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Glucokinase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146530/identification-of-the-glucosamine-kinase-in-the-chitinolytic-pathway-of-thermococcus-kodakarensis
#1
Mehwish Aslam, Naoya Takahashi, Kohei Matsubara, Tadayuki Imanaka, Tamotsu Kanai, Haruyuki Atomi
Although the chitinolytic pathway of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis is well-studied, the genome does not contain genes homologous to previously identified glucosamine kinase genes. As some ADP-dependent glucokinases in the order Thermococcales exhibit phosphorylation activities for both glucose and glucosamine in vitro, the homolog in T. kodakarensis, encoded by TK1110, was selected as a candidate for the missing glucosamine kinase gene. The purified, recombinant TK1110 enzyme exhibited phosphorylation activities for not only glucose but also glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126786/development-of-an-efficient-conjugal-dna-transfer-system-between-escherichia-coli-and-a-non-sporulating-streptomyces-strain
#2
Diana Rocha, Beatriz Ruiz-Villafán, Monserrat Manzo, Romina Rodríguez-Sanoja, Sergio Sánchez
Bacterial conjugation is a powerful tool used for DNA transfer from Escherichia coli into various bacteria including streptomycetes. In this methodology, spores are usually employed as recipient cells of the genetic information. However, some industrially important Streptomyces do not produce spores making difficult their genetic manipulation. In these strains, the use of mechanically fragmented mycelia allows DNA transfer with low efficiency. Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius is a non-sporulating bacteria which produces the antitumor compound doxorubicin...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121676/naringin-prevents-hiv-1-protease-inhibitors-induced-metabolic-complications-in-vivo
#3
Sanelisiwe Nzuza, Sindiswa Zondi, Peter M O Owira
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and overt diabetes are known metabolic complications associated with chronic use of HIV-Protease Inhibitors. Naringin is a grapefruit-derived flavonoid with anti-diabetic, anti-dyslipidemia, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. OBJECTIVES: The study investigated the protective effects of naringin on glucose intolerance and impaired insulin secretion and signaling in vivo. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 6) and were daily orally treated with distilled water {3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102916/the-effect-of-insulin-loaded-trimethylchitosan-nanoparticles-on-rats-with-diabetes-type-i
#4
Mohammad Jamshidi, Nasrin Ziamajidi, Iraj Khodadadi, Arash Dehghan, Giti Kalantarian, Roghayeh Abbasalipourkabir
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy of insulin-loaded trimethylchitosan nanoparticles on certain destructive effects of diabetes type one. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three control groups (n=5) and two treatment groups (n=5). The control groups included normal diabetic rats without treatment and diabetic rats treated with the nanoparticles. The treatment groups included diabetic rats treated with the insulin-loaded trimethylchitosan nanoparticles and the diabetic rats treated with trade insulin...
November 2, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090276/a-novel-mammalian-glucokinase-exhibiting-exclusive-inorganic-polyphosphate-dependence-in-the-cell-nucleus
#5
Antasar Ali, D Claire Wathes, Angelina Swali, Helena Burns, Shamus Burns
BACKGROUND: Hexokinase and glucokinase enzymes are ubiquitously expressed and use ATP and ADP as substrates in mammalian systems and a variety of polyphosphate substrates and/or ATP in some eukaryotic and microbial systems. Polyphosphate synthesising or utilizing enzymes are widely expressed in microbial systems but have not been reported in mammalian systems, despite the presence of polyphosphate in mammalian cells. Only two micro-organisms have previously been shown to express an enzyme that uses polyphosphate exclusively...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073628/transient-congenital-hypothyroidism-alters-gene-expression-of-glucose-transporters-and-impairs-glucose-sensing-apparatus-in-young-and-aged-offspring-rats
#6
Hanieh Gholami, Sajad Jeddi, Azita Zadeh-Vakili, Khadije Farrokhfall, Fatemeh Rouhollah, Maryam Zarkesh, Mahboubeh Ghanbari, Asghar Ghasemi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Transient congenital hypothyroidism (TCH) could disturb carbohydrate metabolism in adulthood. Aging is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. This study aims to address effects of TCH on mRNA expressions of glucose transporters (GLUTs) and glucokinase (GcK) in islets and insulin target tissues of aged offspring rats. METHODS: The TCH group received water containing 0.025% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation. Offspring from control and TCH groups (n=6 in each group) were followed until month 19...
October 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056535/analysis-of-the-gck-gene-in-79-mody-type-2-patients-a-multicenter-turkish-study-mutation-profile-and-description-of-twenty-novel-mutations
#7
Ayça Aykut, Emin Karaca, Hüseyin Onay, Damla Gökşen, Şevki Çetinkalp, Erdal Eren, Betül Ersoy, Esra Papatya Çakır, Muammer Büyükinan, Cengiz Kara, Ahmet Anık, Birgül Kırel, Samim Özen, Tahir Atik, Şükran Darcan, Ferda Özkınay
Maturity onset diabetes is a genetic form of diabetes mellitus characterized by an early age at onset and several etiologic genes for this form of diabetes have been identified in many patients. Maturity onset diabetes type 2 [MODY2 (#125851)] caused by mutations in the glucokinase gene (GCK). Although its prevalence is not clear, it is estimated that 1%-2% of patients with diabetes have the monogenic form. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular spectrum of GCK gene mutations in 177 Turkish MODY type 2 patients...
