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vancomycin resistance

Rajeev Soman, Umang Agrawal, Mitesh Suthar, Ketan Desai, Anjali Shetty
Elizabethkingia meningoseptica, formerly Chryseobacterium meningosepticum usually causes neonatal meningitis and is a rare cause of nosocomial meningitis in adults. E. meningoseptica is resistant to most antibiotics, and the use of inactive drugs as empirical therapy may contribute to poor outcome in many patients. Vancomycin, alone or in combination with rifampicin, has been successful in the treatment of meningitis in infants1. We present a case of E. meningoseptica meningitis in an adult who was treated initially with intravenous vancomycin and oral rifampicin, but did not respond to the treatment...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Lesley J Scott
Intravenous ceftaroline fosamil (Zinforo™), a prodrug that is rapidly converted to its active metabolite ceftaroline, is approved for use in adults and children (from 2 months of age) with complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) or community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). In several multinational trials, ceftaroline fosamil was an effective and generally well tolerated treatment in adult and paediatric patients with cSSTIs or CAP. In the phase 3 CANVAS trials, ceftaroline fosamil treatment was noninferior to vancomycin plus aztreonam in adults with cSSTIs...
October 20, 2016: Drugs
R Fussen, S Lemmen
Multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria present an increasing threat for intensive care patients. Whereas colonization of intensive care patients with methicillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in German ICUs has remained at a constant level in recent years and therapeutic options have improved, colonization and infections with MDR gram-negative bacteria and vancomycin-resistant enterococci are increasing year by year. Only a few or even no therapeutic options remain for the treatment of these bacteria...
October 20, 2016: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
Michael G Ficklin, Michael P Kowaleski, Kevin A R Kunkel, Jonathan T Suber
A two-year-old, 44 kg dog with a right Helica cementless total hip replacement (THR) was radiographically diagnosed with implant loosening eight months after the index total hip replacement procedure. Subsequent synoviocentesis and synovial fluid culture revealed a methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative Staphylococcus spp infection of the right THR. A one-stage revision using a hybrid BFX cementless acetabular cup and CFX cemented femoral stem was performed. Vancomycin and micro-silver antimicrobial powder impregnated cement were used in the revision...
October 20, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
I Klimiene, M Virgailis, A Pavilonis, R Siugzdiniene, R Mockeliunas, M Ruzauskas
The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from dairy cows with subclinical mastitis. Antimicrobial resistance in staphylococci were evaluated by breakpoint values specific to the species (EU-CAST). The presence of resistance-encoding genes was detected by multiplex PCR. A total of 191 CNS isolates were obtained. The CNS isolates were typically resistant to penicillin (67.4%), tetracyc-line (18.9%), and erythromycin (13...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Luisa Z Moreno, Mauricio C Dutra, Marina Moreno, Thais Sp Ferreira, Givago Fr da Silva, Carlos Ec Matajira, Ana Paula S Silva, Andrea M Moreno
Livestock-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (LA-MRSA) has been mainly related with pig farming, in Europe and North America, with the ST398 as the most commonly identified type of LA-MRSA. Here we present the draft genome of the first vancomycin-intermediate MRSA ST398/t9538 isolated from a swine presenting exudative epidermitis in Brazil.
October 2016: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Jyothi Padiadpu, Priyanka Baloni, Kushi Anand, MohamedHusen Munshi, Chandrani Thakur, Abhilash Mohan, Amit Singh, Nagasuma Chandra
The global mechanisms and associated molecular alterations that occur in drug-resistant mycobacteria are poorly understood. To address this, we obtain genomics data and then construct a genome-scale response network in isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium smegmatis and apply a network-mining algorithm. Through this, we decipher global alterations in an unbiased manner and identify emergent vulnerabilities in resistant bacilli, of which redox response was prominent. Using phenotypic profiling, we find that resistant bacilli exhibit collateral sensitivity to several compounds that block antioxidant responses...
