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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081583/-early-results-of-adjuvant-topical-treatment-of-recurrent-osteomyelitis-with-absorbable-antibiotic-carriers
#1
Y Gramlich, G Walter, J Gils, R Hoffmann
Background Treatment of musculoskeletal infections principally consists of radical surgical debridement and systemic administration of antibiotics. Additional local antibiotic therapy is not yet generally established, and lacks evidence-based proof of efficacy. Nonetheless, there are a variety of practical approaches, as most specialised departments are unwilling to forego this option. The established polymethylmetacrylate (PMMA) carrier system has a number of practical disadvantages. This has led to the increased use of absorbable carrier systems, and those based on calcium sulphate have given particularly encouraging results...
January 12, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072493/patterns-of-infections-aetiological-agents-and-antimicrobial-resistance-at-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-northern-tanzania
#2
Happiness Houka Kumburu, Tolbert Sonda, Blandina Theophil Mmbaga, Michael Alifrangis, Ole Lund, Gibson Kibiki, Frank M Aarestrup
OBJECTIVE: To determine the causative agents of infections and their antimicrobial susceptibility at a tertiary care hospital in Moshi, Tanzania, to guide optimal treatment. METHODS: A total of 590 specimens (stool (56), sputum (122), blood (126) and wound swabs (286)) were collected from 575 patients admitted in the medical and surgical departments. The bacterial species were determined by conventional methods and disk diffusion was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the bacteria isolates...
January 10, 2017: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070116/aspergillus-terreus-brain-abscess-complicated-by-tension-pneumocephalus-in-a-patient-with-angiosarcoma
#3
Thejal Srikumar, Smitha Pabbathi, Jorge Fernandez, Sowmya Nanjappa
BACKGROUND Aspergillus terreus is an evolving opportunistic pathogen, and patients with A. terreus often have poor outcomes due to its intrinsic resistance to several systemic antifungal agents. Here we present a unique case of intracranial abscesses of A. terreus in a patient with recurrent angiosarcoma, complicated by development of tension pneumocephalus. CASE REPORT A 67-year old gentleman with history of scalp angiosarcoma with wide excision two years prior presented to the hospital for left arm clumsiness, altered mental status, and low-grade fever...
January 10, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070047/-clinical-analysis-for-patients-with-continuous-ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis-associated-peritonitis
#4
Jian Liu, Xun Huang, Yao Liu, Hui Xu, Rui'e Gong, Chunhui Li
To analyze the clinical characteristics of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) associated peritonitis in the tertiary hospitals and to discuss the preventive and therapeutic strategy.
 Methods: The clinical characteristics, pathogens, resistance and outcomes of 126 CAPD associated peritonitis in 104 patients from Jan, 2013 to June, 2016, were retrospectively analyzed.
 Results: Among the patients, the incidence rates of abdominal pain, fever, diarrhea and emesis were 104 (82.54%), 56 (44.44%), 49 (38...
December 28, 2016: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069656/characterization-of-brpmbl-the-bleomycin-resistance-protein-associated-with-the-carbapenemase-ndm
#5
Laurent Dortet, Delphine Girlich, Anne-Laure Virlouvet, Laurent Poirel, Patrice Nordmann, Bogdan I Iorga, Thierry Naas
The metallo-β-lactamase NDM-1 is one of the most worrysome resistance determinant that is spreading worldwide spread among Gram-negative bacilli. A bleomycin resistance gene, bleMBL, has been associated quite systematically downstream of the blaNDM-1 gene. Here, we characterized the corresponding protein, BRPMBL, conferring resistance to bleomycin, an antitumoral glycopeptide molecule. We have determined whether the expression of the blaNDM-1-bleMBL operon is inducible in presence of carbapenems and/or bleomycin-like molecules using qRT-PCR, minimal inhibitory concentration determination of imipenem and zeocin, and carbapenemase specific activity assays...
