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nutritional status pregnancy

Kelly M Proffitt, Mark Hebblewhite, Wibke Peters, Nicole Hupp, Julee Shamhart
Understanding how habitat and nutritional condition affect ungulate populations is necessary for informing management, particularly in areas experiencing carnivore recovery and declining ungulate population trends. Variations in forage species availability, plant phenological stage, and the abundance of forage make it challenging to understand landscape-level effects of nutrition on ungulates. We developed an integrated spatial modeling approach to estimate landscape-level elk (Cervus elaphus) nutritional resources in two adjacent study areas that differed in coarse measures of habitat quality and related the consequences of differences in nutritional resources to elk body condition and pregnancy rates...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Dries S Martens, Michelle Plusquin, Wilfried Gyselaers, Immaculata De Vivo, Tim S Nawrot
BACKGROUND: Newborn telomere length sets telomere length for later life. At birth, telomere length is highly variable among newborns and the environmental factors during in utero life for this observation remain largely unidentified. Obesity during pregnancy might reflect an adverse nutritional status affecting pregnancy and offspring outcomes, but the association of maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) with newborn telomere length, as a mechanism of maternal obesity, on the next generation has not been addressed...
October 18, 2016: BMC Medicine
Chiara Sartori, Pietro Lazzeroni, Silvia Merli, Viviana Dora Patianna, Francesca Viaroli, Francesca Cirillo, Sergio Amarri, Maria Elisabeth Street
Adipokines are cytokines produced mainly by adipose tissue, besides many other tissues such as placenta, ovaries, peripheral-blood mononuclear cells, liver, muscle, kidney, heart, and bone marrow. Adipokines play a significant role in the metabolic syndrome and in cardiovascular diseases, have implications in regulating insulin sensitivity and inflammation, and have significant effects on growth and reproductive function. The objective of this review was to analyze the functions known today of adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and visfatin from placenta throughout childhood and adolescence...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
Michelle A Kominiarek, Priya Rajan
The nutritional status of a woman during pregnancy and lactation is not only critical for her health but for future generations. Although a nutritionist or registered dietitian can help facilitate dietary counseling and interventions, physicians also need to be cognizant of nutritional needs during pregnancy because they differ significantly compared with nonpregnant populations. Furthermore, an individualized approach to nutritional counseling that considers a woman's nutritional status and body mass index is recommended...
November 2016: Medical Clinics of North America
Arivudainambi Kayal, Viswanathan Mohan, Belma Malanda, Ranjit Mohan Anjana, Balaji Bhavadharini, Manni Mohanraj Mahalakshmi, Kumar Maheswari, Ram Uma, Ranjit Unnikrishnan, Gunasekaran Kalaiyarasi, Lyudmil Ninov, Anne Belton
AIM: The Women In India with GDM Strategy (WINGS) project was conducted with the aim of developing a model of care (MOC) suitable for women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in low- and middle-income countries. METHODOLOGY: The WINGS project was carried out in Chennai, Southern India, in two phases. In Phase I, a situational analysis was conducted to understand the practice patterns of health-care professionals and to determine the best screening criteria through a pilot screening study...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Janis Baird, Mary Barker, Nicholas C Harvey, Wendy Lawrence, Christina Vogel, Megan Jarman, Rufia Begum, Tannaze Tinati, Pamela Mahon, Sofia Strommer, Taylor Rose, Hazel Inskip, Cyrus Cooper
BACKGROUND: The nutritional status and health of mothers influence the growth and development of infants during pregnancy and postnatal life. Interventions that focus on improving the nutritional status and lifestyle of mothers have the potential to optimise the development of the fetus as well as improve the health of mothers themselves. Improving the diets of women of childbearing age is likely to require complex interventions that are delivered in a socially and culturally appropriate context...
October 12, 2016: Trials
Eric De Zoysa, Manjula Hettiarachchi, Chandrani Liyanage
BACKGROUND: Iodine deficiency and thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy is associated with number of adverse outcomes that includes mental and physical disabilities creating a huge human and economic burden in later life. Several indicators are used to assess the iodine status of a population: thyroid size by palpation and/or by ultrasonography, urinary iodine excretion and the blood thyroid hormone profile. METHODS: This prospective study was designed to assess the iodine nutrition during the course of pregnancy with reference to urine iodine concentration (UIC) and thyroid determinants among 425 pregnant women from Galle district, Sri Lanka...
