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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165124/changes-in-the-numbers-of-patients-with-acute-gastroenteritis-after-voluntary-introduction-of-the-rotavirus-vaccine-in-a-japanese-children-s-primary-emergency-medical-center
#1
Ichiro Morioka, Naohiro Kamiyoshi, Masahiro Nishiyama, Tomohiko Yamamura, Shogo Minamikawa, Sota Iwatani, Hiroaki Nagase, Kandai Nozu, Noriyuki Nishimura, Mariko Taniguchi-Ikeda, Kazuto Ishibashi, Akihito Ishida, Kazumoto Iijima
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a major reason for presentation to pediatric primary emergency medical centers. Because rotavirus vaccines were introduced in November 2011 for voluntary vaccination in Japan, we analyzed the changes in the numbers of AGE patients. METHODS: The number and proportion of patients visiting Kobe children's primary emergency medical center from January 2011 to February 2015 due to AGE, out of all visiting children, were investigated retrospectively...
March 31, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163452/the-opportunistic-pathogen-vibrio-vulnificus-produces-outer-membrane-vesicles-in-a-spatially-distinct-manner-related-to-capsular-polysaccharide
#2
Cheri M Hampton, Ricardo C Guerrero-Ferreira, Rachel E Storms, Jeannette V Taylor, Hong Yi, Paul A Gulig, Elizabeth R Wright
Vibrio vulnificus, a bacterial species that inhabits brackish waters, is an opportunistic pathogen of humans. V. vulnificus infections can cause acute gastroenteritis, invasive septicemia, tissue necrosis, and potentially death. Virulence factors associated with V. vulnificus include the capsular polysaccharide (CPS), lipopolysaccharide, flagellum, pili, and outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). The aims of this study were to characterize the morphology of V. vulnificus cells and the formation and arrangement of OMVs using cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163440/nutrient-composition-promotes-switching-between-pellicle-and-bottom-biofilm-in-salmonella
#3
Sonia Paytubi, Cintia Cansado, Cristina Madrid, Carlos Balsalobre
Salmonella is one of the most frequently reported causes of foodborne illness worldwide. Non-typhoidal serovars cause gastroenteritis in humans. Salmonella can grow on surfaces forming biofilms, contributing to its persistence since biofilms are difficult to eradicate due to the high resistance to antimicrobials and disinfectants. It has been described that there are two crucial biofilm promoting factors in Salmonella: curli and cellulose. The expression of both factors is coordinately regulated by the transcriptional regulator CsgD...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162405/identification-of-target-risk-groups-for-population-based-clostridium-difficile-infection-prevention-strategies-using-a-population-attributable-risk-approach
#4
Sung-Hee Oh, Hye-Young Kang
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine risk factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and assess the contributions of these factors on CDI burden. METHODS: We conducted a 1:4 matched case-control study using a national claims dataset. Cases were incident CDI without a history of CDI in the previous 84 days, and were age- and sex-matched with control patients. We ascertained exposure, defined as a history of morbidities and drug use within 90 days...
November 18, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162319/impact-of-rotavirus-vaccine-on-acute-gastroenteritis-in-children-under-5-years-in-senegal-experience-of-sentinel-site-of-the-albert-royer-children-s-hospital-in-dakar
#5
Amadou Diop, Aliou Thiongane, Jason M Mwenda, Negar Aliabadi, Mouhamadou A Sonko, Aliou Diallo, Babacar Ndoye, Papa M Faye, Idrissa D Ba, Umesh D Parashar, Jacqueline E Tate, Ousmane Ndiaye, Moussa F Cissé, Mamadou Ba
BACKGROUND: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children <5 years of age in developing countries, with rotavirus being the most common infectious etiology. In November 2014, monovalent rotavirus vaccine was introduced in Senegal. We determined the impact of rotavirus vaccine on hospitalizations for all-cause and rotavirus related AGE in children <60 months of age. METHODS: We examined two data sources from the national referral hospital...
November 18, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162205/gastroenteritis-outbreaks-on-cruise-ships-contributing-factors-and-thresholds-for-early-outbreak-detection
#6
Varvara A Mouchtouri, Eleni Verykouki, Dumitru Zamfir, Christos Hadjipetris, Hannah C Lewis, Christos Hadjichristodoulou, The Eu Shipsan Act Partnership
When an increased number of acute gastroenteritis (AG) cases is detected among tourists staying at the same accommodation, outbreak management plans must be activated in a timely manner to prevent large outbreaks. Syndromic surveillance data collected between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 by five seagoing cruise ships were analysed to identify attack rate thresholds for early outbreak detection. The overall incidence rate of AG was 2.81 cases per 10,000 traveller-days (95% confidence interval (CI): 0...
November 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161685/intergenotype-recombination-among-new-norovirus-gii-4-variants-in-the-complete-genome
#7
Jinfeng Xu, Tingjun Liu, Hua Wang, Hongxing Shen
GII.4 noroviruses (NoVs) are a major cause of acute gastroenteritis in humans. A new variant of GII.4, the Sydney variant, has recently become more prevalent on a global scale. Intragenotype recombinations are widespread within the pandemic NoV GII.4 lineage, and are likely to be important forces driving the evolution and emergence of novel GII.4 viruses. In this study, we sought to examine the role that intergenotype recombination has played in the emergence of GII.4 Sydney 2012 variants. The results show that the GII...
