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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136420/assessment-of-environmental-contamination-with-pathogenic-bacteria-at-a-hospital-laundry-facility
#1
Karen E Michael, David No, William E Daniell, Noah S Seixas, Marilyn C Roberts
Little is known about exposure to pathogenic bacteria among industrial laundry workers who work with soiled clinical linen. To study worker exposures, an assessment of surface contamination was performed at an industrial laundry facility serving hospitals in Seattle, WA, USA. Surface swab samples (n = 240) from the environment were collected during four site visits at 3-month intervals. These samples were cultured for Clostridium difficile, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE)...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134935/susceptibility-of-vancomycin-resistant-and-sensitive-enterococcus-faecium-obtained-from-danish-hospitals-to-benzalkonium-chloride-chlorhexidine-and-hydrogen-peroxide-biocides
#2
Sulaiman M I Alotaibi, Alafate Ayibiekea, Annemette Frøling Pedersen, Lotte Jakobsen, Mette Pinholt, Heidi Gumpert, Anette M Hammerum, Henrik Westh, Hanne Ingmer
PURPOSE: In Danish hospitals, the number of infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE faecium) has dramatically increased in recent years. Hospital disinfectants are essential in eliminating pathogenic microorganisms, and reduced susceptibility may contribute to hospital-associated infections. We have addressed whether clinical VRE faecium display decreased biocide susceptibility when compared to vancomycin-sensitive Enterococcus faecium (VSE faecium) isolates...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133561/outcomes-of-vancomycin-plus-a-%C3%AE-lactam-versus-vancomycin-only-for-the-treatment-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-bacteremia
#3
James Truong, John J Veillette, Steve C Forland
The objective of this retrospective study was to compare the rates of treatment failure, which was a composite of clinical and microbiologic failure, of patients receiving vancomycin and a β-lactam to those receiving vancomycin only for MRSA bacteremia. Patients 16 to 89 years of age with MRSA bacteremia admitted to a university-affiliated hospital from January 1(st), 2014 to December 31(st), 2016 were screened for study inclusion. Patients were eligible if they received >48 hours of vancomycin and a β-lactam (combination group) or vancomycin only (standard group) within 48 hours following bacteremia onset...
November 13, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133206/relationship-between-polarities-of-antibiotic-and-polymer-matrix-on-nanoparticle-formulations-based-on-aliphatic-polyesters
#4
J A S Ritsema, E M A Herschberg, S E Borgos, C Løvmo, R Schmid, Y M Te Welscher, G Storm, C F van Nostrum
In the field of nanomedicine, nanoparticles are developed to target antibiotics to sites of bacterial infection thus enabling adequate drug exposure and decrease development of resistant bacteria. In the present study, we investigated the encapsulation of two antibiotics with different polarity into different PEGylated polymeric nanoparticles based on aliphatic polyesters, to obtain a better understanding of critical factors determining encapsulation and release. The nanoparticles were prepared from diblock copolymers comprising of a poly(ethylene glycol) block attached to an aliphatic polyester block of varying polarity: poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (mPEG-PLGA), poly(lactic-co-hydroxymethyl glycolic acid) (mPEG-PLHMGA) and poly(lactic-co-benzyloxymethyl glycolic acid) (mPEG-PLBMGA)...
November 10, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131910/resistant-infantile-bacterial-conjunctivitis-in-egypt-a-microbiology-study
#5
Aiman Abdeltawwab Hashish, Molham Abdelhafez Elbakary, Waleed Abdelhady Allam
PURPOSE: To study the microbiological aspects of infantile bacterial conjunctivitis resistant to empirical topical antibiotic therapy in Egypt. METHODS: Ninety-two eyes of 86 infants with bacterial conjunctivitis were included in this prospective study. They all failed to show evidence of clinical improvement after 2 weeks of empirical topical antibiotic therapy. Conjunctival swabs were obtained from all patients for bacterial culture and antibiotic sensitivity testing...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127125/vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-bacteraemia-as-a-complication-of-kayexalate-sodium-polystyrene-sulfonate-sps-in-sorbitol-induced-ischaemic-colitis
#6
Roberto Christian Cerrud-Rodriguez, Diego Alcaraz-Alvarez, Brian Bobby Chiong, Abdurhman Ahmed
We present the case report of an 80-year-old woman with chronic kidney disease stage G5 admitted to the hospital with fluid overload and hyperkalaemia. Sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS, Kayexalate) in sorbitol suspension was given orally to treat her hyperkalaemia, which precipitated an episode of SPS in sorbitol-induced ischaemic colitis with the subsequent complication of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bacteraemia. SPS (Kayexalate) in sorbitol suspension has been implicated in the development of intestinal necrosis...
