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Hexokinase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926527/genistein-suppresses-aerobic-glycolysis-and-induces-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-death
#1
Sainan Li, Jingjing Li, Weiqi Dai, Qinghui Zhang, Jiao Feng, Liwei Wu, Tong Liu, Qiang Yu, Shizan Xu, Wenwen Wang, Xiya Lu, Kan Chen, Yujing Xia, Jie Lu, Yingqun Zhou, Xiaoming Fan, Wenhui Mo, Ling Xu, Chuanyong Guo
BACKGROUND: Genistein is a natural isoflavone with many health benefits, including antitumour effects. Increased hypoxia-inducible factor 1 α (HIF-1α) levels and glycolysis in tumour cells are associated with an increased risk of mortality, cancer progression, and resistance to therapy. However, the effect of genistein on HIF-1α and glycolysis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unclear. METHODS: Cell viability, apoptosis rate, lactate production, and glucose uptake were measured in HCC cell lines with genistein incubation...
September 19, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923827/mutant-ctnnb1-and-histological-heterogeneity-define-metabolic-subtypes-of-hepatoblastoma
#2
Stefania Crippa, Pierre-Benoit Ancey, Jessica Vazquez, Paolo Angelino, Anne-Laure Rougemont, Catherine Guettier, Vincent Zoete, Mauro Delorenzi, Olivier Michielin, Etienne Meylan
Hepatoblastoma is the most common malignant pediatric liver cancer. Histological evaluation of tumor biopsies is used to distinguish among the different subtypes of hepatoblastoma, with fetal and embryonal representing the two main epithelial components. With frequent CTNNB1 mutations, hepatoblastoma is a Wnt/β-catenin-driven malignancy. Considering that Wnt activation has been associated with tumor metabolic reprogramming, we characterized the metabolic profile of cells from hepatoblastoma and compared it to cells from hepatocellular carcinoma...
September 18, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920565/regulatory-functions-of-trehalose-6-phosphate-synthase-in-the-chitin-biosynthesis-pathway-in-tribolium-castaneum-coleoptera-tenebrionidae-revealed-by-rna-interference
#3
Q W Chen, S Jin, L Zhang, Q D Shen, P Wei, Z M Wei, S G Wang, B Tang
RNA interference (RNAi) is a very effective technique for studying gene function and may be an efficient method for controlling pests. Trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS), which plays a key role in the synthesis of trehalose and insect development, was cloned in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (TcTPS) and the putative functions were studied using RNAi via the injection of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) corresponding to conserved TPS and trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase domains. Expression analyses show that TcTPS is expressed higher in the fat body, while quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction results show that the expression of four trehalase isoforms was significantly suppressed by dsTPS injection...
September 18, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917760/rapid-and-sensitive-serum-glucose-determination-using-chemical-labeling-coupled-with-black-phosphorus-assisted-laser-desorption-ionization-time-of-flight-mass-spectrometry
#4
Qing Wang, Lei Yu, Chu-Bo Qi, Jun Ding, Xiao-Mei He, Ren-Qi Wang, Yu-Qi Feng
Monitoring the concentration of blood glucose in patients is a key component of good medical diagnoses. Therefore, developing an accurate, rapid and sensitive strategy for monitoring blood glucose is of vital importance. We proposed a strategy for serum glucose determination combining 2-(4-boronobenzyl) isoquinolin-2-ium bromide chemical labeling with black phosphorus assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (CL-BP/ALDI-TOF MS). The entire analytical process consisted of 1min of protein precipitation and 3min of chemical labeling in a microwave oven prior to the BP/ALDI-TOF MS analysis...
January 1, 2018: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915575/hexokinase-2-promotes-tumor-growth-and-metastasis-by-regulating-lactate-production-in-pancreatic-cancer
#5
Marybeth Anderson, Raoud Marayati, Richard Moffitt, Jen Jen Yeh
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a KRAS-driven cancer with a high incidence of metastasis and an overall poor prognosis. Previous work in a genetically engineered mouse model of PDAC showed glucose metabolism to be important for maintaining tumor growth. Multiple glycolytic enzymes, including hexokinase 2 (HK2), were upregulated in primary PDAC patient tumors, supporting a role for glycolysis in promoting human disease. HK2 was most highly expressed in PDAC metastases, suggesting a link between HK2 and aggressive tumor biology...
