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Glucokinase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310812/pgbr-extract-ameliorates-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-insulin-resistance-in-hepatocytes
#1
Fu-Chih Chen, Kuo-Ping Shen, Jin-Bor Chen, Hui-Li Lin, Chi-Long Hao, Hsueh-Wei Yen, Shyh-Yu Shaw
Pre-germinated brown rice (PGBR) could ameliorate metabolic syndrome, however, not much research estimates the effect of PGBR extract on insulin resistance. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of PGBR extract in TNF-α induced insulin resistance. HepG2 cells, hepatocytes, were cultured in DMEM medium and added with 5 μM insulin or with insulin and 30 ng/ml TNF-α or with insulin, TNF-α and PGBR extract (50, 100, 300 μg/ml). The glucose levels of the medium were decreased by insulin, demonstrating insulin promoted glucose uptake into cell...
January 2018: Kaohsiung Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307111/inorganic-nitrate-alleviates-the-senescence-related-decline-in-liver-function
#2
Haifeng Wang, Lei Hu, Le Li, Xiaoshan Wu, Zhipeng Fan, Chunmei Zhang, Jinsong Wang, Jidong Jia, Songlin Wang
Senescence-related decline in liver function is a common complication in the elderly that can lead to impaired health in older individuals. Dietary nitrate supplements have physiological and therapeutic effects on organ function by nitrate (NO3-)-nitrite (NO2-)-nitric oxide (NO) pathway. However, the role of dietary nitrate on the senescence-related decline in liver function is unclear. The findings of the present study showed that nitrate levels in the serum and liver decreased, whereas the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) in serum increased in ageing mice...
January 3, 2018: Science China. Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305881/liver-carbohydrates-metabolism-a-new-islet-neogenesis-associated-protein-peptide-ingap-pp-target
#3
Hernán Gonzalo Villagarcía, Carolina Lisi Román, María Cecilia Castro, Luisa Arbeláez González, María Teresa Ronco, Daniel Eleazar Francés, María Laura Massa, Bárbara Maiztegui, Luis Emilio Flores, Juan José Gagliardino, Flavio Francini
Islet-Neogenesis Associated Protein-Pentadecapeptide (INGAP-PP) increases β-cell mass and enhances glucose and amino acids-induced insulin secretion. Our aim was to demonstrate its effect on liver metabolism. For that purpose, adult male Wistar rats were injected twice-daily (10 days) with saline solution or INGAP-PP (250 μg). Thereafter, serum glucose, triglyceride and insulin levels were measured and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and hepatic insulin sensitivity (HIS) were determined. Liver glucokinase and glucose-6-phosphatase (G-6-Pase) expression and activity, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) expression, phosphofructokinase-2 (PFK-2) protein content, P-Akt/Akt and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (P-GSK3/GSK3) protein ratios and glycogen deposit were also determined...
January 3, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296001/sirt2-facilitates-hepatic-glucose-uptake-by-deacetylating-glucokinase-regulatory-protein
#4
Hitoshi Watanabe, Yuka Inaba, Kumi Kimura, Michihiro Matsumoto, Shuichi Kaneko, Masato Kasuga, Hiroshi Inoue
Impaired hepatic glucose uptake (HGU) causes postprandial hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. Here, we show that diminished hepatic Sirt2 activity impairs HGU in obese diabetic mice. Hepatic Sirt2 overexpression increases HGU in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed obese diabetic mice and mitigates their impaired glucose tolerance. Hepatic Sirt2 knockdown in non-diabetic mice reduces HGU and causes impaired glucose tolerance. Sirt2 promotes glucose-dependent HGU by deacetylating K126 of glucokinase regulatory protein (GKRP)...
January 2, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284910/virtual-screening-and-prediction-of-binding-of-caprine-csn1s2-protein-tryptic-peptides-to-glucokinase
#5
Fatchiyah Fatchiyah, Atika Hanoum Rahasta, James R Ketudat Cairns
Introduction: Glucokinase (hexokinase D) is an enzyme that phosphorylates glucose in hepatocytes totrap it in the cell and prime it for conversion to other compounds, yet this enzyme has low affinity to bind with glucose. In Diabetes Mellituspatients, the blood glucose level is poorly controled. Material and Methods: This study explored the possibility to induce glucokinase activity with bioactive peptides derived from the goat milk protein CSN1S2 by in- silico docking approach...