November 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126733/allicin-inspired-pyridyl-disulfides-as-antimicrobial-agents-for-multidrug-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Jordan G Sheppard, Jeremy P McAleer, Pushkar Saralkar, Werner J Geldenhuys, Timothy E Long
A chemical library comprised of nineteen synthesized pyridyl disulfides that emulate the chemical reactivity of allicin (garlic) was evaluated for antimicrobial activity against a panel of pathogenic bacteria. Gram-positive species including vancomycin-intermediate and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (VISA, VRSA) demonstrated the highest level of susceptibility toward analogs with S-alkyl chains of 7-9 carbons in length. Further biological studies revealed that the disulfides display synergy with vancomycin against VRSA, cause dispersal of S...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124451/current-treatment-concepts-for-iatrogenic-ventriculitis-a-nationwide-survey-in-germany
#8
Niklas von Spreckelsen, Norma Jung, Sergej Telentschak, Jürgen Hampl, Roland Goldbrunner, Stefan Grau
BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic ventriculitis is a common complication of the external ventricular drainage. While the procedure and indications for external ventricular drains (EVD) are highly standardized, the treatment of ventriculitis is not clearly defined. OBJECTIVE: To depict the treatment of iatrogenic ventriculitis currently performed in German hospitals. METHODS: A standardized questionnaire consisting of 18 multiple choice questions, each with the ability to provide additional individual answers, covering the diagnosis and treatment of iatrogenic ventriculitis as well as general handling of EVDs, was sent to 121 neurosurgical hospitals registered in the German Society for Neurosurgery (DGNC)...
November 9, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121980/a-complicated-prosthetic-valve-endocarditis-due-to-methicillin-resistant-staphylococci-treated-with-linezolid-and-ciprofloxacin-a-case-report
#9
C G K Amiyangoda, H Wimalaratna, S Bowatte
BACKGROUND: Prosthetic valve endocarditis (PVE) due to methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a rare disease with significant mortality and morbidity. With the emerging resistance and adverse effect profile of vancomycin which is the standard treatment, there is a compelling necessity of an effective alternative for vancomycin. Linezolid is proved as such an agent for infections caused by MRSA in other sites. However to-date the evidence for successful use of linezolid for MRSA prosthetic valve endocarditis is limited only for few case studies...
November 9, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118410/the-microbiological-characteristics-and-risk-factors-for-picc-related-bloodstream-infections-in-intensive-care-unit
#10
Shumin Zhang, Xiaofeng Sun, Yan Lei
The study was aimed to investigate the pathogens distribution and risk factors for PICC-related bloodstream infection in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. 402 patients placed with PICC in ICU were recruited in the study. The microbiological characteristics of PICC-related infection were investigated by Vitek 2 Compact automated microbial system. Antibiotics sensitivity was performed with disk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) methods. Multivariate logistic and cox analyses were performed to identify the risk factors for PICC-related infection in ICU patients...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114643/analytical-evaluation-of-a-vancomycin-immunoassay-in-synovial-fluid
#11
REVIEW
Francesca Luceri, Fiamma Balboni, Giovanni Balato, Paola Pezzati, Nicoletta Cini, Gianni Virgili, Andrea Baldini
In clinical laboratories performing routine activities, the need to answer the burning clinical question in emerging field may be limited by lack of technology support or assays accessibility. Commercially available methods, although originally validated for specific biological matrices, may be employed for other matrices, following appropriate guidelines such as Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) EP 19. We investigated the use of a vancomycin assay with synovial fluid samples, in view of a possible employment in vancomycin release study...
June 2017: Joints
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112913/multifunctional-nanocomplex-for-surface-enhanced-raman-scattering-imaging-and-near-infrared-photodynamic-antimicrobial-therapy-of-vancomycin-resistant-bacteria
#12
Zilong Zhou, Shanshan Peng, Minghao Sui, Shiguang Chen, Lishi Huang, Hui Xu, Tingting Jiang
Since vancomycin (Van)-resistant enterococci (VRE) strains first emerged as a serious threat to public health, extensive studies focused on optical imaging and antimicrobial therapy have been performed for monitoring and microbiological control. In this study, we developed silicon 2,3-naphthalocyanine dihydroxide (Nc) and Van functionalized silica-encapsulated, silver-coated gold nanoparticles (Au@AgNP@SiO2@Nc-Van) as a novel theranostic system for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) of VRE strains...
November 2, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111641/temperature-responsive-hierarchical-polymer-brushes-switching-from-bactericidal-to-cell-repellency
#13
Xianghong Wang, Shunjie Yan, Lingjie Song, Hengchong Shi, Huawei Yang, Shifang Luan, Yubin Huang, Jinghua Yin, Ather Farooq Khan, Jie Zhao
Unlike conventional poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)-based surfaces switching from bactericidal activity to bacterial repellency upon decreasing temperature, we developed a hierarchical polymer architecture, which could maintain bactericidal activities at room temperature while presenting bacterial repellency at physiological temperature. In this architecture, a thermoresponsive bactericidal upper layer consisting of PNIPAM-based copolymer and vancomycin (Van) moieties was built on an antifouling poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA) bottom layer via sequential surface-initiated photoiniferter-mediated polymerization...
