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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330356/metabolic-and-molecular-changes-associated-with-the-increased-skeletal-muscle-insulin-action-24-48%C3%A2-h-after-exercise-in-young-and-old-humans
#1
REVIEW
Francis B Stephens, Kostas Tsintzas
The molecular and metabolic mechanisms underlying the increase in insulin sensitivity (i.e. increased insulin-stimulated skeletal muscle glucose uptake, phosphorylation and storage as glycogen) observed from 12 to 48 h following a single bout of exercise in humans remain unresolved. Moreover, whether these mechanisms differ with age is unclear. It is well established that a single bout of exercise increases the translocation of the glucose transporter, GLUT4, to the plasma membrane. Previous research using unilateral limb muscle contraction models in combination with hyperinsulinaemia has demonstrated that the increase in insulin sensitivity and glycogen synthesis 24 h after exercise is also associated with an increase in hexokinase II (HKII) mRNA and protein content, suggesting an increase in the capacity of the muscle to phosphorylate glucose and divert it towards glycogen synthesis...
January 12, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330287/targeted-akt-inhibition-in-prostate-cancer-cells-and-spheroids-reduces-aerobic-glycolysis-and-generation-of-hyperpolarized-1-13c-lactate
#2
Sui Seng Tee, Izabela Suster, Steven Truong, Sangmoo Jeong, Roozbeh Eskandari, Valentina Di Gialleonardo, Julio A Alvarez, Hannah N Aldeborgh, Kayvan Keshari
The PI3K/AKT/mTOR (PAM) signaling pathway is frequently mutated in prostate cancer. Specific AKT inhibitors are now in advanced clinical trials and this study investigates the effect of MK2206, a non-ATP competitive inhibitor, on the cellular metabolism in the context of prostate cancer. A significant reduction in cell motility and aerobic glycolysis was observed in prostate cancer cells with treatment. These changes were not accompanied by a reduction in the ratio of high-energy phosphates or a change in total protein levels of enzymes (e...
January 12, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320411/inihibition-of-glycolysis-by-using-a-micro-nano-lipid-bromopyruvic-chitosan-carrier-as-a-promising-tool-to-improve-treatment-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#3
Nemany A Hanafy, Luciana Dini, Cinzia Citti, Giuseppe Cannazza, Stefano Leporatti
Glucose consumption in many types of cancer cells, in particular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), was followed completely by over-expression of type II hexokinase (HKII). This evidence has been used in modern pharmacotherapy to discover therapeutic target against glycolysis in cancer cells. Bromopyruvate (BrPA) exhibits antagonist property against HKII and can be used to inhibit glycolysis. However, the clinical application of BrPA is mostly combined with inhibition effect for healthy cells particularly erythrocytes...
January 10, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318370/the-metabolism-and-transport-of-1-5-anhydroglucitol-in-cells
#4
Lingwen Ying, Xiaojing Ma, Jun Yin, Yufei Wang, Xingxing He, Jiahui Peng, Yuqian Bao, Jian Zhou, Weiping Jia
AIMS: Our previous studies demonstrated that serum 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) levels increased slightly rather than declined after an acute glucose load. Therefore, the current study aims at exploring the transport and metabolic characteristics of 1,5-AG, as well as the effect of glucose on 1,5-AG transport. METHODS: Km and Vmax were determined to measure the affinity of glucose oxidase (GOD) and hexokinase (HK) for 1,5-AG and glucose. HepG2, C2C12, and primary mouse hepatocytes were incubated for 2 h with 1,5-AG at concentrations of 0, 80, and 160 μg/mL...
January 9, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305912/new-natural-inhibitors-of-hexokinase-2-hk2-steroids-from-ganoderma-sinense
#5
Fengyan Bao, Kaiyin Yang, Canrong Wu, Suyu Gao, Penghe Wang, Lixia Chen, Hua Li
Hexokinase 2 (HK2), a rate-limiting enzyme in the first step of glycolysis pathway, expresses at high level in cancer cells compared with normal cells. HK2 provides a new target for cancer therapy due to its pivotal role in tumor tumourigenic and metastatic process. The structure-based virtual ligand screening in a small in-house database of natural products predicted that a new steroid, (22E,24R)-6β-methoxyergosta-7,9(11),22-triene-3β,5α-diol (2) from Ganoderma sinense has high binding affinity to HK2 with significant calculated binding free energy...
