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Child and adolescents

David R Howell, Peter Kriz, Rebekah C Mannix, Tyler Kirchberg, Christina L Master, William P Meehan
OBJECTIVES: (1) To examine how age influences initial symptom presentation following concussion; and (2) to determine whether specific symptom profiles are associated with duration of postconcussion symptoms, and whether they vary by age group. DESIGN: A total of 689 patients (20% children 7-12 years of age, 69% adolescents 13-18 years of age, and 11% young adults 19-30 years of age) were seen and diagnosed with a concussion within 21 days after injury. Patients completed the Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) and were followed until they no longer required care...
June 21, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Mary A Hershberger, Martin H Jones
Adolescents who have experienced maltreatment face many developmental and educational challenges compared with their non-maltreated peers. Research demonstrates the importance of social relationships in academic achievement among non-maltreated youth, and suggests the influence of parent and peer relationships for academic success in maltreated youth as well, including the potential benefit of school engagement. Data for the study comes from the first wave of the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW II), a nationally-representative sample of children involved in Child Protective Services in the United States...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Adolescence
Chase Samsel, Julia Kearney, Amy L Meadows, Annah Abrams, Jeremy M Hirst, Anna C Muriel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 22, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Ching-Lin Wu, Yi-Ting Huang, Pin-Yu Wang, Hsueh-Chih Chen
Fear of being laughed at and family interaction are highly related. Parental over-control and over-protection influence children's excessive anxiety over being laughed at. Conversely, parental attachment is an important index of the parent-child relationship and is closely correlated to children's gelotophobia. However, is it the style of parenting or the outcome of parenting (i.e. attachment) that influences a child's gelotophobia? To answer this question, the present study analysed the relationships between gelotophobia, perceived parenting of children and parent-child attachment, as well as the mediating role of attachment between parenting and children's gelotophobia, using a sample of 373 high-school students...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Psychology: Journal International de Psychologie
Laurel M Korotana, Kristin M von Ranson, Sylia Wilson, William G Iacono
This prospective study explored longitudinal, bidirectional associations between eating pathology and perceptions of the parent-child relationship (i.e., parent-child regard and involvement) across adolescence. Specifically, this study examined whether twin differences in mother-daughter and father-daughter relationship problems emerged as a risk factor for, or outcome of, twin differences in eating pathology. By examining twin differences, this study explored associations between variables while controlling for shared environmental and genetic effects...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Hana F Zickgraf, Anjeli Elkins
This study explores the relationships among anxiety, sensitivity to sensory stimuli, and picky eating (PE). An earlier study in 95 children ages 5-10 found that sensory sensitivity fully mediated the relationship between anxiety and picky eating. We replicated this finding in a sample of 158 children, ages 8-17, and in 813 young adult college students. As in the previous child sample, the relationship between anxiety and picky eating appears to be mediated by sensory sensitivity. This relationship extends into adolescence and young adulthood and holds even in a sample of children with obsessive-compulsive-spectrum and anxiety disorders...
June 18, 2018: Appetite
Marike H F Deutz, Qinxin Shi, Helen G M Vossen, Jorg Huijding, Peter Prinzie, Maja Deković, Anneloes L van Baar, Steven Woltering
The Dysregulation Profile (DP) has emerged as a measure of concurrent affective, behavioral and cognitive dysregulation, associated with severe psychopathology, and poor adjustment. While originally developed with the Child Behavior Checklist, more recently the DP has also been defined on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), mostly with a 5-item, but also a 15-item, SDQ-DP measure. This study evaluated the SDQ-DP by examining its factor structure, measurement invariance, and construct validity...
June 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Elisabeth M Dykens, Jennifer Miller, Moris Angulo, Elizabeth Roof, Michael Reidy, Hind T Hatoum, Richard Willey, Guy Bolton, Paul Korner
BACKGROUND: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic neurodevelopmental disorder of life-threatening hyperphagia, obesity, intellectual deficits, compulsivity, and other behavioral problems. The efficacy and safety of i.n. carbetocin, an oxytocin analog, was evaluated in a prospective, randomized, double-blinded trial in adolescents with PWS. METHODS: Eligible patients aged 10-18 years with genetically confirmed PWS were randomized (1:1) to i.n. carbetocin or placebo 3 times daily for 14 days...
June 21, 2018: JCI Insight
Ann Collins, Antonio Muñoz-Solomando
Aims and methodThis article examines mental health disorders as individuals transition from adolescence to adulthood. Data were collected from clinical records of patients who had transitioned from child and adolescent mental health services to adult mental health services in a region in South Wales. Demographics and clinical diagnoses under both services were recorded. Patterns between adolescent and adult disorders as well as comorbidities were investigated using Pearson's χ2-test and Fisher's exact test...
June 21, 2018: BJPsych Bulletin
Erica Sedlander, Jeffrey B Bingenheimer, Mark C Edberg, Rajiv N Rimal, Hina Shaikh, Wolfgang Munar
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, the proportion of Ethiopian women using contraceptive methods has increased substantially (from 14% in 2005 to 35% in 2016 among married women). Numerous factors have contributed to the increased uptake. An important one is the implementation of the Health Extension Program, a government-led health service delivery strategy that has deployed more than 38,000 health extension workers (HEWs) throughout the country. Key mechanisms underlying the success of this program are not well understood...