August 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914437/salutary-potential-of-ethanolic-extract-of-avocado-fruit-on-anomalous-carbohydrate-metabolic-key-enzymes-in-hepatic-and-renal-tissues-of-hyperglycaemic-albino-rats
#6
U S Mahadeva Rao
OBJECTIVE: To assess the beneficial potential of ethanolic extract of avocado fruit on abnormal carbohydrate metabolic key enzymes in hepatic and renal tissues in streptozotocin (STZ) induced hyperglycemic albino rats. METHODS: Twenty-four male albino rats were randomly divided into four groups with six in each group by simple random sampling method. Group 1 as control rats; Group 2 as STZ induced diabetic rats; Group 3 as diabetic rats treated with avocado fruit extract (AFE), 300 mg/kg as aqueous suspension orally for 30 days; Group 4 as diabetic rats treated with gliclazide (5 mg/kg) in aqueous solution orally for 30 days...
September 15, 2017: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899778/vma3p-protects-cells-from-programmed-cell-death-through-the-regulation-of-hxk2p-expression
#7
Paulina Konarzewska, Goldie Libby Sherr, Suzanne Ahmed, Brendon Ursomanno, Chang-Hui Shen
In yeast, the vacuolar proton-pumping ATPase (V-ATPase) acidifies vacuoles to maintain pH of cytoplasm. Yeast cells lacking V-ATPase activity, due to a disruption of any VMA (vacuolar membrane ATPase) gene, remain viable but demonstrate growth defects. Although it has been suggested that VMA genes are critical for phospholipid biosynthesis, the link between VMA genes and phospholipid biosynthesis is still uncertain. Here, we found that cells lacking Vma3p, one of the major V-ATPase assembly genes, had a growth defect in the absence of inositol, suggesting that Vma3p is important in phospholipid biosynthesis...
September 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895881/de-novo-assembly-and-analysis-of-polygonatum-sibiricum-transcriptome-and-identification-of-genes-involved-in-polysaccharide-biosynthesis
#8
Shiqiang Wang, Bin Wang, Wenping Hua, Junfeng Niu, Kaikai Dang, Yi Qiang, Zhezhi Wang
Polygonatum sibiricum polysaccharides (PSPs) are used to improve immunity, alleviate dryness, promote the secretion of fluids, and quench thirst. However, the PSP biosynthetic pathway is largely unknown. Understanding the genetic background will help delineate that pathway at the molecular level so that researchers can develop better conservation strategies. After comparing the PSP contents among several different P. sibiricum germplasms, we selected two groups with the largest contrasts in contents and subjected them to HiSeq2500 transcriptome sequencing to identify the candidate genes involved in PSP biosynthesis...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893177/integrated-application-of-transcriptomics-and-metabolomics-provides-insights-into-glycogen-content-regulation-in-the-pacific-oyster-crassostrea-gigas
#9
Busu Li, Kai Song, Jie Meng, Li Li, Guofan Zhang
BACKGROUND: The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas is an important marine fishery resource, which contains high levels of glycogen that contributes to the flavor and the quality of the oyster. However, little is known about the molecular and chemical mechanisms underlying glycogen content differences in Pacific oysters. Using a homogeneous cultured Pacific oyster family, we explored these regulatory networks at the level of the metabolome and the transcriptome. RESULTS: Oysters with the highest and lowest natural glycogen content were selected for differential transcriptome and metabolome analysis...
September 11, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888364/vdac-electronics-4-novel-electrical-mechanism-and-thermodynamic-estimations-of-glucose-repression-of-yeast-respiration
#10
Victor V Lemeshko
Inhibition of cell respiration by high concentrations of glucose (glucose repression), known as "Crabtree effect", has been demonstrated for various cancerous strains, highly proliferating cells and yeast lines. Although significant progress in understanding metabolic events associated with the glucose repression of cell respiration has been achieved, it is not yet clear whether the Crabtree effect is the result of a limited activity of the respiratory chain, or of some glucose-mediated regulation of mitochondrial metabolic state...
