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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339807/differential-effects-of-carbohydrates-on-arabidopsis-pollen-germination
#1
Jörg Hirsche, José M García Fernández, Edith Stabentheiner, Dominik K Großkinsky, Thomas Roitsch
Pollen germination as a crucial process in plant development strongly depends on the accessibility of carbon as energy source. Carbohydrates, however, function not only as a primary energy source, but also as important signaling components. In a comprehensive study, we analyzed various aspects of the impact of 32 different sugars on in vitro germination of Arabidopsis pollen comprising about 150 variations of individual sugars and combinations. Twenty-six structurally different mono-, di- and oligosaccharides, and sugar analogs were initially tested for their ability to support pollen germination...
February 10, 2017: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338054/identification-of-hexose-kinase-genes-in-kluyveromyces-marxianus-and-thermo-tolerant-one-step-producing-glucose-free-fructose-strain-construction
#2
Guorong Zhang, Min Lu, Jichao Wang, Dongmei Wang, Xiaolian Gao, Jiong Hong
In yeast, the hexose assimilation is started at hexose phosphorylation. However, in Kluyveromyces marxianus, the hexokinase (HXK) and glucokinase (GLK) genes were not identified by experiments. Meanwhile, the glucose-free fructose product requires more cost-efficient method. In this study, the KmHXK1 and KmGLK1 genes were functionally identified through gene disruption, over-expression and recombinant enzymes characterization. Both glucose and fructose assimilation ability decreased significantly in KmHXK1 disrupted strain YLM001, however, this ability was not changed obviously in KmGLK1 disrupted strain YLM002...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330164/therapeutic-potential-of-cyanobacteria-against-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#3
Muthuraman Pandurangan, Doo Hwan Kim
Hypoglycemic effect of cyanobacteria has evaluated in the normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic male albino rats as a mammalian model. Normal and streptozotocin-diabetic rats were orally administered cyanobacteria for 60 consecutive days, and their blood levels of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, lipid peroxidation, body weight and enzyme changes were determined using standard methods. Cyanobacteria administration reduced blood glucose level, and increased plasma insulin, C-peptide levels and restored the body weight...
June 2016: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327594/aspirin-induces-cell-death-by-directly-modulating-mitochondrial-voltage-dependent-anion-channel-vdac
#4
Debanjan Tewari, Dhriti Majumdar, Sirisha Vallabhaneni, Amal Kanti Bera
Aspirin induces apoptotic cell death in various cancer cell lines. Here we showed that silencing of VDAC1 protected HeLa cells from aspirin-induced cell death. Compared to the wild type cells, VDAC1 knocked down cells showed lesser change of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), upon aspirin treatment. Aspirin augmented ATP and ionomycin-induced mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake which was abolished in VDAC1 knocked down cells. Aspirin dissociated bound hexokinase II (HK-II) from mitochondria. Further, aspirin promoted the closure of recombinant human VDAC1, reconstituted in planar lipid bilayer...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322782/cl-316-243-mediated-reductions-in-blood-glucose-are-enhanced-in-rip140-mice-independent-of-alterations-in-lipolysis
#5
Willem T Peppler, Paula M Miotto, Graham P Holloway, David C Wright
The β-3 adrenergic agonist CL 316, 243 acutely lowers blood glucose through a mechanism thought to involve fatty-acid induced insulin release. The purpose of this study was to determine if ablation of the nuclear receptor, receptor-inactivating protein 140 (RIP140), altered this response. Here, we used a single injection of CL 316, 243 (1 mg/kg) and found that whole body RIP140(-/-) mice had a greater decline in blood glucose over 2 h. This occurred alongside increased hexokinase II (HKII) protein content in adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, but independent of changes in circulating insulin or indices of lipolysis...