June 20, 2018: Reproductive Health
Laura Del Hoyo Soriano, Angela John Thurman, Danielle Jenine Harvey, W Ted Brown, Leonard Abbeduto
BACKGROUND: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is caused by a mutation in the FMR1 gene on the X chromosome, leading to decreased levels of FMR1 protein (FMRP), which causes the array of neuropsychological impairments that define FXS. Because FXS is an X-linked condition, fewer females display FXS and females with FXS are more mildly affected than males, on average. However, there is a considerable variability in terms of severity of affectedness among females with FXS. The current study was designed to investigate potential genetic (FMRP level and ratio of affected to total chromosomes) and environmental factors (maternal psychological distress and closeness in the mother-child relationship) influencing the cognitive (fluid and crystallized intelligence) and behavioral (anxiety and withdrawal) phenotype of females with FXS...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Sonya Nicholl, Holly Seale, Sue Campbell-Lloyd
BACKGROUND: In 2014, a high school-based measles supplementary immunisation activity (SIA) took place in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, in response to a large number of adolescents being identified as undervaccinated or unvaccinated against measles. The program focused on areas of NSW where previous measles outbreaks had occurred and where large numbers of undervaccinated adolescents lived. More than 11 000 students were vaccinated in 2014, and the program continued in 2015, when more than 4000 students in Years 11 and 12 were vaccinated...
June 14, 2018: Public Health Research & Practice
Sandra Gray, Susan Rarick
Child sexual abuse (CSA) has been linked to a number of adverse effects including hypersexuality (HYP), substance use (SUB), suicidality (SUI), and depression (DEP). Despite a plethora of research on CSA, little is known about how it affects adolescents and the cultural factors that influence their coping styles. This study was founded on social-cultural coping theory and the model of traumagenic dynamics of sexual abuse, suggesting that CSA consequences lead to maladaptive coping mechanisms influenced by sociocultural factors...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
Michele Poletti, Andrea Raballo
The Polygenic Risk Scores (PRS) approach is becoming increasingly prominent in psycho-behavioral research, however, its translational potential is still relatively underconceptualized. Indeed, PRS paradigm (which capitalizes on the combination of multiple genetic markers into a single proxy score to predict lifetime outcomes) has the potential to unravel some of the developmental complexities leading to severe mental disorders. With respect to schizophrenia, the application of PRS approach to child-adolescent cohorts from the general population, provides a crucial vantage point for understanding how presumed genetic predisposition is manifested during developmental years...
July 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
L A Paes, O H Della Torre, T B Henriques, M P de Mello, E H R V Celeri, P Dalgalarrondo, G Guerra Júnior, A Dos Santos Júnior
Serotonin 2C receptors (5HT2C) are involved in serotonin-driven dynamic equilibrium adjustments responsible for homeostatic stability in brain structures that modulate behavior and emotions. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the serotonin 2C receptor gene (HTR2C) have been associated with several neurological and mental disorders, including abnormalities in cognitive and emotional processes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the rs6318 SNP of the HTR2C gene and behavioral characteristics exhibited by children and adolescents based on the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL/6-18) inventory...
2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Marjan Ghofrani, Lida Nikfarid, Manijheh Nourian, Maliheh Nasiri, Mahindokhat Saiadynia
PURPOSE: In this study, we aim to assess types and levels of psychosocial needs in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) who have a parent with cancer. And define and describe the variables analyzing the demographic characteristics. METHODS: This descriptive study with cross-sectional design was conducted on 217 participants from five hospitals in Tehran. By use of the "Offspring Cancer Needs Instrument," in adolescents and young adults who had the inclusion criteria, information about the psychosocial needs were collected...
June 19, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Chishinga Callender, Deborah Thompson
Obesity prevalence is greater in African American girls than their non-Hispanic white peers. Obesity prevention programs are needed to help parents create an obesity-preventive home environment. This paper reports the feasibility and acceptability of a mHealth child obesity prevention program consisting of self-determination theory-grounded text messages promoting a healthy home food and activity environment to parents of 8⁻10-year-old African American girls. A one-group design with baseline and immediate post-intervention assessments was utilized...
June 19, 2018: Children
Tobias Banaschewski, Brendan Belsham, Michael H Bloch, Maite Ferrin, Mats Johnson, James Kustow, Sarah Robinson, Alessandro Zuddas
While pharmacotherapy and psychosocial interventions are recommended as the primary frontline treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), alternative approaches to managing ADHD are becoming increasingly popular among patients and their families. Supplementation with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is an example of this. PUFA supplementation is not recommended by guidelines for managing ADHD; however, patients may still decide to use it. To provide direction to healthcare professionals (HCPs) managing ADHD, eight international experts in the field of adult and child ADHD came together for the Continuum Education Board: Omega Supplements in ADHD meeting...
January 1, 2018: Nutrition and Health
Stefanos Mastrotheodoros, Jolien Van der Graaff, Maja Deković, Wim H J Meeus, Susan J T Branje
Parent-child relationships change during adolescence. Furthermore, parents and adolescents perceive parenting differently. We examined the changes in perceptions of parental practices in fathers, mothers, and adolescents during adolescence. Furthermore, we investigated if fathers', mothers', and adolescents' perceptions converge during adolescence. Following 497 families across six waves (ages 13-18), we investigated the development of parental support and behavioral control using mother and father self-reports, and adolescent reports for mothers and fathers...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Research on Adolescence: the Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence
Katrien Jaeken, Maria Cadenas de Llano-Pérula, Jurgen Lemiere, Anna Verdonck, Steffen Fieuws, Guy Willems
Objectives: To investigate the changes in oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) before, during, and after orthodontic treatment, determine the relationship with the original treatment need and evaluate the influence of self-esteem (SE). Materials and methods: OHRQoL questionnaires were used in an ongoing observational prospective cohort study at baseline (T0), 1 year after start (T1), and 1 month after the end of active orthodontic treatment (T2). Participants were 11-16-year-old at baseline and 215 complete cases were obtained from a total of 498...
June 18, 2018: European Journal of Orthodontics
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