January 3, 2018: Fitoterapia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298880/the-catalytic-inactivation-of-the-n-half-of-human-hexokinase-2-and-structural-and-biochemical-characterization-of-its-mitochondrial-conformation
#6
Mir Hussain Nawaz, Juliana C Ferreira, Lyudmila Nedyalkova, Haizhong Zhu, César Carrasco-López, Serdal Kirmizialtin, Wael M Rabeh
The high proliferation rate of tumor cells demands high energy and metabolites that are sustained by a high glycolytic flux known as the "Warburg effect". The activation and further metabolism of glucose is initiated by hexokinase, a focal point of metabolic regulation. The human hexokinase 2 (HK2) is overexpressed in all aggressive tumors and predominantly found on the mitochondria, where interactions through its N-terminus initiates and maintains tumorigenesis. Here, we report the structure of HK2 in complex with glucose and glucose 6-phosphate...
January 3, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298675/root-lodging-is-a-physical-stress-that-changes-gene-expression-from-sucrose-accumulation-to-degradation-in-sorghum
#7
Hiroshi Mizuno, Shigemitsu Kasuga, Hiroyuki Kawahigashi
BACKGROUND: Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) is used as a raw material for biofuels because it accumulates sugars at high levels in the stem. Lodging of sorghum occurs when the soil is wet and very high winds blow across the field. In root lodging, the roots are pulled loose from the soil, causing the plant to fall over. Lodging reduces the yield of nonstructural carbohydrates. It is not yet clear which genes show changes in expression when sorghum falls over. We compared whole-gene expression in the mature stems of intact and lodged sorghum plants, with a focus on comparisons from the perspective of differences in sugar accumulation or degradation...
January 3, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298131/a-systematic-review-of-p53-regulation-of-oxidative-stress-in-skeletal-muscle
#8
Kaitlyn Beyfuss, David A Hood
BACKGROUND: p53 is a tumor suppressor protein involved in regulating a wide array of signaling pathways. The role of p53 in the cell is determined by the type of imposed oxidative stress, its intensity and duration. The last decade of research has unravelled a dual nature in the function of p53 in mediating the oxidative stress burden. However, this is dependent on the specific properties of the applied stress and thus requires further analysis. METHODS: A systematic review was performed following an electronic search of Pubmed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect databases...
January 3, 2018: Redox Report: Communications in Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295552/carbon-catabolite-repression-in-filamentous-fungi
#9
REVIEW
Muhammad Adnan, Wenhui Zheng, Waqar Islam, Muhammad Arif, Yakubu Saddeeq Abubakar, Zonghua Wang, Guodong Lu
Carbon Catabolite Repression (CCR) has fascinated scientists and researchers around the globe for the past few decades. This important mechanism allows preferential utilization of an energy-efficient and readily available carbon source over relatively less easily accessible carbon sources. This mechanism helps microorganisms to obtain maximum amount of glucose in order to keep pace with their metabolism. Microorganisms assimilate glucose and highly favorable sugars before switching to less-favored sources of carbon such as organic acids and alcohols...
December 24, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291405/enhanced-glycometabolism-as-a-mechanism-of-nqo1-potentiated-growth-of-nsclc-revealed-by-metabolomic-profiling
#10
Xuefang Cheng, Fang Liu, Huiying Liu, Guangji Wang, Haiping Hao
NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), a cytoplasmic 2-electron reductase, has been considered as a potential poor prognostic biomarker and a promising therapeutic target for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) due to its frequent overexpression and significantly increased activity in NSCLC. Previous studies have shown that depleting tumor-NQO1 potentiates anoikis and inhibits growth of NSCLC. However, the underlying mechanisms whereby NQO1 potentiates proliferation have not been fully understood...