October 19, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056338/selective-inhibition-of-foxo1-activator-repressor-balance-modulates-hepatic-glucose-handling
#8
Fanny Langlet, Rebecca A Haeusler, Daniel Lindén, Elke Ericson, Tyrrell Norris, Anders Johansson, Joshua R Cook, Kumiko Aizawa, Ling Wang, Christoph Buettner, Domenico Accili
Insulin resistance is a hallmark of diabetes and an unmet clinical need. Insulin inhibits hepatic glucose production and promotes lipogenesis by suppressing FOXO1-dependent activation of G6pase and inhibition of glucokinase, respectively. The tight coupling of these events poses a dual conundrum: mechanistically, as the FOXO1 corepressor of glucokinase is unknown, and clinically, as inhibition of glucose production is predicted to increase lipogenesis. Here, we report that SIN3A is the insulin-sensitive FOXO1 corepressor of glucokinase...
November 2, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050587/hypoglycemic-effect-and-mechanism-of-a-pectic-polysaccharide-with-hexenuronic-acid-from-the-fruits-of-ficus-pumila-l-in-c57bl-ksj-db-db-mice
#9
Jianjun Wu, Miaomiao Chen, Songshan Shi, Huijun Wang, Ning Li, Juan Su, Ruimin Liu, Zhenlin Huang, Hong Jin, Xueqing Ji, Shunchun Wang
In this study, a particular pectic polysaccharide (FPLP) was extracted and purified from the fruits of Ficus pumila Linn. through boiling water extraction, alcohol precipitation, diethylaminoethyl-Sepharose Fast Flow chromatography and Superdex™ G-75 gel filtration chromatography. Analysis of high-performance gel permeation chromatography, FTIR, GC-MS, methylation and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy revealed that FPLP (Mw: 34.69kDa) is a linear (1,4)-α-d-galacturonic acid binding 1.30% branched chain hexenuronic acid with 23...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046721/engineering-bacillus-licheniformis-as-a-thermophilic-platform-for-the-production-of-l-lactic-acid-from-lignocellulose-derived-sugars
#10
Chao Li, Zhongchao Gai, Kai Wang, Liping Jin
BACKGROUND: Bacillus licheniformis MW3 as a GRAS and thermophilic strain is a promising microorganism for chemical and biofuel production. However, its capacity to co-utilize glucose and xylose, the major sugars found in lignocellulosic biomass, is severely impaired by glucose-mediated carbon catabolite repression (CCR). In this study, a "dual-channel" process was implemented to engineer strain MW3 for simultaneous utilization of glucose and xylose, using l-lactic acid as a target product...
2017: Biotechnology for Biofuels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044608/nutrient-sensing-in-pancreatic-islets-lessons-from-congenital-hyperinsulinism-and-monogenic-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Ming Lu, Changhong Li
Pancreatic beta cells sense changes in nutrients during the cycles of fasting and feeding and release insulin accordingly to maintain glucose homeostasis. Abnormal beta cell nutrient sensing resulting from gene mutations leads to hypoglycemia or diabetes. Glucokinase (GCK) plays a key role in beta cell glucose sensing. As one form of congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI), activating mutations of GCK result in a decreased threshold for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and hypoglycemia. In contrast, inactivating mutations of GCK result in diabetes, including a mild form (MODY2) and a severe form (permanent neonatal diabetes mellitus (PNDM))...
October 16, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031588/swertisin-rich-fraction-from-enicostema-littorale-ameliorates-hyperglycemia-and-hyperlipidemia-in-high-fat-fed-diet-and-low-dose-streptozotacin-induced-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-rats
#12
Priyanka Mokashi, Lokesh Kumar Bhatt, Aparna Khanna, Nancy Pandita
INTRODUCTION: Enicostema littorale blume (A. Raynal) is a traditional Indian plant belongs to the Gentianaceae family. A lot of research has been done on this plant for its antidiabetic activity. However, there are no reports on flavonoids from E. littorale for its antidiabetic activity and their mechanism of action. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of Swertisin rich flavonoid fraction (SRF) from Enicostema littorale blume and their mechanism of action...