October 12, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Helene McNulty, J J Strain, Catherine F Hughes, Mary Ward
Hypertension is the leading risk factor contributing to mortality worldwide, primarily from cardiovascular disease (CVD), while effective treatment of hypertension is proven to reduce CVD events. Along with the well recognized nutrition and lifestyle determinants, genetic factors are implicated in the development and progression of hypertension. In recent years genome-wide association studies have identified a region near the gene encoding the folate-metabolizing enzyme methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) among eight loci associated with blood pressure...
October 6, 2016: Molecular Aspects of Medicine
Akbar Hassanzadeh, Zamzam Paknahad, Masoomeh Goodarzi Khoigani
BACKGROUND: Since preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) is one of the most important complications of pregnancy and its relationship with nutrition status have not been surveyed comprehensively, we decided to study the relationship of maternal received nutrients (36 macro- and micro-nutrients) in three trimesters and PPROM which could be considered as a unique study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, data was collected by filling a questionnaire through interviews with 620 pregnant women who had no parameters to affect pregnancy outcome...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
Agus Firmansyah, Nalinee Chongviriyaphan, Drupadi Hs Dillon, Nguyen Cong Khan, Tatsuya Morita, Kraisid Tontisirin, Le Danh Tuyen, Weiping Wang, Jacques Bindels, Paul Deurenberg, Sherlin Ong, Jo Hautvast, Diederick Meyer, Elaine E Vaughan
Inulin-based prebiotics are non-digestible polysaccharides that influence the composition of the gut microbiota in infants and children, notably eliciting a bifidogenic effect with high short chain fatty acid levels. Inulin, a generic term that comprises β-(2,1)-linked linear fructans, is typically isolated from the chicory plant root, and derivatives such as oligofructose and long chain inulin appear to have different physiological properties. The first 1000 days of a child's life are increasingly recognized as a critical timeframe for health also into adulthood, whereby nutrition plays a key role...
December 2016: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Eva-Charlotte Ekström, Emma Lindström, Rubhana Raqib, Shams El Arifeen, Samar Basu, Kerstin Brismar, Katarina Selling, Lars-Åke Persson
BACKGROUND: Fetal nutritional insults may alter the later metabolic phenotype. We hypothesized that early timing of prenatal food supplementation and multiple micronutrient supplementation (MMS) would favourably influence childhood metabolic phenotype. METHODS: Pregnant women recruited 1 January to 31 December 2002 in Matlab, Bangladesh, were randomized into supplementation with capsules of either 30 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid, 60 mg of iron and 400 μg of folic acid, or MMS containing a daily allowance of 15 micronutrients, and randomized to food supplementation (608 kcal) either with early invitation (9 weeks' gestation) or usual invitation (at 20 weeks)...
September 30, 2016: International Journal of Epidemiology
Abdul Razak Nurliyana, Zalilah Mohd Shariff, Mohd Nasir Mohd Taib, Wan Ying Gan, Kit-Aun Tan
BACKGROUND: The first 2 years of life is a critical period of rapid growth and brain development. During this period, nutrition and environmental factors play important roles in growth and cognitive development of a child. This report describes the study protocol of early nutrition, growth and cognitive development of infants from birth to 2 years of age. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study of mothers and infants recruited from government health clinics in Seremban district in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia...
September 29, 2016: BMC Pediatrics
Charlotte G Neumann, Winstone Nyandiko, Abraham Siika, Natalie Drorbaugh, Goleen Samari, Grace Ettyang, Judith A Ernst
This paper describes morbidity in a group of HIV-positive drug-naïve rural women in western Kenya. A total of 226 drug-naïve HIV-positive women were evaluated for baseline morbidity, immune function, and anthropometry before a food-based nutrition intervention. Kenyan nurses visited women in their homes and conducted semi-structured interviews regarding symptoms and physical signs experienced at the time of the visit and during the previous week and physical inspection. Blood and urine samples were examined for determination of immune function (CD4, CD8, and total lymphocyte counts), anaemia, malaria, and pregnancy status...