November 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111433/longitudinal-study-on-antimicrobial-consumption-and-resistance-in-rabbit-farming
#14
Fabrizio Agnoletti, Romina Brunetta, Luca Bano, Ilenia Drigo, Elena Mazzolini
Reliable indicators of antimicrobial consumption (AMC) measured with harmonized data and supported with indicators for antimicrobial resistance (AMR) at herd level are necessary to target antimicrobial misuse in food producing animals. To this scope in 2010-2015 we collected AMC data in 32 Italian industrial rabbit holdings weighted with semester production and standardized with animal daily dose (ADD). Herd level AMR against eight antimicrobials was assessed in E. coli, E. faecalis and E. hirae collected in 2014 and 2015...
October 27, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110867/characterization-of-sccmec-and-spa-types-of-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-isolates-from-health-care-and-community-acquired-infections-in-kerman-iran
#15
Yaser Fasihi, Somayeh Kiaei, Davood Kalantar-Neyestanaki
Spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates is a worldwide problem. Molecular typing is a useful tool to understand MRSA epidemiology. Herein, we determined vancomycin-resistant, SCCmec and spa types among MRSA isolates recovered from healthcare and community-acquired infections in Kerman, Iran. A total of 170 S. aureus isolates were collected from different patients who were admitted to affiliated hospitals of Kerman University of Medical science. MRSA and vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) isolates were detected by phenotypic methods...
December 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110155/streptomyces-swartbergensis-sp-nov-a-novel-tyrosinase-and-antibiotic-producing-actinobacterium
#16
Marilize le Roes-Hill, Alaric Prins, Paul R Meyers
As part of an antibiotic screening program, an actinobacterium, strain HMC13(T), was isolated from soil collected from the banks of the Gamka River, Western Cape Province, South Africa. The isolate was found to produce branched mycelia that differentiated into spiral spore chains with spiny spores. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed the strain to be closely related to Streptomyces caelestis NRRL 2418(T) (99.72%) and Streptomyces azureus NBRC 12744(T) (99.51%). Chemotaxonomic analyses confirmed the classification of the strain as a member of the genus Streptomyces: LL-DAP in the peptidoglycan, no diagnostic sugars in the whole cell sugar pattern, dominant menaquinones including MK9(H8), MK9(H6), and the polar lipids detected included phosphatidylethanolamine...
November 6, 2017: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109928/ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-associated-vancomycin-resistant-meningitis-complicating-a-patient-undergoing-plasmapheresis-for-presumed-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-associated-transverse-myelitis
#17
Adam John Covach, William Nicholas Rose
Objectives  We report a patient who had a working diagnosis of transverse myelitis secondary to a lupus exacerbation. As his clinical course evolved, continued vigilance clarified that he was in fact suffering from a nosocomial infection caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Methods  We performed a retrospective review of the patient's medical record. Results  Despite radiographic improvement, he did not improve clinically following immunosuppressive therapy including plasma exchange. Once meningitis was diagnosed and treated, he improved rapidly...
October 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109580/fosfomycin-susceptibility-in-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-species-and-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci-urinary-isolates
#18
Linda B Ou, Lynn Nadeau
Background: Broad-spectrum antibiotics are often used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) due to drug-resistant species of Enterobacteriaceae and Enterococcus (e.g., organisms producing extended-spectrum β-lactamase [ESBL] or AmpC β-lactamase, as well as vancomycin-resistant enterococci [VRE]). However, this type of therapy can promote selection of resistant organisms and may necessitate venous access. Fosfomycin is an orally administered, single-dose antibiotic for the treatment of uncomplicated UTI...
September 2017: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109163/evaluation-of-oritavancin-dosing-strategies-against-vancomycin-resistant-enterococcus-faecium-isolates-with-or-without-reduced-susceptibility-to-daptomycin-in-an-in-vitro-pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic-model
#19
Adam Belley, Francis A Arhin, Greg Moeck
Clinical development of nonsusceptibility to the lipopeptide antibiotic daptomycin remains a serious concern during therapy for infections caused by vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm). The long-acting lipoglycopeptide oritavancin exhibits potent in vitro activity against VREfm although its safety and efficacy in treating clinical VREfm infections have not been established. In this study, novel dosing regimens of daptomycin and oritavancin were assessed against both VREfm and daptomycin-nonsusceptible VREfm isolates in an in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model...
November 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109161/combating-multi-drug-resistant-pathogens-with-host-directed-non-antibiotic-therapeutics
#20
Jourdan A Andersson, Jian Sha, Michelle L Kirtley, Emily Reyes, Eric C Fitts, Sara M Dann, Ashok K Chopra
Earlier, we reported that 3 Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs, trifluoperazine (TFP, anti-psychotic), amoxapine (AXPN, anti-depressant), and doxapram (DXP, breathing stimulant), identified from an in vitro murine macrophage cytotoxicity screen, provided 40-60% protection to mice against pneumonic plague when administered at the time of infection for 1-3 days. In this study, the therapeutic potential of these drugs was further evaluated in mice when administered up to 48 h post-infection against pneumonic plague...
November 6, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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