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George J Crystal
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is an end product of aerobic cellular respiration. In healthy persons, PaCO2 is maintained by physiologic mechanisms within a narrow range (35-45 mm Hg). Both hypercapnia and hypocapnia are encountered in myriad clinical situations. In recent years, the number of hypercapnic patients has increased by the use of smaller tidal volumes to limit lung stretch and injury during mechanical ventilation, so-called permissive hypercapnia. A knowledge and appreciation of the effects of CO2 in the heart are necessary for optimal clinical management in the perioperative and critical care settings...
September 2015: Anesthesia and Analgesia
F Courtois, K Charvier
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. OBJECTIVES: Spinal cord injuries are usually associated with anejaculation, but few premature ejaculations (PE) are described in lumbosacral lesions. The objective of the study is to analyze the retrospective files of patients with lumbosacral lesions to explore whether PE is systematic, and which type of lesions (conus teminalis, epiconal, cauda equina) is associated with these PE. METHODS: Standard sexological consultations from 34 men with L5-S4 lesions were analyzed including questions on psychogenic and reflexogenic erection, and ejaculation...
December 2014: Spinal Cord
Anna-Mari Hekkala, Hannu Parikka
Loss of consciousness i.e. syncope is a common cause of getting to emergency call service. We describe two patients, in whom fainting was caused by reflexogenic syncope. The diagnosis is quickly solved if there is patience to review the patient history as thoroughly as possible. Registration of the conventional 12-lead electrocardiography and clinical examination usually suffice as basic investigations, without the need for expensive equipment. Careful scrutiny of the medical history will not only reveal the cause of fainting but also the predisposing factors, whereby recurrence of the event can easily be avoided by recognizing a threatening situation early enough...
2014: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
Alexandros Briasoulis, George Bakris
The contribution of sympathetic activation in the development of hypertension is supported by early experimental evidence based on surgical denervation of sino-aortic baroreceptors or lesions of the central relay station of the baroreflex, the nucleus tractus solitarii. Disruption of this area of the brain was associated with an immediate increase in blood pressure. Sympathetic overactivity can also be triggered by impairment of the inhibitory function physiologically exerted by reflexogenic areas (arterial baroreceptors, cardiopulmonary receptors, and chemoreceptors) on adrenergic drive...
May 2013: EuroIntervention
F Aura Kullmann, Grace I Wells, David G McKenna, Karl B Thor
AIMS: To determine if the muscarinic agonist, bethanechol, inhibits the non-cholinergic, atropine-resistant (i.e. putatively purinergic) component of naturally occurring (i.e. reflexogenic) bladder contractions in vivo in the rat, as previously described in vitro. Our second aim was to determine if elevation of endogenous acetylcholine (ACh) with distigmine, an acetylcholine esterase (AChE) inhibitor, could also inhibit non-cholinergic component of reflexogenic bladder contractions. MAIN METHODS: Cystometry was performed in urethane anesthetized adult female Sprague Dawley rats...
April 9, 2013: Life Sciences
Mei-Ya Shen, Ya-Ling Luo, Chung-Huan Yang, Ting Ruan, Ching Jung Lai
Obstructive sleep apnea, manifested by intermittent hypoxia and excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in airways, is associated with hyperreactive airway diseases, but the mechanism remains unclear. Sensitization of lung vagal C fibers (LVCFs) contributes to the airway hypersensitivity. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the sensitization of LVCFs with acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH), by 10 episodes of exposure to 30 s of hypoxic air (0%, 5%, or 10% O(2)) followed by 30 s of room air in anesthetized, open-chest, and artificially ventilated rats...
December 2012: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
(no author information available yet)
This review is devoted to analysis of the world experience of perioperative care in patients with high risk of development and aggravation of heart rhythm and conduction disturbances. There was given the definition of the arrhythmia, their modern classification, described the mechanisms of formation and causes of long duration. Special attention is paid to the problem of perioperative arrhythmias in oncosurgery, which is characterized by the extent and traumatic interventions in reflexogenic zones in patients with nutritive deficiency, hypovolaemia, anemia, electrolyte imbalance...
March 2012: Anesteziologiia i Reanimatologiia
K É Luzina, L L Luzina, A M Vasilenko
This study included 27 female patients who applied for medical treatment of arthralgias and myalgias. They were found to have elevated levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone in conjunction with the normal concentrations of thyroid hormones. The therapeutic procedures included corporal and auricular acupuncture, introduction of needles into the reflexogenic scalp and wrist zones (depending on clinical symptoms) and into the thyroid gland projection zones on the skin, massage of paravertebral regions of the cervical and thoracic spine using a bone scraper (the Gua Sha healing technique)...
