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Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan, Orinya Agbaji Orinya
Piroxicam is a benzothiazine compound with anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic properties. Because of the very high efficacy of piroxicam and its increasing use in the treatment of carcinomas in dogs and cats, there is a need for acute toxicity study of piroxicam in monogastric animals and its potential for causing secondary poisoning in puppies. Piroxicam manufactured by Shanxi Federal Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd. was used for this study. Revised up-and-down procedure was used for the estimation of median lethal dose in mouse (259...
2016: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
Heli Siikamäki, Pia Kivelä, Mikael Fotopoulos, Anu Kantele
BACKGROUND: Although infections represent the most common health problem of travellers abroad, data on morbidity and incidences of various infections are scarce. METHOD: Data on infections of Finnish travellers during 2010 to 2012 were retrieved from the database of SOS International, an assistance organization covering 95% of Finns requiring aid abroad. The study included 30,086 cases. For incidence calculation, the data were linked to the numbers of Finns visiting these regions during the same period as recorded by the Official Statistics of Finland...
October 20, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Khitam Muhsen, Eias Kassem, Uri Rubenstein, Sophy Goren, Moshe Ephros, Dani Cohen, Lester M Shulman
BACKGROUND: Uncertainty exists about the sustainability of the reduction in rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) following the introduction of rotavirus vaccines into national immunization programs, and on its potential impact on circulating genotypes. RotaTeq was introduced into the Israeli national immunization program in December 2010, and vaccination coverage is around 80%. AIMS: To examine the change in incidence of RVGE hospitalization and rotavirus genotypes, during the five years after introduction of RotaTeq into the Israeli national immunization program...
October 19, 2016: Vaccine
M Topuridze, D Baliashvili, T Komakhidze, M Shishniashvili, N Grdzelidze, M Butsashvili
Rotavirus (RV) is the most common cause of severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide. RV causes approximately half a million deaths each year among children aged <5 years. According to WHO estimates for 2008, there were approximately 10 to 50 deaths annually in young children due to rotavirus diarrhea in Georgia. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to rotavirus diarrhea and the rotavirus vaccine among health care workers (HCWs). The National Center for Disease Control and Public Health (NCDC) conducted a cross-sectional survey of HCWs involved in the expanded program of immunization (EPI)...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
M S Tan, E J Teoh, C P Hor, A A C Yeoh
INTRODUCTION: Children who develop any hypersensitivity reaction to eggs are routinely referred to hospital for Measles-Mumps-Rubella (MMR) vaccination as inpatients to prevent anaphylaxis. We aimed to study the association between hypersensitivity reactions after egg exposure and similar reactions after MMR immunisation; and examine the necessity of hospital admission for vaccination. METHODS: A prospective observational study was conducted in Paediatric Department in Bukit Mertajam Hospital, Penang, between March and December 2014...
August 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
Suifang Ye, David M Whiley, Robert S Ware, Theo P Sloots, Carl D Kirkwood, Keith Grimwood, Stephen B Lambert
Several viruses are associated with gastroenteritis in infants. This pilot study, nested within a larger community-based project of early childhood infections, collected daily symptom data and 511 weekly stool samples from five healthy, fully-vaccinated, term infants from birth until their second birthday. Real-time PCR assays were used to detect six enteric viruses. Frequent, silent shedding of one or more of the six viruses was observed, particularly involving adenovirus where shedding could be for up to 3-months without gastrointestinal symptoms...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Issmat I Kassem, Olugbenga Kehinde, Anand Kumar, Gireesh Rajashekara
Poultry is a major source of Campylobacter, which can cause foodborne bacterial gastroenteritis in humans. Additionally, poultry-associated Campylobacter can develop resistance to important antimicrobials, which increases the risk to public health. While broiler chickens have been the focus of many studies, the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter on layer farms has not received equal attention. However, the growing popularity of cage-free and organic layer farming necessitates a closer assessment of (1) the impact of these farming practices on the emergence of antimicrobial-resistant Campylobacter and (2) layers as a potential source for the transmission of these pathogens...
