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bleeding risk in warfarin use in mechanical valve

Chamith Thushanga Rosa, Mitrakrishnan Rayno Navinan, Sincy Samarawickrama, Himam Hamza, Maheshika Gunarathne, Arulprashanth Arulanantham, Neeha Subba, Udari Samarasiri, Thushara Mathias, Aruna Kulatunga
BACKGROUND: The management of Dengue virus infection can be challenging. Varied presentations and numerous complications intrinsic to dengue by itself increase the complexity of treatment and potential mortality. When burdened with the presence of additional comorbidities and the need to continue compulsory medications, clear stepwise definitive guidance is lacking and patients tend to have more complex complications and outcomes calling to question the clinical decisions that may have been taken...
January 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
Ryan E Owens, Rajesh Kabra, Carrie S Oliphant
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) are indicated for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF), which, according to the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association/Heart Rhythm Society atrial fibrillation (AF) guidelines, excludes patients with rheumatic mitral stenosis, a mechanical or bioprosthetic heart valve, or mitral valve repair. However, the data regarding use of DOACs in AF patients with other types of valvular heart disease (VHD) are unclear. We aimed to summarize and evaluate the literature regarding the safety and efficacy of DOAC use in NVAF patients with other types of VHD...
December 22, 2016: Clinical Cardiology
Fayez El Shaer, Ismael Raslan, Nora Al Osaimi, Ghada Bawazeer, Fhakr Alayobi, Tarek Alhogbani, Suliman Kharabsheh, Walid Al Habeeb
Appropriate management of patients with mechanical prosthetic valves on warfarin during dental procedures is crucial. If the patients continue warfarin, they might develop bleeding, while interruption of therapy can cause thromboembolic events. Bridging therapy (mostly heparin) is used in some patients, while others stop medications. There is no unifying protocol. Information on management of patients on warfarin undergoing dental procedures in Saudi Arabia is lacking. Therefore, the current study aimed to provide more insight into various approaches utilized by clinicians to deal with such patients at a large teaching hospital in Riyadh, and to evaluate the frequency and severity of bleeding and thromboembolic complications during different types of dental procedures in this population...
2016: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
Domenico Acanfora, Chiara Acanfora, Pietro Scicchitano, Marialaura Longobardi, Giuseppe Furgi, Gerardo Casucci, Bernardo Lanzillo, Ilaria Dentamaro, Annapaola Zito, Raffaele Antonelli Incalzi, Marco Matteo Ciccone
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are used for the prevention of thromboembolic complications in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) and those at risk of deep venous thrombosis. Their rapid onset of action and predictable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles make them the optimal alternative to warfarin in the treatment of these two categories of patients. Unfortunately, however, NOACs cannot be used in patients with valvular AF or valvular cardiac prostheses...
October 2016: Clinical Drug Investigation
Raffaele De Caterina, A John Camm
Patients at thromboembolic risk with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) can now be managed either with a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) or with a fixed dose of a non-VKA oral anticoagulant (NOAC), while patients with valvular AF have been restricted to VKAs on the basis of a potentially higher risk and different mechanism of thrombosis, and the lack of sufficient data on the efficacy of NOACs. The terms 'non-valvular AF' and 'valvular AF' have not been however consistently defined. 'Valvular' AF has included any valvular disorder, including valve replacement and repair...
January 2016: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Benjamin A Steinberg, Melissa A Greiner, Bradley G Hammill, Lesley H Curtis, Emelia J Benjamin, Susan R Heckbert, Jonathan P Piccini
AIMS: Oral anticoagulation therapy prevents stroke and improves survival in patients with atrial fibrillation, but the therapy is underutilized. We sought to identify the prevalence of contraindications for oral anticoagulation and the proportion of patients potentially eligible for different agents. METHODS: We identified patients with nonacute atrial fibrillation in a nationally representative 5% sample of 2009 Medicare data. We divided the population into patients ineligible for any oral anticoagulant, patients eligible for warfarin only, and patients eligible for any anticoagulant...
