidis, Lesley Larkin, Fatima Wurie, Julie V Robotham, Mark Jit, Sarah R Deeny
Background: Norovirus places a substantial burden on healthcare systems, arising from infected patients, disease outbreaks, beds kept unoccupied for infection control, and staff absences due to infection. In settings with high rates of bed occupancy, opportunity costs arise from patients who cannot be admitted due to beds being unavailable. With several treatments and vaccines against norovirus in development, quantifying the expected economic burden is timely. Methods: The number of inpatients with norovirus-associated gastroenteritis in England were modelled using infectious and non-infectious gastrointestinal Hospital Episode Statistics codes and laboratory reports of gastrointestinal pathogens collected at Public Health England...
February 26, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
L O Gonçalves, M M Lopes, E R Rezende, G Rs Segundo
BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the incidence of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) in childhood. The study aim is to determine the incidence of EoE in pediatric patients submitted to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGE), with analysis of epidemiological data regarding sex, age, symptomatology, the frequency of atopy and endoscopic and histological findings. METHODS: A retrospective, observational and analytical study performed with an evaluation of medical records of patients aged 0 to 14 years who underwent to upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in a tertiary hospital from January 2004 to January 2014...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Sandra Isabel, Rachel R Higgins, Adriana Peci, Marc R Isabel, Shelley L Deeks, Jonathan B Gubbay
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Ontario introduced a universal publicly-funded group A rotavirus (RVA) immunization program in August 2011, using monovalent vaccine. RVA immunization programs have decreased the incidence of RVA acute gastroenteritis in many countries but it is unclear if it will contribute to the emergence of certain genotypes. We monitored RVA trends and genotypes in Ontario before and after implementation of the publicly-funded immunization program. METHODS: RVA detection was conducted at Public Health Ontario Laboratories from January 2009 to December 2011 (pre-program period) and January 2012 to October 2015 (publicly-funded RVA immunization program period) and number of RVA-positive specimens and percent positivity were analysed...
March 8, 2018: Vaccine
Kelly J Gambino-Shirley, Adiam Tesfai, Colin A Schwensohn, Cindy Burnett, Lori Smith, Jennifer M Wagner, Dana Eikmeier, Kirk Smith, Jolianne P Stone, Dawn Updike, Jonas Hines, Lauren N Shade, Beth Tolar, Tong-Jen Fu, Stelios Viazis, Sharon L Seelman, Kathryn Blackshear, Matthew E Wise, Karen P Neil
Background: Nontyphoidal Salmonella is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis in the United States. Meal replacement products containing raw and 'superfood' ingredients have gained increasing popularity among consumers in recent years. In January 2016, we investigated a multistate outbreak of infections with a novel strain of Salmonella Virchow. Methods: Cases were defined using molecular subtyping procedures. Commonly reported exposures were compared with responses from healthy people interviewed in the 2006-2007 FoodNet Population Survey...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Q Zhang, J L Huang, Y B Liang, Y P He, D W Tong, X G Xu
Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) is an important pathogen in swine that is responsible for substantial economic losses. Previous studies suggest that the TGEV non-structural protein 7 (nsp7) plays an important role in the viral assembly process. However, the subcellular localization and other functions of the TGEV nsp7 protein are still unclear. In this study we have examined the subcellular localization and other functions of TGEV nsp7 protein through analysis of its effects on cell growth, cell cycle progression, interleukin 8 (IL-8) expression, and NF-κB activation...
2018: Acta Virologica
Manuela Hefele, Iris Stolzer, Barbara Ruder, Gui-Wei He, Mousumi Mahapatro, Stefan Wirtz, Markus F Neurath, Claudia Günther
Although induction of host cell death is a pivotal step during bacteria-induced gastroenteritis, the molecular regulation remains to be fully characterized. To expand our knowledge, we investigated the role of the central cell death regulator Caspase-8 in response to Salmonella Typhimurium. Here, we uncovered that intestinal salmonellosis was associated with strong upregulation of members of the host cell death machinery in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) as an early event, suggesting that elimination of infected IECs represents a host defense strategy...
March 8, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
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