September 22, 2016: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Kristen L Lokken, Gregory T Walker, Renée M Tsolis
Non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica serovars (NTS) are generally associated with gastroenteritis; however, the very young and elderly, as well as individuals with compromised immunity, are at risk of developing disseminated infection that can manifest as bacteremia or focal infections at systemic sites. Disseminated NTS infections can be fatal and are responsible for over 600,000 deaths annually. Most of these deaths are in sub-Saharan Africa, where multi-drug resistant NTS clones are currently circulating in a population with a high proportion of individuals that are susceptible to disseminated disease...
October 8, 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Reza Ranjbar, Mitra Ahmadi, Mojtaba Memariani
Salmonella is an important cause of food-borne infection worldwide. Detection of outbreaks caused by Salmonella spp. relies on suitable and robust methods for genotyping. Little is known about the genetic diversity of the Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serotype Infantis strains isolated from human sources in Iran. In this study, 40 isolates of S. Infantis, which were previously recovered from patients with gastroenteritis or diarrhea in Tehran between years 2007 and 2009, were subjected to multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA), pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and ERIC-PCR...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Keiko Yamada, Junhui Yuan, Tomoo Mano, Hiroshi Takashima, Masahiko Shibata
BACKGROUND: Hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy (HSAN) type II with WNK1/HSN2 gene mutation is a rare disease characterized by early-onset demyelination sensory loss and skin ulceration. To the best of our knowledge, no cases of an autonomic disorder have been reported clearly in a patient with WNK/HSN2 gene mutation and only one case of a Japanese patient with the WNK/HSN2 gene mutation of HSAN type II was previously reported. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we describe a 54-year-old woman who had an early childhood onset of insensitivity to pain; superficial, vibration, and proprioception sensation disturbances; and several symptoms of autonomic failure (e...
October 21, 2016: BMC Neurology
Juan F Contreras-Cordero, César I Romo-Sáenz, Griselda E Menchaca-Rodríguez, Rocío Infante-Ramírez, Licet Villarreal-Treviño, Carlos E Hernández-Luna, Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla, Reyes S Tamez-Guerra
Rotavirus vaccine was developed using the most prominent G and P genotypes circulating in children population. Therefore, severe gastroenteritis has been reduced around the world. This study investigated the G and P rotavirus genotypes circulating in children from two hospitals in the city of Chihuahua, Mexico. Additionally, polyclonal antibodies against Rotavirus Wa strain were used to determine their homotypic and heterotypic reactivity to both P[8] and P[4] genotypes. G1, G2, and G3 VP7 genotypes and P[8] and P[4] VP4 genotypes were detected in common and uncommon combinations as well as mixed infectious...
December 2015: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
Christopher J Day, Rebecca M King, Lucy K Shewell, Greg Tram, Tahria Najnin, Lauren E Hartley-Tassell, Jennifer C Wilson, Aaron D Fleetwood, Igor B Zhulin, Victoria Korolik
A rare chemotaxis receptor, Tlp11, has been previously identified in invasive strains of Campylobacter jejuni, the most prevalent cause of bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. Here we use glycan and small-molecule arrays, as well as surface plasmon resonance, to show that Tlp11 specifically interacts with galactose. Tlp11 is required for the chemotactic response of C. jejuni to galactose, as shown using wild type, allelic inactivation and addition mutants. The inactivated mutant displays reduced virulence in vivo, in a model of chicken colonization...
October 20, 2016: Nature Communications
Alex J Elliot, Helen E Hughes, John Astbury, Grainne Nixon, Kate Brierley, Roberto Vivancos, Thomas Inns, Valerie Decraene, Katherine Platt, Iain Lake, Sarah J O'Brien, Gillian E Smith
During August 2015, a boil water notice (BWN) was issued across parts of North West England following the detection of Cryptosporidium oocysts in the public water supply. Using prospective syndromic surveillance, we detected statistically significant increases in the presentation of cases of gastroenteritis and diarrhoea to general practitioner services and related calls to the national health telephone advice service in those areas affected by the BWN. In the affected areas, average in-hours general practitioner consultations for gastroenteritis increased by 24...