August 2015: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
J G Mathew, A C Spyropoulos, A Yusuf, J Vincent, J Eikelboom, O Shestakovska, S Fremes, J Noora, L Guo, M Peterson, M Pai, R Whitlock
Limited evidence exists to guide the use of early parenteral anticoagulation following mechanical heart valve replacement (MVR). The purpose of this study was to compare the 30-day rates of thrombotic and bleeding complications for MVR patients receiving therapeutic versus prophylactic dose bridging regimens. In this retrospective cohort study we reviewed anticoagulation management and outcomes of all patients undergoing MVR at five Canadian hospitals between 2003 and 2010. The primary efficacy outcome was thromboembolism (stroke, transient ischaemic attack, systemic embolism or valve thrombosis) and the primary safety outcome was major bleeding at 30-days...
December 2014: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Peter Forsberg, Maria T DeSancho
The introduction of the target-specific oral anticoagulants (TSOACs) has led to a major shift in the management of patients at risk for thrombosis. The landscape continues to evolve as the evidence regarding their efficacy and safety in various clinical situations emerges. Antithrombotic therapy for thromboprophylaxis in patients with mechanical heart valves is challenging. To date, the RE-ALIGN trial comparing dabigatran etexilate to warfarin is the only randomized controlled study in this patient population...
November 2014: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Ki-Bum Won, Seung-Hyun Lee, Hyuk-Jae Chang, Chi-Young Shim, Gue-Ru Hong, Jong-Won Ha, Namsik Chung
PURPOSE: Bridge anticoagulation therapy is mostly utilized in patients with mechanical heart valves (MHV) receiving warfarin therapy during invasive dental procedures because of the risk of excessive bleeding related to highly vascular supporting dental structures. Bridge therapy using low molecular weight heparin may be an attractive option for invasive dental procedures; however, its safety and cost-effectiveness compared with unfractionated heparin (UFH) is uncertain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study investigated the safety and cost-effectiveness of enoxaparin in comparison to UFH for bridge therapy in 165 consecutive patients (57±11 years, 35% men) with MHV who underwent invasive dental procedures...
July 2014: Yonsei Medical Journal
Andre Rodrigues Duraes, Pollianna Ds Roriz, Fabio V Bulhoes, Bianca DA Nunes, Juliana Qv Muniz, Italvar Ndcr Neto, Andre Ms Fernandes, Francisco Jfbd Reis, Edmundo Jn Camara, Erenaldo Dsr Junior, Deusdeth Ts Segundo, Felipe Pinho E Albuquerque Silva, Roque Aras
BACKGROUND: Warfarin and similar vitamin K antagonists have been the standard therapy for patients with mechanical or biological valve prosthesis and atrial fibrillation (AF). Even with the appropriate use of therapy, some studies have reported that there is a high incidence of thromboembolic events, 1%-4% per year. Furthermore, a bleeding risk is significant, ranging from 2% to 9% per year, according to some studies. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to examine the effect of dabigatran etexilate versus dose-adjusted warfarin for the prevention of intracardiac thrombus in persistent or permanent AF at least 3 months after aortic and/or mitral bioprosthesis replacement...
April 1, 2014: JMIR Research Protocols
Katie L Willenborg
Thromboembolic complications such as systemic embolization and valve thrombosis are a major concern early after mechanical valve replacement; however, the benefit of anticoagulation must be weighed against the risk of early postoperative bleeding complications. Thromboembolic risk is also higher in the early postoperative period (less than 6 mo) compared with the risk in the late postoperative period. Current evidence supports the use of unfractionated heparin or low-molecular-weight heparin early after valve replacement to prevent valve thrombosis or systemic embolization but provides no recommendations for the management of patients with a history of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), in which heparin products are contraindicated...
June 2014: Pharmacotherapy
S H An, K E Lee, B C Chang, H S Gwak
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Pharmacogenetic studies of the genetic regulation of warfarin dose requirement have been reported, but few have been on the bleeding complications at therapeutic international normalized ratio (INR). This study aimed to evaluate the effect of gene polymorphisms of CYP2C9, VKORC1, thrombomodulin (THBD) and C-reactive protein (CRP) on the risk of bleeding complications of warfarin at therapeutic INR in Korean patients with mechanical cardiac valves. METHODS: A retrospective warfarin pharmacogenetic association study was performed...
June 2014: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
D Caldeira, C David, A T Santos, J Costa, F J Pinto, J J Ferreira
BACKGROUND: Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are not approved for patients with mechanical heart valves (MHVs). However, in several guidelines, temporary LMWH off-label use in this clinical setting is considered to be a valid treatment option. Therefore, we reviewed the efficacy and safety of LMWHs in patients with MHVs. METHODS: MEDLINE and CENTRAL databases were searched from inception to June 2013. Review articles and references were also searched. We included experimental and observational studies that compared LMWHs with unfractionated heparin (UFH) or vitamin K antagonists (VKAs)...