December 2017: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275440/enhancement-of-gene-expression-in-escherichia-coli-and-characterization-of-highly-stable-atp-dependent-glucokinase-from-pyrobaculum-calidifontis
#6
Tahira Bibi, Musadiq Ali, Naeem Rashid, Majida Atta Muhammad, Muhammad Akhtar
The genome of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum calidifontis contains an open reading frame, Pcal_1032, annotated as glucokinase. Amino acid sequence analysis showed that Pcal_1032 belonged to ROK (repressor, open reading frame, and kinase) family of sugar kinases. To examine the properties of Pcal_1032, the coding gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. However, expression of the gene was low resulting in a poor yield of the recombinant protein. A single site directed mutation in Pcal_1032 gene, without altering the amino acid sequence, resulted in approximately tenfold higher expression...
December 23, 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216879/anti-diabetic-potential-of-sapium-ellipticum-hochst-pax-leaf-extract-in-streptozotocin-stz-induced-diabetic-wistar-rats
#7
Osasenaga Macdonald Ighodaro, Oluseyi Adeboye Akinloye
BACKGOUND: Ethnobatanical survey associates Sapium ellipticum (SE) with antidiabetic usage among other medicinal functions in different parts of Africa. More importantly, previous studies on the plant extract in our laboratory showed that SE has significant effects on the activities of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes such as glucokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, α-amylase and α-glucosidase. In view of these, the anti-diabetic potential of the plant leaf extract in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes rat model (Wistar strain) was examined...
December 8, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201231/genetic-variation-of-rs3811463-is-associated-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-susceptibility
#8
Yun Liu, Zhi-Ping Ge, Li-Zhou Sun, Pei Tong, Hong-Mei Lu
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a growing health concern, and it increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes with substantial long-term adverse health impacts on mothers and their offspring. Several studies have revealed specific associations between genetic variants and the risk of GDM. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the major type of genetic variation in humans. Let-7 microRNA targets are enriched for genes containing SNPs associated with glucose metabolism, including Lin28. In the present study, the effect of T/C variants of rs3811463 (a SNP located near to the let-7 binding site in Lin28) on GDM risk was investigated...
November 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175667/vitamin-k1-inversely-correlates-with-glycemia-and-insulin-resistance-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-t2d-and-positively-regulates-sirt1-ampk-pathway-of-glucose-metabolism-in-liver-of-t2d-mice-and-hepatocytes-cultured-in-high-glucose
#9
Anjum Dihingia, Dibyajyoti Ozah, Shatadal Ghosh, Abhijit Sarkar, Pranab Kumar Baruah, Jatin Kalita, Parames C Sil, Prasenjit Manna
There is no previous study in the literature that has examined the relationship between circulating vitamin K1 (VK1) with glycemic status in type 2 diabetes (T2D). Moreover, scientific explanation for the beneficial role of VK1 supplementation in lowering glycemia in diabetes is yet to be determined. This study for the first time demonstrated that circulating VK1 was significantly lower in T2D patients compared to age-matched control subjects, and VK1 levels in T2D were significantly and inversely associated with fasting glucose and insulin resistance [homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)], which suggest that boosting plasma VK1 may reduce the fasting glucose and insulin resistance in T2D patients...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167582/pyridoxine-dipharmacophore-derivatives-as-potent-glucokinase-activators-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#10
Mikhail S Dzyurkevich, Denis A Babkov, Nikita V Shtyrlin, Olga Yu Mayka, Alfiya G Iksanova, Pavel M Vassiliev, Konstantin V Balakin, Alexander A Spasov, Vadim V Tarasov, George Barreto, Yurii G Shtyrlin, Gjumrakch Aliev
Glucokinase is one of the promising targets for glucose-lowering agents, and the development of GK activators are now considered as one of the most promising strategies for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. In this work, a series of novel symmetric molecular constructs, in which two pyridoxine moieties are connected via sulfur-containing linkers, have been synthesized and tested in vitro for glucokinase activation potential. The enzyme activation rates by two most active compounds at 100 μM (~150% and 130%) were comparable to that of the reference agent PF-04937319 (~154%)...