March 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320429/chrysin-inhibited-tumor-glycolysis-and-induced-apoptosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-by-targeting-hexokinase-2
#6
Dong Xu, Junzhe Jin, Hao Yu, Zheming Zhao, Dongyan Ma, Chundong Zhang, Honglei Jiang
BACKGROUND: Hexokinase-2(HK-2) plays dual roles in glucose metabolism and mediation of cell apoptosis, making it an attractive target for cancer therapy. Chrysin is a natural flavone found in plant extracts which are widely used as herb medicine in China. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor activity of chrysin against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and the role of HK-2 played for chrysin to exert its function. METHODS: The expression of HK-2 in HCC cell line and tumor tissue was examined by western blotting and immunohistochemistry staining...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303258/alterations-in-cytosolic-and-mitochondrial-u-13-c-glucose-metabolism-in-a-chronic-epilepsy-mouse-model
#7
Tanya S McDonald, Catalina Carrasco-Pozo, Mark P Hodson, Karin Borges
Temporal lobe epilepsy is a common form of adult epilepsy and shows high resistance to treatment. Increasing evidence has suggested that metabolic dysfunction contributes to the development of seizures, with previous studies indicating impairments in brain glucose metabolism. Here we aim to elucidate which pathways involved in glucose metabolism are impaired, by tracing the hippocampal metabolism of injected [U-(13)C]glucose (i.p.) during the chronic stage of the pilocarpine-status epilepticus mouse model of epilepsy...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293876/changes-in-the-mitochondrial-function-and-in-the-efficiency-of-energy-transfer-pathways-during-cardiomyocyte-aging
#8
Kersti Tepp, Marju Puurand, Natalja Timohhina, Jasper Adamson, Aleksandr Klepinin, Laura Truu, Igor Shevchuk, Vladimir Chekulayev, Tuuli Kaambre
The role of mitochondria in alterations that take place in the muscle cell during healthy aging is a matter of debate during recent years. Most of the studies in bioenergetics have a focus on the model of isolated mitochondria, while changes in the crosstalk between working myofibrils and mitochondria in senescent cardiomyocytes have been less studied. The aim of our research was to investigate the modifications in the highly regulated ATP production and energy transfer systems in heart cells in old rat cardiomyocytes...
March 14, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290047/adaptation-to-chronic-continuous-hypoxia-potentiates-akt-hk2-anti-apoptotic-pathway-during-brief-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-insult
#9
David Kolar, Milada Gresikova, Petra Waskova-Arnostova, Barbara Elsnicova, Jana Kohutova, Daniela Hornikova, Pavel Vebr, Jan Neckar, Tereza Blahova, Dita Kasparova, Jiri Novotny, Frantisek Kolar, Olga Novakova, Jitka M Zurmanova
Adaptation to chronic hypoxia represents a potential cardioprotective intervention reducing the extent of acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, which is a major cause of death worldwide. The main objective of this study was to investigate the anti-apoptotic Akt/hexokinase 2 (HK2) pathway in hypoxic hearts subjected to I/R insult. Hearts isolated from male Wistar rats exposed either to continuous normobaric hypoxia (CNH; 10% O2) or to room air for 3 weeks were perfused according to Langendorff and subjected to 10 min of no-flow ischemia and 10 min of reperfusion...
March 13, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288978/mff-dependent-mitochondrial-fission-contributes-to-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiac-microvasculature-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-via-induction-of-mros-mediated-cardiolipin-oxidation-and-hk2-vdac1-disassociation-involved-mptp-opening
#10
Hao Zhou, Shunying Hu, Qinhua Jin, Chen Shi, Ying Zhang, Pingjun Zhu, Qiang Ma, Feng Tian, Yundai Chen
BACKGROUND: The cardiac microvascular system ischemia/reperfusion injury following percutaneous coronary intervention is a clinical thorny problem. This study explores the mechanisms by which ischemia/reperfusion injury induces cardiac microcirculation collapse. METHODS AND RESULTS: In wild-type mice, mitochondrial fission factor (Mff) expression increased in response to acute microvascular ischemia/reperfusion injury. Compared with wild-type mice, homozygous Mff-deficient (Mff(gt)) mice exhibited a smaller infarcted area, restored cardiac function, improved blood flow, and reduced microcirculation perfusion defects...