January 9, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066112/in-vitro-effectiveness-of-triterpenoids-and-their-synergistic-effect-with-antibiotics-against-staphylococcus-aureus-strains
#6
Muhammad Hamza, Maha Nadir, Nadir Mehmood, Adeel Farooq
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of four triterpenoids such as oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, cycloastragenol, and beta-boswellic acid alone and in combination with antibiotics against Staphylococcus aureus strains. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen clinical strains of S. aureus from infected wounds were isolated. Eight were methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA), and the other eight were methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). The activity was also seen in reference S...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064075/spectrally-resolved-infrared-microscopy-and-chemometric-tools-to-reveal-the-interaction-between-blue-light-470nm-and-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Violet V Bumah, Ebrahim Aboualizadeh, Daniela S Masson-Meyers, Janis T Eells, Chukuka S Enwemeka, Carol J Hirschmugl
Blue light inactivates methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a Gram-positive antibiotic resistant bacterium that leads to fatal infections; however, the mechanism of bacterial death remains unclear. In this paper, to uncover the mechanism underlying the bactericidal effect of blue light, a combination of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometric tools is employed to detect the photoreactivity of MRSA and its distinctive pathway toward apoptosis after treatment. The mechanism of action of UV light and vancomycin against MRSA is also investigated to support the findings...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061827/systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis-of-tedizolid-for-the-treatment-of-acute-bacterial-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-caused-by-mrsa
#8
Rachael McCool, Ian M Gould, Jacqui Eales, Teresa Barata, Mick Arber, Kelly Fleetwood, Julie Glanville, Teresa L Kauf
BACKGROUND: Tedizolid, the active moiety of tedizolid phosphate, is approved in the United States, the European Union, Canada and a number of other countries for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) caused by certain susceptible bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This network meta-analysis (NMA) evaluates the comparative effectiveness of tedizolid and other antibacterials indicated for the treatment of ABSSSI caused by MRSA...
January 7, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060853/a-cationic-amphiphilic-random-copolymer-with-ph-responsive-activity-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
Sungyoup Hong, Haruko Takahashi, Enrico T Nadres, Hamid Mortazavian, Gregory A Caputo, John G Younger, Kenichi Kuroda
In this report, we demonstrate the pH-dependent, in vitro antimicrobial activity of a cationic, amphiphilic random copolymer against clinical isolates of drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The polymer was developed toward a long-term goal of potential utility in the treatment of skin infections. The proposed mechanism of action of the polymer is through selectively binding to bacterial membranes and subsequent disruption of the membrane structure/integrity, ultimately resulting in bacterial cell death. The polymer showed bactericidal activity against clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant or vancomycin-intermediate S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059579/activated-adi-pathway-the-initiator-of-intermediate-vancomycin-resistance-in-staphylococcus-aureus
#10
Xin-Ee Tan, Hui-Min Neoh, Mee-Lee Looi, Siok Fong Chin, Longzhu Cui, Keiichi Hiramatsu, Salasawati Hussin, Rahman Jamal
Comparative proteomic profiling between 2 vancomycin-intermediate Staphylococcus aureus (VISA) strains, Mu50Ω-vraSm and Mu50Ω-vraSm-graRm, and vancomycin-susceptible S. aureus (VSSA) strain Mu50Ω revealed upregulated levels of catabolic ornithine carbamoyltransferase (ArcB) of the arginine catabolism pathway in VISA strains. Subsequent analyses showed that the VISA strains have higher levels of cellular ATP and ammonia, which are by-products of arginine catabolism, and displayed thicker cell walls. We postulate that elevated cytoplasmic ammonia and ATP molecules, resulting from activated arginine catabolism upon acquisition of vraS and graR mutations, are important requirements facilitating cell wall biosynthesis, thereby contributing to thickened cell wall and consequently reduced vancomycin susceptibility in VISA strains...