November 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166588/regulatory-t-cell-migration-is-dependent-on-glucokinase-mediated-glycolysis
#11
Madhav Kishore, Kenneth C P Cheung, Hongmei Fu, Fabrizia Bonacina, Guosu Wang, David Coe, Eleanor J Ward, Alessandra Colamatteo, Maryam Jangani, Andrea Baragetti, Giuseppe Matarese, David M Smith, Robert Haas, Claudio Mauro, David C Wraith, Klaus Okkenhaug, Alberico L Catapano, Veronica De Rosa, Giuseppe D Norata, Federica M Marelli-Berg
Migration of activated regulatory T (Treg) cells to inflamed tissue is crucial for their immune-modulatory function. While metabolic reprogramming during Treg cell differentiation has been extensively studied, the bioenergetics of Treg cell trafficking remains undefined. We have investigated the metabolic demands of migrating Treg cells in vitro and in vivo. We show that glycolysis was instrumental for their migration and was initiated by pro-migratory stimuli via a PI3K-mTORC2-mediated pathway culminating in induction of the enzyme glucokinase (GCK)...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146530/identification-of-the-glucosamine-kinase-in-the-chitinolytic-pathway-of-thermococcus-kodakarensis
#12
Mehwish Aslam, Naoya Takahashi, Kohei Matsubara, Tadayuki Imanaka, Tamotsu Kanai, Haruyuki Atomi
Although the chitinolytic pathway of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis is well-studied, the genome does not contain genes homologous to previously identified glucosamine kinase genes. As some ADP-dependent glucokinases in the order Thermococcales exhibit phosphorylation activities for both glucose and glucosamine in vitro, the homolog in T. kodakarensis, encoded by TK1110, was selected as a candidate for the missing glucosamine kinase gene. The purified, recombinant TK1110 enzyme exhibited phosphorylation activities for not only glucose but also glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126786/development-of-an-efficient-conjugal-dna-transfer-system-between-escherichia-coli-and-a-non-sporulating-streptomyces-strain
#13
Diana Rocha, Beatriz Ruiz-Villafán, Monserrat Manzo, Romina Rodríguez-Sanoja, Sergio Sánchez
Bacterial conjugation is a powerful tool used for DNA transfer from Escherichia coli into various bacteria including streptomycetes. In this methodology, spores are usually employed as recipient cells of the genetic information. However, some industrially important Streptomyces do not produce spores making difficult their genetic manipulation. In these strains, the use of mechanically fragmented mycelia allows DNA transfer with low efficiency. Streptomyces peucetius var. caesius is a non-sporulating bacteria which produces the antitumor compound doxorubicin...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121676/naringin-prevents-hiv-1-protease-inhibitors-induced-metabolic-complications-in-vivo
#14
Sanelisiwe Nzuza, Sindiswa Zondi, Peter M O Owira
BACKGROUND: Insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and overt diabetes are known metabolic complications associated with chronic use of HIV-Protease Inhibitors. Naringin is a grapefruit-derived flavonoid with anti-diabetic, anti-dyslipidemia, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities. OBJECTIVES: The study investigated the protective effects of naringin on glucose intolerance and impaired insulin secretion and signaling in vivo. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (n = 6) and were daily orally treated with distilled water {3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102916/the-effect-of-insulin-loaded-trimethylchitosan-nanoparticles-on-rats-with-diabetes-type-i
#15
Mohammad Jamshidi, Nasrin Ziamajidi, Iraj Khodadadi, Arash Dehghan, Giti Kalantarian, Roghayeh Abbasalipourkabir
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the efficacy of insulin-loaded trimethylchitosan nanoparticles on certain destructive effects of diabetes type one. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three control groups (n=5) and two treatment groups (n=5). The control groups included normal diabetic rats without treatment and diabetic rats treated with the nanoparticles. The treatment groups included diabetic rats treated with the insulin-loaded trimethylchitosan nanoparticles and the diabetic rats treated with trade insulin...