March 13, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284804/novel-highly-potent-systemic-glucokinase-activators-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
Jiayi Xu, Songnian Lin, Robert W Myers, George Addona, Joel P Berger, Brian Campbell, Hsuan-Shen Chen, Zhesheng Chen, George J Eiermann, Nadine H Elowe, Brian T Farrer, Wen Feng, Qinghong Fu, Roman Kats-Kagan, Michael Kavana, Sunita Malkani, Daniel R McMasters, Kaushik Mitra, Michele J Pachanski, Xinchun Tong, Maria E Trujillo, Libo Xu, Bei Zhang, Fengqi Zhang, Rui Zhang, Emma R Parmee
Glucokinase (GK, hexokinase IV) is a unique hexokinase that plays a central role in mammalian glucose homeostasis. Glucose phosphorylation by GK in the pancreatic β-cell is the rate-limiting step that controls glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Similarly, GK-mediated glucose phosphorylation in hepatocytes plays a major role in increasing hepatic glucose uptake and metabolism and possibly lowering hepatic glucose output. Small molecule GK activators (GKAs) have been identified that increase enzyme activity by binding to an allosteric site...
October 31, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283400/vdac-in-cancer
#12
REVIEW
N M Mazure
The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) is a pore located at the outer membrane of the mitochondrion. It allows the entry and exit of numerous ions and metabolites between the cytosol and the mitochondrion. Flux through the pore occurs in an active way: first, it depends on the open or closed state and second, on the negative or positive charges of the different ion species passing through the pore. The flux of essential metabolites, such as ATP, determines the functioning of the mitochondria to a noxious stimulus...
March 7, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282626/standard-gibbs-energy-of-metabolic-reactions-ii-glucose-6-phosphatase-reaction-and-atp-hydrolysis
#13
Florian Meurer, Hoang Tam Do, Gabriele Sadowski, Christoph Held
ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is a key reaction for metabolism. Tools from systems biology require standard reaction data in order to predict metabolic pathways accurately. However, literature values for standard Gibbs energy of ATP hydrolysis are highly uncertain and differ strongly from each other. Further, such data usually neglect the activity coefficients of reacting agents, and published data like this is apparent (condition-dependent) data instead of activity-based standard data. In this work a consistent value for the standard Gibbs energy of ATP hydrolysis was determined...
March 1, 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275929/in-silico-and-in-vitro-investigation-on-the-phenylalanine-metabolites-interactions-with-hexokinase-of-rat-s-brain-mitochondria
#14
Nasrin Ziamajidi, Shirin Jamshidi, Abdolvahab Ehsani-Zonouz
Hexokinase (HK) is the first enzyme of glycolysis pathway. In brain, most dominant form of HK, HK-I, binds reversibly to the outer mitochondria membrane. Those metabolites that affect binding or releasing of the enzyme from the mitochondria have regulatory effect on glucose consumption of the cell. In this study destructive effect of phenylalanine and its metabolites in relation to glucose metabolism in brain have been studied. The results show that phenylpyruvic acid decreases the activity of enzyme in the presence and absence of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) and increases the release of the enzyme from mitochondria, whereas phenylalanine and phenyllactic acid have no such effects...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266800/in-vitro-inhibition-of-human-erythrocyte-hexokinase-by-various-hyperglycemic-drugs
#15
Jalal A Aljamal, Muwaffag Badawneh
Hemolysis is the red blood cell abnormality most often associated with adverse effect of drug therapy. Drug-induced or drug-associated hyperglycemia could decrease the activity of hexokinase. The aim of this study was to investigate the inhibitory effects of some commonly used drugs that have hyperglycemic side effect on the human erythrocyte hexokinase enzyme in vitro. Hexokinase was purified from human erythrocytes using sequential chromatography, with a specific activity of 0.96 ± 0.18 U/g hemoglobin, and assayed in the presence of selected drugs that have hyperglycemic side effect...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264838/loss-of-brca1-in-the-cells-of-origin-of-ovarian-cancer-induces-glycolysis-a-window-of-opportunity-for-ovarian-cancer-chemoprevention
#16
Tatsuyuki Chiyoda, Peter C Hart, Mark A Eckert, Stephanie M McGregor, Ricardo R Lastra, Ryuji Hamamoto, Yusuke Nakamura, S Diane Yamada, Olufunmilayo I Olopade, Ernst Lengyel, Iris L Romero
Mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) are associated with an increased risk of developing epithelial ovarian cancer. However, beyond the role of BRCA1 in DNA repair, little is known about other mechanisms by which BRCA1 impairment promotes carcinogenesis. Given that altered metabolism is now recognized as important in the initiation and progression of cancer, we asked whether loss of BRCA1 changes metabolism in the cells of origin of ovarian cancer. The findings show that silencing BRCA1 in ovarian surface epithelial and fallopian tube cells increased glycolysis...