September 9, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Jonathan I Huz, Krishna Mukkamala, Ivelisse Rodriguez Pagan, David Ritterband, Mahendra Shah, Ronald C Gentile, Michael Engelbert
PURPOSE: To compare the antibiotic susceptibilities and visual acuity (VA) outcomes in endophthalmitis caused by methicillin-resistant (MRSA) versus methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA). METHODS: The records of 34 cases of S. aureus endophthalmitis at The New York Eye and Ear Infirmary from Jan 1997 to June 2011 were reviewed. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles over time and VA at presentation and at 3, 6, and ≥12 months were recorded. S. aureus isolates were grouped based on oxacillin resistance...
October 19, 2016: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Mária Džunková, Giuseppe D'Auria, Hua Xu, Jun Huang, Yinghua Duan, Andrés Moya, Ciarán P Kelly, Xinhua Chen
Antibiotics have significant and long-lasting impacts on the intestinal microbiota and consequently reduce colonization resistance against Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). Standard therapy using antibiotics is associated with a high rate of disease recurrence, highlighting the need for novel treatment strategies that target toxins, the major virulence factors, rather than the organism itself. Human monoclonal antibodies MK-3415A (actoxumab-bezlotoxumab) to C. difficile toxin A and toxin B, as an emerging non-antibiotic approach, significantly reduced the recurrence of CDI in animal models and human clinical trials...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Sanmuga Priya Ekambaram, Senthamil Selvan Perumal, Ajay Balakrishnan, Nathiya Marappan, Sabari Srinivasan Gajendran, Vinodhini Viswanathan
AIM/BACKGROUND: Medicinal plants have ability to resist microorganisms by synthesizing secondary metabolites such as phenols. Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a phenylpropanoid widely distributed in plants and well known as therapeutic and cosmetic agent. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) which is resistant to all kinds of β-lactams, threatens even most potent antibiotics. To improve the efficiency of antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacteria and to reduce the antibiotic dose, the antibacterial activity and the synergistic effect of RA with standard antibiotics against S...
September 2016: Journal of Intercultural Ethnopharmacology
Hongyu He, Lirong Jin, Minjie Ju, Guowei Tu, Zhe Luo
BACKGROUND: Acute transverse myelitis is uncommon and presumably results from an autoimmune process or a preceding infection. Most cases of bacterial myelitis are due to hematogenous dissemination from urinary or respiratory tract infections or contiguous spreading from a neighboring infected structure. A psoas abscess rarely spreads to higher levels of the spinal cord. No cases of acute cervical myelitis due to a psoas abscess have been previously reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 34-year-old man was transferred to our hospital due to progressive muscle weakness, sensory deficits and severe hypotension...
October 18, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Rebecca Maxson, Julia Pate, Jessica Starr
BACKGROUND: Current vancomycin dosing guidelines recommend targeting trough concentrations of 15-20 mg/L in complicated infections to avoid treatment failure and resistance. How to accomplish this in the intermittent hemodialysis (IHD) population has not been adequately described. A weight-based vancomycin dosing protocol for IHD patients was developed to provide standardization of vancomycin dosing for this patient population. Prior to implementation of this protocol, clinical pharmacists used their individual judgment for dosing and monitoring...
October 19, 2016: Renal Failure
Emily S Wong, Claire W Y Chow, W K Luk, Kitty S C Fung, Kenneth K W Li
PURPOSE: To characterize epidemiological data on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) ocular infections over a 10-year period in Hong Kong; to compare the characteristics between hospital-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (h-MRSA) and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) ocular infections; and to review the treatment regimen and outcome of identified cases. METHODS: A retrospective case review of ocular samples testing positive for MRSA at a tertiary eye center from July 2005 to June 2015 was performed...