December 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290953/viral-e6-e7-oncogene-and-cellular-hexokinase-2-expression-in-hpv-positive-cancer-cell-lines
#11
Karin Hoppe-Seyler, Anja Honegger, Felicitas Bossler, Jasmin Sponagel, Julia Bulkescher, Claudia Lohrey, Felix Hoppe-Seyler
Oncogenic types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are major human carcinogens. Cancer cells typically exhibit metabolic alterations which support their malignant growth. These include an enhanced rate of aerobic glycolysis ('Warburg effect') which in cancer cells is often linked to an increased expression of the rate-limiting glycolytic enzyme Hexokinase 2 (HK2). Intriguingly, recent studies indicate that the HPV E6/E7 oncogenes cause the metabolic reprogramming in HPV-positive cancer cells by directly upregulating HK2 expression...
December 5, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287724/paris-reprograms-glucose-metabolism-by-hif-1%C3%AE-induction-in-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration
#12
Hojin Kang, Areum Jo, Hyein Kim, Rin Khang, Ji-Yeong Lee, Hanna Kim, Chi-Hu Park, Jeong-Yun Choi, Yunjong Lee, Joo-Ho Shin
Our previous study found that PARIS (ZNF746) transcriptionally suppressed transketolase (TKT), a key enzyme in pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) in the substantia nigra (SN) of AAV-PARIS injected mice. In this study, we revealed that PARIS overexpression reprogrammed glucose metabolic pathway, leading to the increment of glycolytic proteins along with TKT reduction in the SN of AAV-PARIS injected mice. Knock-down of TKT in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells led to an increase of glycolytic enzymes and decrease of PPP-related enzymes whereas overexpression of TKT restored PARIS-mediated glucose metabolic shift, suggesting that glucose metabolic alteration by PARIS is TKT-dependent...
December 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286170/licochalcone-a-suppresses-hexokinase-2-mediated-tumor-glycolysis-in-gastric-cancer-via-downregulation-of-the-akt-signaling-pathway
#13
Jian Wu, Xingxing Zhang, Yaohui Wang, Qingmin Sun, Min Chen, Shenlin Liu, Xi Zou
Licochalcone A (LicA) is a chalcone extracted from liquorice which has been used as a traditional Chinese medicine for many generations. Increased glucose consumption and glycolytic activity are important hallmarks of cancer cells, and hexokinase 2 (HK2) upregulation is a major contributor to the elevation of glycolysis. Recently, the antitumor activities of LicA have been reported in various cancers; however, its effect on tumor glycolysis in gastric cancer and the underlying mechanisms are completely unknown...
December 14, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285270/metformin-alleviates-nickel-induced-autophagy-and-apoptosis-via-inhibition-of-hexokinase-2-activating-lipocalin-2-in-human-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#14
Yu-Ting Kang, Wen-Cheng Hsu, Chih-Hsien Wu, I-Lun Hsin, Pei-Ru Wu, Kun-Tu Yeh, Jiunn-Liang Ko
Autophagy is an intracellular recycling and degradation process for regulating tumor progression, survival and drug resistance. Nickel compounds have been identified as human carcinogens. However, the role of nickel-induced autophagy in lung carcinogenesis has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we determined that hexokinase 2 (HK2), which phosphorylates glucose and regulates autophagy, is the key mediator in nickel-induced autophagy in lung bronchial epithelial cells. We attempted to investigate the effects of the antidiabetic drug metformin on HK2 expression and lung cancer chemoprevention...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284910/virtual-screening-and-prediction-of-binding-of-caprine-csn1s2-protein-tryptic-peptides-to-glucokinase
#15
Fatchiyah Fatchiyah, Atika Hanoum Rahasta, James R Ketudat Cairns
Introduction: Glucokinase (hexokinase D) is an enzyme that phosphorylates glucose in hepatocytes totrap it in the cell and prime it for conversion to other compounds, yet this enzyme has low affinity to bind with glucose. In Diabetes Mellituspatients, the blood glucose level is poorly controled. Material and Methods: This study explored the possibility to induce glucokinase activity with bioactive peptides derived from the goat milk protein CSN1S2 by in- silico docking approach...