October 11, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024108/changes-in-hepatic-glucose-and-lipid-metabolism-related-parameters-in-domestic-pigeon-columba-livia-during-incubation-and-chick-rearing
#13
X P Wan, P Xie, Z Bu, X T Zou
This study aimed to evaluate the hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism-related parameters of adult male and female White King pigeons (Columba livia) during incubation and chick rearing. At day 4 (I4), 10 (I10) and 17 (I17) of incubation and day 1 (R1), 7 (R7), 15 (R15) and 25 (R25) of chick rearing, livers were sampled from six pigeons for each sex. Glycogen and fat contents, activities of glycolytic enzymes (hexokinase, HK; 6-phosphofructokinase, 6-PFK), and genes expressions of key enzymes involved in glycolysis (pyruvate kinase, PK; glucokinase, GK), gluconeogenesis (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase cytosolic, PCK1; fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase, FBP1; glucose-6-phosphatase, G6Pase), fatty acid synthesis (fatty acid synthase, FAS; acetyl-CoA carboxylase, ACC) and fatty acid β-oxidation (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, CPT1; acyl-CoA 1, ACO) were measured...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020906/the-prevalence-of-monogenic-diabetes-in-australia-the-fremantle-diabetes-study-phase-ii
#14
Timothy Me Davis, Ashley E Makepeace, Sian Ellard, Kevin Colclough, Kirsten Peters, Andrew Hattersley, Wendy A Davis
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of monogenic diabetes in an Australian community. DESIGN: Longitudinal observational study of a cohort recruited between 2008 and 2011. SETTING: Urban population of 157 000 people (Fremantle, Western Australia). PARTICIPANTS: 1668 (of 4639 people with diabetes) who consented to participation (36.0% participation). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) and permanent neonatal diabetes in patients under 35 years of age, from European and non-European ethnic backgrounds, who were at risk of MODY according to United Kingdom risk prediction models, and who were then genotyped for relevant mutations...
October 16, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987936/hmg-coa-synthase-2-drives-brain-metabolic-reprogramming-in-cocaine-exposure
#15
Xue Shao, Yunxuan Tang, Hailei Long, Hui Gu, Jie Zhang, Pengchi Deng, Yinglan Zhao, Xiaobo Cen
The brain is a high energy-consuming organ that typically utilizes glucose as the main energy source for cerebral activity. When glucose becomes scarce under conditions of stress, ketone bodies, such as β-hydroxybutyrate, acetoacetate and acetone, become extremely important. Alterations in brain energy metabolism have been observed in psychostimulant abusers; however, the mode of brain metabolic programming in cocaine dependence remains largely unknown. Here, we profiled the metabolites and metabolic enzymes from brain nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice exposed to cocaine...
October 4, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987138/a-review-of-maturity-onset-diabetes-of-the-young-mody-and-challenges-in-the-management-of-glucokinase-mody
#16
Ramy H Bishay, Jerry R Greenfield
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987137/a-review-of-maturity-onset-diabetes-of-the-young-mody-and-challenges-in-the-management-of-glucokinase-mody
#17
Jeff R Flack, Glynis P Ross, N Wah Cheung
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 4, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974378/advanced-water-splitting-for-green-hydrogen-gas-production-through-complete-oxidation-of-starch-by-in-vitro-metabolic-engineering
#18
Jae-Eung Kim, Eui-Jin Kim, Hui Chen, Chang-Hao Wu, Michael W W Adams, Y-H Percival Zhang
Starch is a natural energy storage compound and is hypothesized to be a high-energy density chemical compound or solar fuel. In contrast to industrial hydrolysis of starch to glucose, an alternative ATP-free phosphorylation of starch was designed to generate cost-effective glucose 6-phosphate by using five thermophilic enzymes (i.e., isoamylase, alpha-glucan phosphorylase, 4-α-glucanotransferase, phosphoglucomutase, and polyphosphate glucokinase). This enzymatic phosphorolysis is energetically advantageous because the energy of α-1,4-glycosidic bonds among anhydroglucose units is conserved in the form of phosphorylated glucose...
September 30, 2017: Metabolic Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970780/mulberry-branch-bark-powder-significantly-improves-hyperglycemia-and-regulates-insulin-secretion-in-type-ii-diabetic-mice
#19
Xiao-Lu Yin, Hua-Yu Liu, Yu-Qing Zhang
This experiment, based on the previous study on R. mori, introduces whole mulberry branch powder into the diet to treat diabetic mice. Mulberry branch bark powder (MBBP) was administered orally to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type II diabetic (T2D) mice to investigate hypoglycemic effects. After a 4-week period of diet consumption containing 5%, 10% and 20% MBBP, the fasting blood glucose, body weight and the related western blotting were measured, pathologic and immunohistochemical were observed. The 20% MBBP group showed a significant reduction in hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia; fasting blood glucose and insulin decreased from 25...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954258/-hydroxycitric-acid-reduced-lipid-droplets-accumulation-via-decreasing-acetyl-coa-supply-and-accelerating-energy-metabolism-in-cultured-primary-chicken-hepatocytes
#20
Longlong Li, Mengling Peng, Chongyang Ge, Lei Yu, Haitian Ma
BACKGROUND/AIMS: (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA) had been shown to suppress fat accumulation in animals and humans, while the underlying biochemical mechanism is not fully understood, especially little information is available on whether (-)-HCA regulates energy metabolism and consequently affects fat deposition. METHODS: Hepatocytes were cultured for 24 h and then exposed to (-)-HCA (0, 1, 10, 50 µM), enzyme protein content was determined by ELISA; lipid metabolism gene mRNA levels were detected by RT-PCR...
2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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