September 2016: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
M F Nawito, Amal R Abd El Hameed, A S A Sosa, Karima Gh M Mahmoud
AIM: To monitor the effect of nutrition and pregnancy on oxidative status of animals under the arid condition of South Sinai. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood samples were taken from two groups of animals: The first group retained in farm and fed on concentrate (high diet) and another group grazing natural forage (low diet). Each group was subdivided into pregnant and non-pregnant animals. Blood samples were assayed for their content of malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzymes...
August 2016: Veterinary World
Neha A Kajale, Shashi A Chiplonkar, Vaman Khadilkar, Anuradha V Khadilkar
OBJECTIVE: To study cross-sectionally, effect of early feeding practices and maternal nutrition, with special reference to traditional food supplements (TFSs), on baby's weight gain during first 6 months. METHODS: HASH(0x4ad22c0) DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study design. SETTINGS: Urban tertiary healthcare centre, India. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred and fifteen primiparous mother-infant pairs within 6 months of delivery...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology of India
Scott B Ickes, Grace A Heymsfield, Timothy W Wright, Charles Baguma
: We conducted 40 in-depth interviews and eight focus groups among mothers and fathers (n = 91) of diverse ages in western Uganda to define the relevant domains of maternal capabilities and their relationship to infant and young child feeding practices. This study was directed by a developing theory of maternal capabilities that posits that the impact of health-directed interventions may be limited by unmeasured and poorly understood maternal characteristics. Ugandan caregivers defined three major life events that constrain women's capabilities for childcare: early pregnancy, close child spacing, and polygamous marriage...
September 20, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Rossella Attini, Filomena Leone, Silvia Parisi, Federica Fassio, Irene Capizzi, Valentina Loi, Loredana Colla, Maura Rossetti, Martina Gerbino, Stefania Maxia, Maria Grazia Alemanno, Fosca Minelli, Ettore Piccoli, Elisabetta Versino, Marilisa Biolcati, Paolo Avagnina, Antonello Pani, Gianfranca Cabiddu, Tullia Todros, Giorgina B Piccoli
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy in women with advanced CKD becoming increasingly common. However, experience with low-protein diets in CKD patients in pregnancy is still limited. Aim of this study is to review the results obtained over the last 15 years with moderately restricted low-protein diets in pregnant CKD women (combining: CKD stages 3-5, proteinuria: nephrotic at any time, or > =1 g/24 at start or referral; nephrotic in previous pregnancy). CKD patients on unrestricted diets were employed for comparison...
2016: BMC Nephrology
Olufunke Tolulope Owa, Biobele J Brown, Oluwagbemiga O Adeodu
Iron deficiency remains a global public health challenge, with a higher burden in children in the tropics. When it occurs early in life, it may have long-term effects on neurodevelopment. The aims of this study were to assess the iron status of children aged 6-24 months, to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency and its associated factors in Ibadan, Nigeria. The authors conducted a cross-sectional study between March and June 2014. A total of 202 apparently healthy children aged between 6 and 24 months attending 2 major immunization clinics in Ibadan were included...
August 2016: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
Katie Marvin-Dowle, Victoria Jane Burley, Hora Soltani
BACKGROUND: Babies born to adolescent mothers have been shown to have poorer outcomes compared to those born to adults. Nutritional status may have an important role to play in improving the health of pregnant adolescents; however there is a lack of evidence regarding the adequacy of adolescent diets during pregnancy. This systematic review aims to examine what is known about the nutritional status of adolescent pregnant women. METHODS: A systematic search of the literature identified 21 studies which met the inclusion criteria for the review...
2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Vicky M Oelze, Pamela Heidi Douglas, Colleen R Stephens, Martin Surbeck, Verena Behringer, Michael P Richards, Barbara Fruth, Gottfried Hohmann
Dietary ecology of extant great apes is known to respond to environmental conditions such as climate and food availability, but also to vary depending on social status and life history characteristics. Bonobos (Pan paniscus) live under comparatively steady ecological conditions in the evergreen rainforests of the Congo Basin. Bonobos are an ideal species for investigating influences of sociodemographic and physiological factors, such as female reproductive status, on diet. We investigate the long term dietary pattern in wild but fully habituated bonobos by stable isotope analysis in hair and integrating a variety of long-term sociodemographic information obtained through observations...
2016: PloS One
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