November 2, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090276/a-novel-mammalian-glucokinase-exhibiting-exclusive-inorganic-polyphosphate-dependence-in-the-cell-nucleus
#16
Antasar Ali, D Claire Wathes, Angelina Swali, Helena Burns, Shamus Burns
BACKGROUND: Hexokinase and glucokinase enzymes are ubiquitously expressed and use ATP and ADP as substrates in mammalian systems and a variety of polyphosphate substrates and/or ATP in some eukaryotic and microbial systems. Polyphosphate synthesising or utilizing enzymes are widely expressed in microbial systems but have not been reported in mammalian systems, despite the presence of polyphosphate in mammalian cells. Only two micro-organisms have previously been shown to express an enzyme that uses polyphosphate exclusively...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073628/transient-congenital-hypothyroidism-alters-gene-expression-of-glucose-transporters-and-impairs-glucose-sensing-apparatus-in-young-and-aged-offspring-rats
#17
Hanieh Gholami, Sajad Jeddi, Azita Zadeh-Vakili, Khadije Farrokhfall, Fatemeh Rouhollah, Maryam Zarkesh, Mahboubeh Ghanbari, Asghar Ghasemi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Transient congenital hypothyroidism (TCH) could disturb carbohydrate metabolism in adulthood. Aging is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes. This study aims to address effects of TCH on mRNA expressions of glucose transporters (GLUTs) and glucokinase (GcK) in islets and insulin target tissues of aged offspring rats. METHODS: The TCH group received water containing 0.025% 6-propyl-2-thiouracil during gestation. Offspring from control and TCH groups (n=6 in each group) were followed until month 19...
October 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056535/analysis-of-the-gck-gene-in-79-mody-type-2-patients-a-multicenter-turkish-study-mutation-profile-and-description-of-twenty-novel-mutations
#18
Ayça Aykut, Emin Karaca, Hüseyin Onay, Damla Gökşen, Şevki Çetinkalp, Erdal Eren, Betül Ersoy, Esra Papatya Çakır, Muammer Büyükinan, Cengiz Kara, Ahmet Anık, Birgül Kırel, Samim Özen, Tahir Atik, Şükran Darcan, Ferda Özkınay
Maturity onset diabetes is a genetic form of diabetes mellitus characterized by an early age at onset and several etiologic genes for this form of diabetes have been identified in many patients. Maturity onset diabetes type 2 [MODY2 (#125851)] caused by mutations in the glucokinase gene (GCK). Although its prevalence is not clear, it is estimated that 1%-2% of patients with diabetes have the monogenic form. The aim of this study was to evaluate the molecular spectrum of GCK gene mutations in 177 Turkish MODY type 2 patients...
October 19, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056338/selective-inhibition-of-foxo1-activator-repressor-balance-modulates-hepatic-glucose-handling
#19
Fanny Langlet, Rebecca A Haeusler, Daniel Lindén, Elke Ericson, Tyrrell Norris, Anders Johansson, Joshua R Cook, Kumiko Aizawa, Ling Wang, Christoph Buettner, Domenico Accili
Insulin resistance is a hallmark of diabetes and an unmet clinical need. Insulin inhibits hepatic glucose production and promotes lipogenesis by suppressing FOXO1-dependent activation of G6pase and inhibition of glucokinase, respectively. The tight coupling of these events poses a dual conundrum: mechanistically, as the FOXO1 corepressor of glucokinase is unknown, and clinically, as inhibition of glucose production is predicted to increase lipogenesis. Here, we report that SIN3A is the insulin-sensitive FOXO1 corepressor of glucokinase...
November 2, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050587/hypoglycemic-effect-and-mechanism-of-a-pectic-polysaccharide-with-hexenuronic-acid-from-the-fruits-of-ficus-pumila-l-in-c57bl-ksj-db-db-mice
#20
Jianjun Wu, Miaomiao Chen, Songshan Shi, Huijun Wang, Ning Li, Juan Su, Ruimin Liu, Zhenlin Huang, Hong Jin, Xueqing Ji, Shunchun Wang
In this study, a particular pectic polysaccharide (FPLP) was extracted and purified from the fruits of Ficus pumila Linn. through boiling water extraction, alcohol precipitation, diethylaminoethyl-Sepharose Fast Flow chromatography and Superdex™ G-75 gel filtration chromatography. Analysis of high-performance gel permeation chromatography, FTIR, GC-MS, methylation and 1D/2D NMR spectroscopy revealed that FPLP (Mw: 34.69kDa) is a linear (1,4)-α-d-galacturonic acid binding 1.30% branched chain hexenuronic acid with 23...
December 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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