September 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887464/rnaseq-revealed-the-important-gene-pathways-controlling-adaptive-mechanisms-under-waterlogged-stress-in-maize
#11
Kanika Arora, Kusuma Kumari Panda, Shikha Mittal, Mallana Gowdra Mallikarjuna, Atmakuri Ramakrishna Rao, Prasanta Kumar Dash, Nepolean Thirunavukkarasu
Waterlogging causes yield penalty in maize-growing countries of subtropical regions. Transcriptome analysis of the roots of a tolerant inbred HKI1105 using RNA sequencing revealed 21,364 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) under waterlogged stress condition. These 21,364 DEGs are known to regulate important pathways including energy-production, programmed cell death (PCD), aerenchyma formation, and ethylene responsiveness. High up-regulation of invertase (49-fold) and hexokinase (36-fold) in roots explained the ATP requirement in waterlogging condition...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881757/antagonistic-effects-of-selenium-on-cadmium-induced-apoptosis-by-restoring-the-mitochondrial-dynamic-equilibrium-and-energy-metabolism-in-chicken-spleens
#12
Zhe Xu, Xi Jin, Tingru Pan, Tianqi Liu, Na Wan, Shu Li
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of cadmium-induced apoptosis in chicken spleens and the antagonistic effects of selenium. We duplicated the selenium-cadmium interaction model and examined the expression of apoptosis-, immune-, mitochondrial dynamics- and energy metabolism-related genes. The results demonstrated that after treatment with cadmium, the frequency of apoptosis was significantly increased, and the morphological characteristics of apoptosis were observed. The expression of pro-apoptotic genes was increased, and that of anti-apoptotic genes was decreased...
August 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881665/hpv-associated-differential-regulation-of-tumor-metabolism-in-oropharyngeal-head-and-neck-cancer
#13
Young-Suk Jung, Abdo J Najy, Wei Huang, Seema Sethi, Michael Snyder, Wael Sakr, Gregory Dyson, Maik Hüttemann, Icksoo Lee, Rouba Ali-Fehmi, Silvia Franceschi, Linda Struijk, Harold E Kim, Ikuko Kato, Hyeong-Reh Choi Kim
HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer patients experience significantly lower locoregional recurrence and higher overall survival in comparison with HPV-negative patients, especially among those who received radiation therapy. The goal of the present study is to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the differential radiation sensitivity between HPV-negative and HPV-positive head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Here, we show that HPV-negative HNSCC cells exhibit increased glucose metabolism as evidenced by increased production of lactate, while HPV-positive HNSCC cells effectively utilize mitochondrial respiration as evidenced by increased oxygen consumption...
August 1, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28857455/pyruvate-kinase-coupled-glycosyltransferase-assays-limitations-struggles-and-problems-resolutions
#14
Stephane Vincent, Huixiao Fu, Weidong Pan
Enzyme assays involving a coupled pyruvate kinase (PK) have been used for many years to monitor the activity of major classes of enzymes including glycosyltransferases. Numerous potent inhibitors have been discovered and kinetically characterized thanks to this technology. However, when inhibitors of these important enzymes are screened, PK inhibitors or activators are very often observed. In this study, we report solutions to resolve the problems encountered during either the screening or the kinetic characterization of glycosyltransferase inhibitors using a PK coupled assay...