October 19, 2016: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058593/ceftaroline-fosamil-for-community-acquired-pneumonia-and-skin-and-skin-structure-infections-a-systematic-review
#11
Maguy Saffouh El Hajj, Ricky D Turgeon, Kyle John Wilby
Background Ceftaroline is a parentally administered cephalosporin that has an in vitro expanded spectrum of activity compared with other cephalosporins yet data is conflicting regarding its place in therapy. Aim of the Review To compare the efficacy and safety of ceftaroline against standard antibiotic regimens for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs). Method The databases of MEDLINE, EBSCO, and Embase were searched up to June 2016. Manual review of references was completed and experts in the field were contacted for unpublished data...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057656/epidemiology-and-control-measures-of-outbreaks-due-to-antibiotic-resistant-organisms-in-europe-embargo-a-systematic-review-protocol
#12
Babu Rajendran Nithya, Beryl Primrose Gladstone, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Frangiscos Sifakis, Andreas Voss, Yehuda Carmeli, Francesco Robert Burkert, Panagiota Gkolia, Evelina Tacconelli
INTRODUCTION: Improving our understanding of outbreaks due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and their control is critical in the current public health scenario. The threat of outbreaks due to ARB requires multifaceted efforts. However, a global overview of epidemiological characteristics of outbreaks due to ARB and effective infection control measures is missing. In this paper, we describe the protocol of a systematic review aimed at mapping and characterising the epidemiological aspects of outbreaks due to ARB and infection control measures in European countries...
January 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052987/megalin-blockade-with-cilastatin-suppresses-drug-induced-nephrotoxicity
#13
Yoshihisa Hori, Nobumasa Aoki, Shoji Kuwahara, Michihiro Hosojima, Ryohei Kaseda, Sawako Goto, Tomomichi Iida, Shankhajit De, Hideyuki Kabasawa, Reika Kaneko, Hiroyuki Aoki, Yoshinari Tanabe, Hiroshi Kagamu, Ichiei Narita, Toshiaki Kikuchi, Akihiko Saito
Nephrotoxicity induced by antimicrobial or anticancer drugs is a serious clinical problem. Megalin, an endocytic receptor expressed at the apical membranes of proximal tubules, mediates the nephrotoxicity of aminoglycosides and colistin, key antimicrobials for multidrug-resistant organisms. The mechanisms underlying the nephrotoxicity induced by vancomycin, an antimicrobial for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and cisplatin, an important anticancer drug, are unknown, although the nephrotoxicity of these drugs and gentamicin, an aminoglycoside, is suppressed experimentally with cilastatin...
January 4, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050849/glycin-rich-antimicrobial-peptide-yd1-from-b-amyloliquefaciens-induced-morphological-alteration-in-and-showed-affinity-for-plasmid-dna-of-e-coli
#14
Md Saifur Rahman, Yun Hee Choi, Yoon Seok Choi, Jin Cheol Yoo
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), low-molecular-weight proteins with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, are the most promising candidates for the development of novel antimicrobials. A powerful cationic glycine-rich AMP YD1 (MW ~ 1.0 kDa) was purified from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CBSYD1 isolated from traditional Korean fermented food kimchi, for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. Strain CBSYD1 was identified 99.79% similar to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens subsp. plantarum FZB42(T) by 16S rRNA sequence analysis...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049149/rela-mutant-enterococcus-faecium-with-multiantibiotic-tolerance-arising-in-an-immunocompromised-host
#15
Erin S Honsa, Vaughn S Cooper, Mohammed N Mhaissen, Matthew Frank, Jessica Shaker, Amy Iverson, Jeffrey Rubnitz, Randall T Hayden, Richard E Lee, Charles O Rock, Elaine I Tuomanen, Joshua Wolf, Jason W Rosch
: Serious bacterial infections in immunocompromised patients require highly effective antibacterial therapy for cure, and thus, this setting may reveal novel mechanisms by which bacteria circumvent antibiotics in the absence of immune pressure. Here, an infant with leukemia developed vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) bacteremia that persisted for 26 days despite appropriate antibiotic therapy. Sequencing of 22 consecutive VRE isolates identified the emergence of a single missense mutation (L152F) in relA, which constitutively activated the stringent response, resulting in elevated baseline levels of the alarmone guanosine tetraphosphate (ppGpp)...