March 6, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262738/high-glucose-levels-boost-the-aggressiveness-of-highly-metastatic-cholangiocarcinoma-cells-via-o-glcnacylation
#17
Chatchai Phoomak, Kulthida Vaeteewoottacharn, Atit Silsirivanit, Charupong Saengboonmee, Wunchana Seubwai, Kanlayanee Sawanyawisuth, Chaisiri Wongkham, Sopit Wongkham
Increased glucose utilization is a feature of cancer cells to support cell survival, proliferation, and metastasis. An association between diabetes mellitus and cancer progression was previously demonstrated in cancers including cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). This study was aimed to determine the effects of high glucose on protein O-GlcNAcylation and metastatic potentials of CCA cells. Two pairs each of the parental low metastatic and highly metastatic CCA sublines were cultured in normal (5.6 mM) or high (25 mM) glucose media...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259993/glycometabolic-adaptation-mediates-the-insensitivity-of-drug-resistant-k562-adm-leukaemia-cells-to-adriamycin-via-the-akt-mtor-c-myc-signalling-pathway
#18
Xueyan Zhang, Ziying Ai, Jing Chen, Juan Yi, Zhuan Liu, Huaishun Zhao, Hulai Wei
In human leukaemia, resistance to chemotherapy leads to treatment ineffectiveness or failure. Previous studies have indicated that cancers with increased levels of aerobic glycolysis are insensitive to numerous forms of chemotherapy and respond poorly to radiotherapy. Whether glycolysis serves a key role in drug resistance of leukaemia cells remains unclear. The present study systematically investigated aerobic glycolytic alterations and regulation in K562/adriamycin (ADM) multidrug‑resistant (MDR) and ADM‑sensitive K562 leukaemia cells in normoxia, and the association between drug resistance and improper glycometabolism...
February 10, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258543/reducing-mitochondrial-bound-hexokinase-ii-mediates-transition-from-non-injurious-into-injurious-ischemia-reperfusion-of-the-intact-heart
#19
Rianne Nederlof, Ebru Gürel-Gurevin, Otto Eerbeek, Chaoqin Xie, G Sjoerd Deijs, Moritz Konkel, Jun Hu, Nina C Weber, Cees A Schumacher, Antonius Baartscheer, Egbert G Mik, Markus W Hollmann, Fadi G Akar, Coert J Zuurbier
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) of the heart becomes injurious when duration of the ischemic insult exceeds a certain threshold (approximately ≥20 min). Mitochondrial bound hexokinase II (mtHKII) protects against I/R injury, with the amount of mtHKII correlating with injury. Here, we examine whether mtHKII can induce the transition from non-injurious to injurious I/R, by detaching HKII from mitochondria during a non-injurious I/R interval. Additionally, we examine possible underlying mechanisms (increased reactive oxygen species (ROS), increased oxygen consumption (MVO2) and decreased cardiac energetics) associated with this transition...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250970/air-liquid-interface-enhances-oxidative-phosphorylation-in-intestinal-epithelial-cell-line-ipec-j2
#20
Sonja Klasvogt, Werner Zuschratter, Anke Schmidt, Andrea Kröber, Sandra Vorwerk, Romina Wolter, Berend Isermann, Klaus Wimmers, Hermann-Josef Rothkötter, Constanze Nossol
The intestinal porcine epithelial cell line IPEC-J2, cultured under the air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions, develops remarkable morphological characteristics close to intestinal epithelial cells in vivo. Improved oxygen availability has been hypothesised to be the leading cause of this morphological differentiation. We assessed oxygen availability in ALI cultures and examined the influence of this cell culture method on glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in IPEC-J2 using the submerged membrane culture (SMC) and ALI cultures...
2017: Cell Death Discovery
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