November 22, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160508/detection-and-genotyping-of-human-adenovirus-and-sapovirus-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-bel%C3%A3-m-par%C3%A3-between-1990-and-1992-first-detection-of-gi-7-and-gv-2-sapoviruses-in-brazil
#8
Larissa Cristina Prado das Neves Costa, Jones Anderson Monteiro Siqueira, Thayara Morais Portal, Edivaldo Costa Sousa, Alexandre da Costa Linhares, Yvone Benchimol Gabbay, Hugo Reis Resque
INTRODUCTION: Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality, especially among children from developing countries. Human adenovirus (HAdV) and sapovirus (SaV) are among the agents that cause AGE. The present study aimed to detect and genotype HAdV and SaV in 172 fecal samples from children with AGE, collected during a surveillance study carried out in a low-income community in Belém, Pará, between 1990 and 1992. METHODS: HAdV was detected by nested PCR, using primers Hex1deg/Hex2deg and NeHex3deg/NeHex4deg...
September 2017: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159172/examining-the-link-between-biofilm-formation-and-the-ability-of-pathogenic-salmonella-strains-to-colonize-multiple-host-species
#9
REVIEW
Keith D MacKenzie, Melissa B Palmer, Wolfgang L Köster, Aaron P White
Salmonella are important pathogens worldwide and a predominant number of human infections are zoonotic in nature. The ability of strains to form biofilms, which is a multicellular behavior characterized by the aggregation of cells, is predicted to be a conserved strategy for increased persistence and survival. It may also contribute to the increasing number of infections caused by ingestion of contaminated fruits and vegetables. There is a correlation between biofilm formation and the ability of strains to colonize and replicate within the intestines of multiple host species...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158999/recurrent-primary-suprahepatic-abscess-due-to-providencia-stuartii-a-rare-phenomenon
#10
Kyawzaw Lin, Aung Naing Lin, Sandar Linn, Madhavi Reddy, Anjali Bakshi
Gram-negative urease-producing bacilli, Providencia stuartii (P. stuartii), is reported in urinary tract infections, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia in humans but they rarely present with a hepatic abscess. We present a rare case of a recurrent suprahepatic cyst due to P. stuartii in a 45-year-old female, intravenous ( IV) heroin abuser with chronic hepatitis B and C. A 45-year-old female with 10 days status post right suprahepatic abscess drainage presented with recurrent, right, upper quadrant abdominal pain for one day...
September 16, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155747/isolation-of-salmonella-typhimurium-containing-phagosomes-from-macrophages
#11
Saray Gutiérrez, Martina Wolke, Georg Plum, Nirmal Robinson
Salmonella typhimurium is a facultative intracellular bacterium that causes gastroenteritis in humans. After invasion of the lamina propria, S. typhimurium bacteria are quickly detected and phagocytized by macrophages, and contained in vesicles known as phagosomes in order to be degraded. Isolation of S. typhimurium-containing phagosomes have been widely used to study how S. typhimurium infection alters the process of phagosome maturation to prevent bacterial degradation. Classically, the isolation of bacteria-containing phagosomes has been performed by sucrose gradient centrifugation...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154735/rumination-time-as-a-potential-predictor-of-common-diseases-in-high-productive-holstein-dairy-cows
#12
Riccardo Moretti, Stefano Biffani, Francesco Tiezzi, Christian Maltecca, Stefania Chessa, Riccardo Bozzi
We examined the hypothesis that rumination time (RT) could serve as a useful predictor of various common diseases of high producing dairy cows and hence improve herd management and animal wellbeing. We measured the changes in rumination time (RT) in the days before the recording of diseases (specifically: mastitis, reproductive system diseases, locomotor system issues, and gastroenteric diseases). We built predictive models to assess the association between RT and these diseases, using the former as the outcome variable, and to study the effects of the latter on the former...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151896/genotypic-diversity-antimicrobial-resistance-and-biofilm-forming-abilities-of-campylobacter-isolated-from-chicken-in-central-china
#13
Tengfei Zhang, Jun Dong, Yiluo Cheng, Qin Lu, Qingping Luo, Guoyuan Wen, Guoping Liu, Huabin Shao
Background: Campylobacter is considered to be the leading cause of human bacterial gastroenteritis, of which poultry is the main reservoir. Campylobacter contaminated chicken products are a major cause of human Campylobacter infection. In this study, the prevalence of Campylobacter in chicken in central China was investigated, and the genotypic diversity, antimicrobial resistance and biofilm of these isolates were characterized. Results: A total of 206 Campylobacter isolates, including 166 C...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151318/detection-and-molecular-characterisation-of-adenovirus-in-children-under-5-years-old-with-diarrhoea
#14
Meryem Çolak, Gülendam Bozdayı, Aylin Altay, Zahide Yalaki, Kamruddin Ahmed, Seçil Özkan
Background/aim: To determine the frequency, genotype distribution, and genetic relatedness of adenoviruses in children under 5 years old with diarrhoea and to investigate their distribution according to clinical findings, age, months, and seasons. Materials and methods: Stool samples were collected from 180 children with acute gastroenteritis who presented from July 2007 through June 2011 at the Ankara Training and Education Hospital. Stool samples were analysed by immune chromatographic test (ICT), enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
November 13, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150772/norovirus-gii-17-associated-with-a-foodborne-acute-gastroenteritis-outbreak-in-brazil-2016
#15
Juliana da Silva Ribeiro de Andrade, Tulio Machado Fumian, José Paulo Gagliardi Leite, Matheus Ribeiro de Assis, Alexandre Madi Fialho, Sergio Mouta, Cristiane Mendes Pereira Santiago, Marize Pereira Miagostovich
Foodborne transmission gastroenteritis (AGE) outbreak occurred during a celebration lunch in July, 2016, Brazil. All stool samples tested were positive for noroviruses (NoV) and phylogenetic analysis revealed that strains were genetically close to GII.17 Kawasaki_2014. These findings indicated circulation of NoV GII.17 Kawasaki_2014 in the Brazilian population, associated with AGE outbreak.