December 2017: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277605/the-kinetic-properties-of-hexokinases-in-african-trypanosomes-of-the-subgenus-trypanozoon-match-the-blood-glucose-levels-of-mammal-hosts
#16
S Andrea Moreno, Gabriela V Cantos
We hypothesize that the hexokinases of trypanosomes of the subgenus Trypanozoon match the blood glucose levels of hosts. We studied the kinetic properties of purified hexokinase in T. equiperdum (specific activity=302U/mg), and compare with other members of Trypanozoon. With ATP (Km=104.7μM) as phosphate donor, hexokinase catalyzes the phosphorylation of glucose (Km=24.9μM) and mannose (Km=8.8μM). With respect to glucose, mannose and inorganic pyrophosphate respectively are a competitive, and a mixed inhibitor of hexokinase...
December 20, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275164/genome-wide-analysis-of-transcriptional-variability-in-a-large-maize-teosinte-population
#17
Xufeng Wang, Qiuyue Chen, Yaoyao Wu, Zachary H Lemmon, Guanghui Xu, Cheng Huang, Yameng Liang, Dingyi Xu, Dan Li, John F Doebley, Feng Tian
The regulation of gene expression plays an important role in controlling plant phenotypes and adaptation. Here, we report a comprehensive assessment of gene expression variation by sequencing the transcriptome of a large maize-teosinte experimental population. Genome-wide mapping identified 25,660 expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) for 17,311 genes, capturing an unprecedented range of expression variation. We found that local-eQTL more frequently mapped to adjacent genes, displaying a mode of expression piggybacking, which consequently created co-regulated gene clusters...
December 21, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258429/mesenchymal-stem-cell-conditioned-medium-alleviates-oxidative-stress-injury-induced-by-hydrogen-peroxide-via-regulating-mir143-and-its-target-protein-in-hepatocytes
#18
Xuejing Xu, Dong Li, Xue Li, Qing Shi, Xiuli Ju
BACKGROUND: To investigate the impact of miRNA (microRNA) on hepatic oxidative stress damage under the human mesenchymal stem cell conditioned medium (MSC-CM) and explore the roles of the beta-1 adrenergic receptor (ADRB1) and hexokinase 2 (HK2) in this process. METHODS: Hydrogen peroxide was used to induce oxidative stress injury in the human normal liver cell line L02. MSC-CM was separately prepared. After treatment with MSC-CM, the protective effects of MSC-CM on oxidative stress injury were assessed by changes in apoptosis, cell viability, cell cycle, and mitochondrial membrane potential...
December 19, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248361/leptin-an-adipokine-with-central-importance-in-the-global-obesity-problem
#19
REVIEW
Jeffrey I Mechanick, Shan Zhao, W Timothy Garvey
Leptin has central importance in the global obesity and cardiovascular disease problem. Leptin is principally secreted by adipocytes and acts in the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and food intake, increase energy expenditure, and regulate body weight. Based on clinical translation of specific and networked actions, leptin affects the cardiovascular system and may be a marker and driver of cardiometabolic risk factors with interventions that are actionable by cardiologists. Leptin subnetwork analysis demonstrates a statistically significant role for ethnoculturally and socioeconomically appropriate lifestyle intervention in cardiovascular disease...
December 13, 2017: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247992/metabolic-regulation-of-nlrp3
#20
REVIEW
Mark M Hughes, Luke A J O'Neill
A shift in our understanding of macrophage biology has come about as a result of recent discoveries in the area of metabolic reprogramming of macrophages. The NLRP3 inflammasome drives the activation of caspase-1, leading to the production of IL-1β, IL-18, and a type of cell death termed pyroptosis. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been shown to sense metabolites such as palmitate, uric acid, and cholesterol crystals and is inhibited by ketone bodies produced during metabolic flux. The NLRP3 inflammasome has also been shown to be regulated by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species and components of glycolysis, such as Hexokinase...
January 2018: Immunological Reviews
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