October 14, 2016: Cornea
E Wardal, A Kuch, I Gawryszewska, D Żabicka, W Hryniewicz, E Sadowy
The objective of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial resistance, Tn1546 transposon variability and plasmid diversity among Polish vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) isolates of VanA phenotype in the context of their clonal structure. Two hundred sixteen clinical VREfm isolates collected between 1997 and 2010 were studied by antimicrobial susceptibility testing, MLST, MLVA and detection of IS16, esp Efm, pilA, intA and plasmid-specific genes by PCR. Tn1546 structure was revealed by overlapping PCR and sequencing...
October 17, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Adrian Low, Charmaine Ng, Jianzhong He
Urban watersheds from point sources are potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, few studies have investigated urban watersheds of non-point sources. To understand the type of ARGs and bacteria that might carry such genes, we investigated two non-point source urban watersheds with different land-use profiles. Antibiotic resistance levels of two watersheds (R1, R3) were examined using heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) as a culturing method to obtain counts of bacteria resistant to seven antibiotics belonging to different classes (erythromycin, kanamycin, lincomycin, norfloxacin, sulfanilamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim)...
September 20, 2016: Water Research
Kunal Zaveri, Kiranmayi Patnala
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of multi-drug resistance S. aureus is one most challenging task for treatment of nosocomial infections. Proteins and enzymes of peptidoglycan biosynthesis pathway are one among the well-studied targets, but many of the enzymes are unexplored as targets. MurE is one such enzyme featured to be a promising target. As MurE plays an important role in ligating the L-lys to stem peptide at third position that is crucial for peptidoglycan synthesis. OBJECTIVE: To screen the potential MurE inhibitor...
October 10, 2016: Current Computer-aided Drug Design
Steven Silverman, John Moses, K Barry Sharpless
Vancomycin has long been considered a drug of last resort. Its efficiency in treating multiple drug-resistant bacterial infections, particularly methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA), has had a profound effect on the treatment of life-threatening infections. However, the emergence of resistance to vancomycin is a cause for significant world-wide concern, prompting the urgent development of new effective treatments for antibiotic resistant bacterial infections. Harnessing the benefits of multivalency and cooperativity against vancomycin-resistant strains, we report a Click Chemistry approach towards reengineered vancomycin derivatives and the synthesis of a number of dimers with increased potency against MRSA and vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE)...
October 16, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yu-Chia Hsieh, Yu-Chun Lin, Yhu-Chering Huang
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the susceptibility trend of vancomycin, teicoplanin, daptomycin, and linezolid against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) blood isolates of different clones over an 11-year period.From 2000 to 2010, all bloodstream MRSA isolates from Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan were prospectively collected. Three periods, namely 2000 to 2001, 2004 to 2005, and 2010, were included and 124 MRSA isolates were selected from each period. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by E-test...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Guillaume Butler-Laporte, Matthew P Cheng, Alexandre P Cheng, Emily G McDonald, Todd C Lee
BACKGROUND: Bloodstream infections with Staphylococcus aureus are clinically significant and are often treated with empiric methicillin resistance (MRSA) coverage. However, vancomycin has associated harms. We hypothesized that MRSA screening correlated with resistance in S. aureus bacteremia and could help determine empiric vancomycin requirement. METHODS: We reviewed consecutive S. aureus bacteremias over a five-year period at two tertiary care hospitals. MRSA colonization was evaluated in three ways: as tested within 30 days of bacteremia (30-Day criteria), as tested within 30 days but accounting for any prior positive results (ever positive criteria), or if the patient was known positive with patients with unknown MRSA status being labeled negative (known positive criteria)...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Constantin Hays, Mathilde Louis, Céline Plainvert, Nicolas Dmytruk, Gérald Touak, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Claire Poyart, Asmaa Tazi
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is the leading cause of neonatal invasive infections and an emerging pathogen in the elderly. Our objectives were to describe the evolution of GBS resistance to antibiotics in France and to investigate the emergence of fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistant isolates. A total of 8,757 unrelated GBS isolates were collected and tested for antibiotic susceptibility from 2007 and 2014 according to EUCAST recommendations. All isolates were susceptible to penicillin G, amoxicillin, and vancomycin...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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