August 30, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840535/chronic-exposure-to-%C3%AE-alanine-generates-oxidative-stress-and-alters-energy-metabolism-in-cerebral-cortex-and-cerebellum-of-wistar-rats
#15
Tanise Gemelli, Rodrigo Binkowski de Andrade, Denise Bertin Rojas, Ângela Zanatta, Gabriel Henrique Schirmbeck, Cláudia Funchal, Moacir Wajner, Carlos Severo Dutra-Filho, Clovis Milton Duval Wannmacher
β-Alanine occurs naturally in the human central nervous system and performs different functions. It can act as either a neurotransmitter or a neuromodulator, depletion of taurine levels and competitive antagonist of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The β-amino acid accumulation exerts an important biological function as delay in brain development, oxidative stress and disturbances in energy metabolism, characterized as an inborn error of metabolism classified as β-alaninemia. We evaluated the effects of the chronic administration of β-alanine on some parameters of oxidative stress and enzymes of energy metabolism in cerebral cortex and cerebellum of 21-day-old Wistar rats...
August 24, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837152/lysosomotropism-depends-on-glucose-a-chloroquine-resistance-mechanism
#16
Laura E Gallagher, Ohood A Radhi, Mahmud O Abdullah, Anthony G McCluskey, Marie Boyd, Edmond Y W Chan
There has been long-standing interest in targeting pro-survival autophagy as a combinational cancer therapeutic strategy. Clinical trials are in progress testing chloroquine (CQ) or its derivatives in combination with chemo- or radiotherapy for solid and haematological cancers. Although CQ has shown efficacy in preclinical models, its mechanism of action remains equivocal. Here, we tested how effectively CQ sensitises metastatic breast cancer cells to further stress conditions such as ionising irradiation, doxorubicin, PI3K-Akt inhibition and serum withdrawal...
August 24, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822855/tetrandrine-cardioprotection-in-ischemia-reperfusion-i-r-injury-via-jak3-stat3-hexokinase-ii
#17
Tie-Jun Zhang, Rui-Xia Guo, Xia Li, Yan-Wei Wang, Yong-Jun Li
Tetrandrine (TET), a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid has been used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and hypertension. This study was to investigate whether tetrandrine exerts cardioprotection in ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and the mechanisms involved. The cardioprotection effect and mechanisms of tetrandrine was evaluated by I/R injury cardiac cell model. Hexokinase II (HKII) is the critical regulators of mitochondrial dysfunction in cardiac I/R injury and it participate in the regulation of glycolysis and energy metabolism...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822229/vasculogenesis-and-angiogenesis-initiation-under-normoxic-conditions-through-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-in-gliomas
#18
Alexandre Vallée, Rémy Guillevin, Jean-Noël Vallée
The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is up-regulated in gliomas and involved in proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Nuclear β-catenin accumulation correlates with malignancy. Hypoxia activates hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α by inhibiting HIF-1α prolyl hydroxylation, which promotes glycolytic energy metabolism, vasculogenesis and angiogenesis, whereas HIF-1α is degraded by the HIF prolyl hydroxylase under normoxic conditions. We focus this review on the links between the activated Wnt/β-catenin pathway and the mechanisms underlying vasculogenesis and angiogenesis through HIF-1α under normoxic conditions in gliomas...
August 19, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818160/determination-of-mean-glycated-haemoglobin-in-healthy-adults-of-a-local-population
#19
Sumbal Nida, Dilshad Ahmed Khan, Aamir Ijaz, Muhammad Qaiser Alam Khan, Hira Aleef, Maria Abbasi
OBJECTIVE: To determine the mean hemoglobin HbA1C levels of disease-free adults in a local population and its optimum cutoff for the diagnosis of diabetes. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Department of Chemical Pathology and Endocrinology, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi, from January to September 2015. METHODOLOGY: Healthy subjects aged 18 years and above of either gender were recruited from local population...
July 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817663/discordance-in-the-diagnosis-of-diabetes-comparison-between-hba1c-and-fasting-plasma-glucose
#20
Lan T Ho-Pham, Uyen D T Nguyen, Truong X Tran, Tuan V Nguyen
OBJECTIVE: HbA1c has been introduced as a complementary diagnostic test for diabetes, but its impact on disease prevalence is unknown. This study evaluated the concordance between HbA1c and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) in the diagnosis of diabetes in the general population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was designed as a population based investigation, with participants being sampled from the Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Blood samples were collected after overnight fasting and analyzed within 4 hours after collection...
2017: PloS One
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