May 2014: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
M P Matebele, S Rohde, A Clarke, J F Fraser
OBJECTIVE: To review the risk factors, complications and follow-up of Indigenous patients post cardiac surgery. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of Indigenous patients who underwent cardiac surgery at an Australian tertiary hospital between 2002 and 2009. Patients' medical notes were reviewed and data collected and analysed. RESULTS: There were 220 Indigenous patients who had cardiac surgery. Non-elective surgery was performed in 45...
June 2014: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Farnoosh Zough, Javad Tafreshi, Ramdas G Pai
Current guidelines have no recommendations on the utilization of novel oral anticoagulants, such as dabigatran, for the prevention of thromboembolic events in patients with mechanical heart valves. However, recent studies on the use of dabigatran in patients with atrial fibrillation and animal studies have suggested a new potential role for dabigatran in patients with mechanical heart valves. The study by Eikelboom et al. investigates this important clinical question in a prospective, randomized controlled Phase II clinical trial...
January 2014: Future Cardiology
Tsuyoshi Kaneko, Sary F Aranki
Implantation of prosthetic valve requires consideration for anticoagulation. The current guideline recommends warfarin on all mechanical valves. Dabigatran is the new generation anticoagulation medication which is taken orally and does not require frequent monitoring. This drug is approved for treatment for atrial fibrillation and venous thromboembolism, but the latest large trial showed that this drug increases adverse events when used for mechanical valve anticoagulation. On-X valve is the new generation mechanical valve which is considered to require less anticoagulation due to its flow dynamics...
2013: Thrombosis
Ebuzer Aydin, Fikri Yapici
BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine the possible factors leading to re-operation in patients undergoing mechanical valve replacement and to investigate the relationship between valvular thrombus formation and mean platelet volume. METHODS: The medical records of 43 patients with mechanical valve implantation, who were admitted to the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery of Dr Siyami Ersek Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Training and Research Hospital between 2000 and 2005 were analysed retrospectively...
August 2013: Cardiovascular Journal of Africa
John W Eikelboom, Stuart J Connolly, Martina Brueckmann, Christopher B Granger, Arie P Kappetein, Michael J Mack, Jon Blatchford, Kevin Devenny, Jeffrey Friedman, Kelly Guiver, Ruth Harper, Yasser Khder, Maximilian T Lobmeyer, Hugo Maas, Jens-Uwe Voigt, Maarten L Simoons, Frans Van de Werf
BACKGROUND: Dabigatran is an oral direct thrombin inhibitor that has been shown to be an effective alternative to warfarin in patients with atrial fibrillation. We evaluated the use of dabigatran in patients with mechanical heart valves. METHODS: In this phase 2 dose-validation study, we studied two populations of patients: those who had undergone aortic- or mitral-valve replacement within the past 7 days and those who had undergone such replacement at least 3 months earlier...
September 26, 2013: New England Journal of Medicine
Christopher R Ellis, Daniel W Kaiser
The use of novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) for stroke and systemic embolism prevention in the setting of specifically non valvular atrial fibrillation has provided clinicians with a realistic treatment alternative to the traditional dose-adjusted, warfarin-based anticoagulation that is targeted to a therapeutic international normalized ratio range of 2.0-3.0. We discuss the use of dabigatran in the setting of mechanical heart valves, atrial fibrillation or left atrial catheter ablation procedures, reversal of the drug in the setting of adverse bleeding events, and background on the molecular biology and development of this novel treatment for stroke reduction...
2013: Vascular Health and Risk Management
In Kyung Yoon, Kyung Eun Lee, Jin Koo Lee, Byung Chul Chang, Hye Sun Gwak
BACKGROUND AND AIM OF THE STUDY: The study aim was to identify adequate therapeutic ranges of the International Normalized Ratio (INR) in Korean patients receiving warfarin after prosthetic mechanical heart valve replacement. METHODS: Retrospective chart reviews were conducted of 818 patients for a total follow up period of 8,100 patient-years; all details of major complication events of thromboembolism and bleeding were recorded. The INR-incidence of complication curve was plotted, and an adequate INR determined from the intersections of 95% confidence interval (CI) curves of complication rates to ensure the lowest incidences of both thromboembolic and bleeding complications...
January 2013: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
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