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Child and family practice

Elizabeth Kagan Arleo, Darcy Wolfman, Jay R Parikh, Daniel Gridley, Claire Bender, Edward Bluth
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to assess utilization of the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) in radiology practices in 2016 and compare with 2015 utilization. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Practice of Radiology Environment Database was used to identify practice leaders, and these leaders were asked to complete the annual American College of Radiology Commission on Human Resources workforce survey. The 2017 survey, which asked about 2016 experiences, again included questions about the number of radiologists in each practice who took FMLA, reasons why, and how absences were covered...
June 21, 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Deborah L Jones, Violeta J Rodriguez, Lissa N Mandell, Tae Kyoung Lee, Stephen M Weiss, Karl Peltzer
South African guidelines for prevention-of-mother-to-child-transmission (PMTCT) of HIV emphasize exclusive breastfeeding (EBF). This study examined the impact of a PMTCT intervention and male involvement on EBF. In a two-phase cluster-randomized trial, rural South African community health centers were randomized to offer HIV-infected pregnant women PMTCT standard of care plus either: a behavioral PMTCT intervention, or a time-equivalent attention-control condition. Phase 1 women had non-participating male partners; Phase 2 women had participating partners...
June 20, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
Jeong-Kyun Choi, Emily H Becher
Supportive coparenting is an identified protective factor for child development and behavioral outcomes. What is less known is how supportive coparenting dynamically links with other aspects of parenting and parent well-being, particularly in multi-stressed nonmarital families. This study used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing study, analyzed within a structural equation model, to explore how mothers' experience of maternal depression, maternal age, father education, and SES interacted with their parenting stress and supportive coparenting to impact child behavioral problems and harsh parenting practices...
June 20, 2018: Family Process
Stefanos Mastrotheodoros, Jolien Van der Graaff, Maja Deković, Wim H J Meeus, Susan J T Branje
Parent-child relationships change during adolescence. Furthermore, parents and adolescents perceive parenting differently. We examined the changes in perceptions of parental practices in fathers, mothers, and adolescents during adolescence. Furthermore, we investigated if fathers', mothers', and adolescents' perceptions converge during adolescence. Following 497 families across six waves (ages 13-18), we investigated the development of parental support and behavioral control using mother and father self-reports, and adolescent reports for mothers and fathers...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
Nanette V Lopez, Susan Schembre, Britni R Belcher, Sydney O'Connor, Jaclyn P Maher, Reout Arbel, Gayla Margolin, Genevieve F Dunton
Parents exert a strong influence on their children's diet. While authoritative parenting style is linked to healthier weight and dietary outcomes in children, and authoritarian and permissive parenting styles with unhealthy eating, little is known about the mechanisms that mediate these relationships. Feeding styles are often examined in relation to child diet, but they do not consider the social and physical environmental contexts in which dietary behaviors occur. Therefore, this study examined whether parenting styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive) were associated with three specific food-related parenting practices - mealtime structural practices (e...
June 16, 2018: Appetite
Elizabeth M Keys, Karen M Benzies
Although well positioned to work with families of young children, nurses do not yet have a theory that guides practice and research by relating infant sleep to child and family development. The authors of this paper describe a proposed theory that combines Bronfenbrenner's bioecological theory of human development with the Barnard model of parent-child interaction to inform nursing practice and research related to infant sleep and optimizing child and family development. The theory focuses on sustainability of change in family processes and infant sleep, with a goal of optimizing family wellness as the proximal environment for child development...
July 2018: Nursing Science Quarterly
Sudip Bhattacharya, Amarjeet Singh
In this case study, we describe our experiences with a rural poor family from north India that initially contacted faith healers for treatment of their child who was having symptoms suggestive of epilepsy, but the seizures continued even after this. The family migrated to a city, where they started allopathic treatment, but eventually they had to discontinue it as there was no apparent relief. Again, they went back to their native village and restarted the treatment from the faith healer.This case study highlights the fact that in spite of the significant development of medical science, many questions pertaining to epilepsy treatment are still unanswered...
June 17, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Alexa Gainsbury, Sally Dowling
OBJECTIVE: To develop a descriptive account of parents' experiences of written feedback from the National Child Measurement Programme (NCMP), based on primary data collected from semi-structured focus groups. DESIGN: Four focus groups were held with a purposive sample of parents who had recently received written weight feedback from the NCMP in one local authority in England. Thematic data analysis was undertaken to develop a narrative of emergent themes regarding parents' experiences and the social influences shaping this...
June 19, 2018: Public Health Nutrition
Emily Hansen, Leigh Tesch, Jennifer Ayton
BACKGROUND: Fathers' attitudes and actions can positively or negatively affect mothers' intentions to breastfeed, breastfeeding duration and exclusivity. In-depth information about fathers' perspectives on breastfeeding are largely absent in the literature about infant feeding. The objective of this research was to investigate how fathers view breastfeeding. METHODS: This mixed method study recruited Tasmanian fathers with children < 24 months of age. Fathers completed a questionnaire and participated in either semi structured one-on-one or group interviews...