November 17, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149805/observational-cohort-study-safety-outcomes-in-children-using-proton-pump-inhibitors-or-histamine-2-receptor-antagonists
#16
Eline Houben, Saga Johansson, Péter Nagy, Fernie J A Penning-van Beest, Ernst J Kuipers, Ron M C Herings
OBJECTIVE: Acid suppression with histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RAs) or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is recommended for children with persistent gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms. In this retrospective, observational postauthorization study, we aimed to assess and compare safety outcomes in pediatric first-time users of esomeprazole, other PPIs, or H2RAs. METHODS: Data on children (aged 0-18 years) first dispensed esomeprazole, other PPIs, or H2RAs between September 2008 and August 2011 were obtained from the Dutch PHARMO Database Network...
November 17, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149283/multivalent-rotavirus-vaccine-and-wild-type-rotavirus-strain-shedding-in-australian-infants-a-birth-cohort-study
#17
Suifang Ye, David M Whiley, Robert S Ware, Carl D Kirkwood, Stephen B Lambert, Keith Grimwood
Background: Rotavirus vaccines have reduced moderate-to-severe gastroenteritis episodes in infants and young children. Nevertheless, knowledge gaps exist concerning rotavirus vaccine shedding and vaccine impact upon mild and asymptomatic wild-type infections. Our primary objective was to investigate vaccine shedding in Australian infants where the multivalent human-bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine, RotaTeq®, was part of the routine vaccination schedule. Methods: The Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID) birth cohort study was conducted in Brisbane, Australia, from September 2010 to October 2014...
November 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149199/epidemiology-and-clinical-profile-of-pathogens-responsible-for-the-hospitalization-of-children-in-sousse-area-tunisia
#18
Ines Brini, Aida Guerrero, Naila Hannachi, Jihene Bouguila, Dorothea Orth-Höller, Amira Bouhlel, Lamia Boughamoura, Benjamin Hetzer, Wegene Borena, Britta Schiela, Dorothee Von Laer, Jalel Boukadida, Heribert Stoiber
This study aimed to identify a broad spectrum of respiratory pathogens from hospitalized and not-preselected children with acute respiratory tract infections in the Farhat Hached University-hospital of Sousse, Tunisia. Between September 2013 and December 2014, samples from 372 children aged between 1 month and 5 years were collected, and tested using multiplex real-time RT-PCR by a commercial assay for 21 respiratory pathogens. In addition, samples were screened for the presence of Streptococcus pneumoniae 16S rDNA using real-time PCR...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149170/vibrio-parahaemolyticus-vtra-is-a-membrane-bound-regulator-and-is-activated-via-oligomerization
#19
Ryu Okada, Shigeaki Matsuda, Tetsuya Iida
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a Gram-negative pathogen that causes food-borne gastroenteritis. A major virulence determinant of the organism is a type III secretion system (T3SS2) encoded on a pathogenicity island, Vp-PAI. Vp-PAI gene expression is regulated by two transcriptional regulators, VtrA and VtrB, whose N-terminal regions share homology with an OmpR-family DNA-binding domain. VtrA activates the gene expression of VtrB, which in turn activates Vp-PAI gene expression; however, the mechanism of this transcriptional activation by VtrA is not well understood...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143685/available-studies-fail-to-provide-strong-evidence-of-increased-risk-of-diarrhea-mortality-due-to-measles-in-the-period-4-26%C3%A2-weeks-after-measles-rash-onset
#20
Bianca D Jackson, Robert E Black
BACKGROUND: Measles vaccination effectiveness studies showed dramatic decreases in all-cause mortality in excess of what would be expected from the prevention of measles disease alone. This invited speculation that measles infection may increase the risk of diarrhea morbidity and mortality subsequent to the acute phase of the disease. The aim of the present systematic review is to summarize the existing evidence in the publically available literature pertaining to the putative causal link between measles and diarrhea in the period 4-26 weeks following measles rash onset...
November 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
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