January 3, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043797/cadiolides-j-m-antibacterial-polyphenyl-butenolides-from-the-korean-tunicate-pseudodistoma-antinboja
#16
Weihong Wang, Hiyoung Kim, Rahul S Patil, Awadut G Giri, Dong Hwan Won, Dongyup Hahn, Youjung Sung, Jusung Lee, Hyukjae Choi, Sang-Jip Nam, Heonjoong Kang
Activity-guided fractionations of the tunicate Pseudodistoma antinboja yielded four new compounds of the cadiolide class (cadiolides J-M, 1, 3-5) along with a known one (cadiolide H, 2). The structures were defined by spectroscopic methods including X-ray crystallographic analysis. These compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activity and exhibited potent antibacterial activity against all of the drug resistant strains tested with MICs comparable to those of marketed drugs such as vancomycin and linezolid...
December 7, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040891/quantification-of-d-ala-d-lac-terminated-peptidoglycan-structure-in-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-using-a-combined-solid-state-nmr-and-mass-spectrometry-analysis
#17
James D Chang, Erin C Foster, Hao Yang, Sung Joon Kim
Induction of vancomycin resistance in vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) involves replacement of the D-Ala-D-Ala terminus of peptidoglycan (PG) stems with D-Ala-D-Lac, dramatically reducing the binding affinity of vancomycin to lipid II. Effects from vancomycin resistance induction on Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 51299) were characterized using a combined solid-state NMR and LC-MS analysis. Solid-state NMR directly measured the total amounts of D-Lac and L,D-Ala metabolized from [2-13C]pyruvate, accumulated Park's nucleotide, and changes to the PG bridge-linking density during early exponential growth phase (OD660nm 0...
December 31, 2016: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040397/should-preoperative-antibiotics-be-tailored-according-to-patient-s-comorbidities-and-susceptibility-to-organisms
#18
Timothy L Tan, Miguel M Gomez, Michael M Kheir, Mitchell G Maltenfort, Antonia F Chen
BACKGROUND: Preoperative antibiotic prophylaxis remains one of the most important strategies for preventing periprosthetic joint infection (PJI). Current guidelines recommend giving universal antibiotic prophylaxis to all total joint arthroplasty patients regardless of their medical conditions or immune status; however, no studies have evaluated the individualizing of antibiotics. The aims of this study were (1) to determine if comorbidities influence the organism profile of PJIs, and (2) to investigate if the efficacy of two different perioperative antibiotics (cefazolin or vancomycin) for preventing PJI is affected by patient's comorbidities...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039075/comparative-genome-analysis-of-multiple-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-isolated-from-two-fatal-cases
#19
Shu Yong Lim, Kien-Pong Yap, Cindy Shuan Ju Teh, Kartini Abdul Jabar, Kwai Lin Thong
Enterococcus faecium is both a commensal of the human intestinal tract and an opportunistic pathogen. The increasing incidence of enterococcal infections is mainly due to the ability of this organism to develop resistance to multiple antibiotics, including vancomycin. The aim of this study was to perform comparative genome analyses on four vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) strains isolated from two fatal cases in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. Two sequence types, ST80 and ST203, were identified which belong to the clinically important clonal complex (CC) 17...
December 28, 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038840/assessment-of-telavancin-minimal-inhibitory-concentrations-by-revised-broth-microdilution-method-in-phase-3-complicated-skin-and-skin-structure-infection-clinical-trial-isolates
#20
Jennifer I Smart, G Ralph Corey, Martin E Stryjewski, Whedy Wang, Steven L Barriere
The broth microdilution (BMD) MIC testing method for telavancin was recently revised BMD (rBMD) to improve accuracy and reproducibility. Staphylococcus aureus isolates from telavancin phase 3 complicated skin and skin-structure infection (cSSSI) studies were tested using the rBMD method. Retesting of 1132 isolates produced MICs ranging from ≤0.015 to 0.12μg/mL that were 8-fold lower than the original method. All isolates tested remained susceptible to telavancin at the revised susceptibility breakpoint of 0...
December 14, 2016: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
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