June 18, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Claire V Farrow, Emma Haycraft, Jacqueline M Blissett
Overt parental restriction of food has previously been associated with child weight; however, most research has relied on self-reported feeding behaviour, or observations which give little opportunity to observe restriction of food. Using a novel lab-based observational technique to increase the opportunity to observe maternal feeding restriction, we explored the relationships between maternal restriction, child responses to restriction and child temperament with child body mass index (BMI) Z-scores over time...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Aurelie M C Lange, Rachel E A van der Rijken, Marc J M H Delsing, Jan J V Busschbach, Ron H J Scholte
Therapist adherence to the treatment manual is assumed to be crucial for adequate implementation and subsequent achievement of the intended, positive treatment outcomes. Although adherence has been mostly studied as a static factor, recent studies suggest that adherence might be dynamic and changes over time. We investigated how parent-perceived adherence to the multisystemic therapy (MST) model develops during treatment and how this development is related to treatment outcomes up to 18 months posttreatment, controlling for the effect of alliance...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
Xiaolin Guo, Bo Lv, Huan Zhou, Chunhui Liu, Juan Liu, Kexin Jiang, Liang Luo
The impact of social economic status (SES) on children's academic outcomes has been well documented. However, the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain poorly understood. Furthermore, the process by which SES relates to academic achievement needs to be studied separately for boys and girls. Using a sample of 598 Chinese children (299 boys, 299 girls) in grades 4 to 6 and their parents, this study examined the process of how family SES, specifically family income and parental education, indirectly relates to children's reading achievement through parental expectation and parental involvement and whether this process differs between boys and girls...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Neelam A Vashi, Nicole Patzelt, Stephen Wirya, Mayra B C Maymone, Pedro Zancanaro, Roopal V Kundu
With globalization and widespread immigration, physicians increasingly encounter patients from varying backgrounds and diverse customs. Although certain cultural practices are widely performed, there is limited medical literature describing their dermatologic and systemic effects and complications. Population diversity and sharing of traditions make it increasingly important for dermatologists to understand the role of cultural practices and recognize physiologic and pathologic sequelae. In addition, dermatologists are often adjured to assess skin findings that may be mistaken for abuse...
July 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Simon Fishel
On July 25, 1978, the first human was born following extracorporeal fertilization, an event that opened up a new medical science: expanding our knowledge of and developing novel treatments for infertility, radically changing the opportunities for families with inherited monogenic disorders, generating the new discipline of clinical embryology, and paving the way for studies into stem cell biology. In vitro fertilization (IVF), as it became known in its simplest form, went even further: it engaged the myriad of minds in human society...
June 13, 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Jill Cadwgan, Jane Goodwin, Charlie Fairhurst
While there remains limited intervention to address the damage to the developing brain, current multidisciplinary management of cerebral palsy (CP) needs to minimise the impact of secondary musculoskeletal complications. A focus on comorbidities to maximise function for activity and participation by supporting the child and family in their environment is required. Comprehensive clinical guidance was published by National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) earlier this year. This article aims to provide a practical clinical approach to the child and family based on:(1) art: empathy, listening and weighing up the clinical picture of the child and family in context; diagnosis, the need for support and space; and care coordination at the right time; and (2) science: the current science in CP care is rapidly expanding in terms of plasticity, pathophysiology, functional assessments and treatments...
June 15, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Education and Practice Edition
Megan Lydon, Monica Longwe, Dyson Likomwa, Victoria Lwesha, Lydia Chimtembo, Pamela Donohue, Tanya Guenther, Bina Valsangar
Background: Despite introduction of Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) in Malawi over a decade ago, preterm birth remains the leading cause of neonatal mortality. Although KMC is initiated in the health care facility, robust community follow-up is critical for survival and optimal development of preterm and low birth weight infants post-discharge. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain insight into community and health worker understanding, attitudes, beliefs and practices around preterm and low birth weight babies and KMC in Malawi...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
Xu Zhou, Junqun Fang, Jiayou Luo, Hua Wang, Qiyun Du, Guangwen Huang, Binbin Feng
OBJECTIVE: To describe the rate of and identify the factors associated with introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods among infants aged 6-8 months in poor rural areas. METHODS: A total of 1449 rural infants aged 6-8 months in 30 poor counties of Wuling Mountains and Luoxiao Mountains in Hunan Province were selected by probabilityproportional-to-size sampling( PPS) in August 2015. And designed questionnaires were used to collect information of infants feeding in the past 24 h and information of personal and family...
January 2018: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
Hashima E Nasreen, Jamalludin Ab Rahman, Razman Mohd Rus, Mira Kartiwi, Rosnah Sutan, Maigun Edhborg
BACKGROUND: Research on antepartum psychiatric morbidities investigating depressive and anxiety symptoms in expectant mothers and fathers is lacking in low- and middle-income countries. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of antepartum depressive, anxiety and co-occurring significant symptoms and explore the associated factors in a cross-section of Malaysian expectant mothers and fathers. METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from a prospective cohort study of 911 expectant mothers and 587 expectant fathers during their third trimester of pregnancy, from health clinics of two states in the east and west coasts of Malaysia...
June 15, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Avishek Hazra, M E Khan, Subrato Kumar Mondal
Over 90% of households in rural Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state of India, have at least one mobile phone. However, ownership of mobile phone among women is quite low. Implementation research was conducted in Uttar Pradesh to examine (a) whether providing information on selected maternal and child health (MCH) behaviors to a husband's mobile phone would enhance the man's knowledge and lead to discussions in their family, and (b) whether such discussions would help in the adoption of healthy practices...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
Syunsuke Yamanaka, Ran D Goldman
Question Our practice is seeing children with relatively minor injuries to their elbows, with a history of "swinging" them when their hands are being held to cross the road. Nothing is usually found on a physical examination. I know that this is likely a "pulled elbow." Can we manage this in the clinic setting rather than sending the family to the emergency department? What would be the best course of action in the clinic setting? Answer Pulled elbow, also called nursemaid's elbow , is a radial head subluxation caused by axial traction or a sudden pull of the extended pronated arm, and it is a very common phenomenon...
June 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
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