October 13, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Michael M Petrov, Atanaska Petrova, Irina Stanimirova, Marina Mircheva-Topalova, Lalka Koycheva, Rayna Velcheva, Mariana Stoycheva-Vartigova, Ralitsa Raycheva, Galina Asseva, Petar Petrov, Velichka Kardjeva, Marianna Murdjeva
The aim of this work is to study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella and Shigella at the largest Bulgarian hospital-University Hospital "St. George," Plovdiv-for the period 2009-2013. Two hundred ninety strains were in vitro tested for resistance to 15 antimicrobial agents. The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) was demonstrated by a variety of specialized tests. For comparison, a collection of 28 strains submitted by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) "Enteric Infections" at the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (NCIPD), Sofia, was also tested for the production of ESBLs...
October 19, 2016: Folia Microbiologica
Arzu İrvem, Kamil Özdil, Zuhal Çalışkan, Muhterem Yücel
BACKGROUND: E. histolytica is among the common causes of acute gastroenteritis. The pathogenic species E. histolytica and the nonpathogenic species E. dispar cannot be morphologically differentiated, although correct identification of these protozoans is important for treatment and public health. In many laboratories, the screening of leukocytes, erythrocytes, amoebic cysts, trophozoites and parasite eggs is performed using Native-Lugol's iodine for pre-diagnosis. AIMS: In this study, we aimed to investigate the frequency of E...
September 2016: Balkan Medical Journal
Maria Hemming-Harlo, Timo Vesikari, Matti Uhari, Marjo Renko, Marjo Salminen, Laurence Torcel-Pagnon, Susanne Hartwig, Francois Simondon, Hélène Bricout
KEY POINTS: The effectiveness of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine against rotavirus-associated hospitalization was more than 90% 4 years after introduction into the national immunization program in Finland. A major impact on hospitalization for all-cause gastroenteritis was observed also. BACKGROUND: Rotavirus vaccination with exclusive use of RotaTeq was added to the National Immunization Programme (NIP) of Finland in September 2009. The objective of our study was to estimate the effectiveness and impact of RotaTeq after 4 years of follow-up...
October 19, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Michela Malvisi, Fiorentina Palazzo, Nicola Morandi, Barbara Lazzari, John L Williams, Giulio Pagnacco, Giulietta Minozzi
Paratuberculosis in cattle is a chronic granulomatous gastroenteritis caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratubercolosis (MAP) which is endemic worldwide. In dairy herds, it is responsible for huge economic losses. However, current diagnostic methods do not detect subclinical infection making control of the disease difficult. The identification of MAP infected animals during the sub-clinical phase of infection would play a key role in preventing the dissemination of the pathogen and in reducing transmission...
2016: PloS One
Xiaojing Wang, Fan Ping, Cuijuan Qi, Xinhua Xiao
BACKGROUND: Autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 2 (APS-2), also known as Schmidt's syndrome, is an uncommon disorder characterized by the coexistence of Addison's disease with thyroid autoimmune disease and/or type 1 diabetes mellitus. Addison's disease as the obligatory component is potentially life-threatening. Unfortunately, the delayed diagnosis of Addison's disease is common owing to its rarity and the nonspecific clinical manifestation. METHODS: Here we reported a case of 38-year-old female patient who presented with 2 years' history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and received levothyroxine replacement...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Joon Heng Tan, Liam Healy, Kristel Yap, Aditya Mandal
We present the first documented case of erythema multiforme following campylobacter gastroenteritis.
October 2016: JRSM Open
Mai Ohba, Tomoichiro Oka, Takayuki Ando, Saori Arahata, Asaka Ikegaya, Hirotaka Takagi, Naohisa Ogo, Chelsea Zhu, Kazuhiro Owada, Fumihiko Kawamori, Qiuhong Wang, Linda J Saif, Akira Asai
Caliciviruses are contagious pathogens of humans and various animals. They are the most common cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans, and can cause lethal diseases in domestic animals such as cats, rabbits and immunocompromised mice. In this study, we conducted cytopathic effect-based screening of 2080 selected compounds from our in-house library to find antiviral compounds against three culturable caliciviruses: feline calicivirus, murine norovirus (MNV) and porcine sapovirus (PoSaV). We identified active six compounds, of which two compounds, both related to theaflavins, showed broad antiviral activities against all three caliciviruses; three compounds (abamectin, a mixture of avermectin B1a and B1b; avermectin B1a; and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate hydrate) were effective against PoSaV only; and a heterocyclic carboxamide derivative (BFTC) specifically inhibited MNV infectivity in cell cultures...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
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