September 2011: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
Kunio Tashiro
It is widely accepted that the Babinski reflex is the most well-known and important pathological reflex in clinical neurology. Among many other pathological reflexes that elicit an upgoing great toe, such as Chaddock, Oppenheim, Gordon, Schaefer, and Stransky, only the Chaddock reflex is said to be as sensitive as the Babinski reflex. The optimal receptive fields of the Babinski and Chaddock reflexes are the lateral plantar surface and the external inframalleolar area of the dorsum, respectively. It has been said that the Babinski reflex, obtained by stroking the sole, is by far the best and most reliable method of eliciting an upgoing great toe...
August 2011: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Jonathan P Moore, Roger Hainsworth, Mark J Drinkhill
In contrast to the reflex vasodilatation occurring in response to stimulation of baroreceptors in the aortic arch, carotid sinuses and coronary arteries, stimulation of receptors in the wall of pulmonary arteries results in reflex systemic vasoconstriction. It is rare for interventions to activate only one reflexogenic region, therefore we investigated how these two types of reflexes interact. In anaesthetized dogs connected to cardiopulmonary bypass, reflexogenic areas of the carotid sinuses, aortic arch and coronary arteries and the pulmonary artery were subjected to independently controlled pressures...
August 15, 2011: Journal of Physiology
Eduardo Durán-Ferreras, Fernando Díaz-Narváez, Miguel Raffo-Márquez
Chronic or persistent hepatic encephalopathy is a complication that develops in 1% of patients with chronic liver disease. We report a new case of this complication in a patient with primary biliary cirrhosis. A 69-year-old woman with stage IV primary biliary cirrhosis presented with a 6-month history of progressive memory deficits, tremors and somewhat clumsy gait. Examination revealed sub-jaundiced skin tone, short-term memory deficits, fine distal bilateral tremor in the upper extremities and generalized hyperreflexia with spread of the reflexogenic zone...
June 2011: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
Bai-Yan Li, Patricia Glazebrook, Diana L Kunze, John H Schild
High conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels can modulate cell excitability and neurotransmitter release at synaptic and afferent terminals. BK(Ca) channels are present in primary afferents of most, if not, all internal organs and are an intriguing target for pharmacological manipulation of visceral sensation. Our laboratory has a long-standing interest in the neurophysiological differences between myelinated and unmyelinated visceral afferent function. Here, we seek to determine whether there is a differential distribution of BK(Ca) channels in myelinated and unmyelinated vagal afferents...
June 2011: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Kambiz Tajkarimi, Arthur L Burnett
INTRODUCTION: Our understanding of genital and pelvic floor physiology is rapidly expanding. Penile erection is a neurovascular event controlled by spinal autonomic centers, the activity of which is dependent on input from supraspinal centers and the genitalia. Genital afferent stimulation excites spinal autonomic nuclei and supraspinal sexual centers of both genders. AIM: To present a detailed understanding of the functional importance of genital afferent neuroanatomy and neurophysiology...
May 2011: Journal of Sexual Medicine
F Dimitriadis, K Karakitsios, P Tsounapi, S Tsambalas, D Loutradis, N Kanakas, N T Watanabe, M Saito, I Miyagawa, N Sofikitis
Spinal cord injury (SCI) in men results in defects in erectile function, ejaculatory process and male reproductive potential. There are alterations in the capacity of men with SCI to achieve reflexogenic, psychogenic and nocturnal erections. The sexual function in different stages after SCI and the types of erections depend mainly on the completeness of the injury and the level of neurological damage. Furthermore, most of the SCI men demonstrate defects concerning the entrance of semen into the posterior urethra and the expulsion of the semen through the penile urethra and the urethral orifice...
June 2010: Andrologia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1945: Fiziologicheskiĭ Zhurnal SSSR Imeni I. M. Sechenova
Fernando de Castro
The carotid body or glomus caroticum is a chemosensory organ bilaterally located between the external and internal carotid arteries. Although known by anatomists since the report included by Von Haller and Taube in the mid XVIII century, its detailed study started the first quarter of the XX. The Austro-German physiologist Heinrich E. Hering studied the cardio-respiratory reflexes searched for the anatomical basis of this reflex in the carotid sinus, while the Ghent School leaded by the physio-pharmacologists Jean-François Heymans and his son Corneille focussed in the cardio-aortic reflexogenic region...
2009: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
S V Kupriyanov
Pressure elevation in the reflexogenic zone of vertebral arteries was accompanied by a decrease in the tone of splanchnic veins, reduction of blood pressure, and suppression of external respiration. An opposite response of the cardiorespiratory functional system was observed under conditions of low baseline pressure in the vascular zone. Our findings and results of previous physiological and morphological studies indicate that the capacitance vessels play an important role in cardiorespiratory reactions.
July 2009: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
N A Agadjanyin, S V Kupriyanov
Chemoreceptors in reflexogenic zones of the vertebral and carotid arteries play a regulatory role in the cardiorespiratory interaction. Perfusion of these zones with lactic acid solution (0.5-3.0 mmol/liter) produced a reflex response, which was manifested in stimulation of external respiration and increase in systemic blood pressure. The reflex response of these systems was opposite after local administration of 0.3 M Tris-buffer. Correlation analysis revealed the role of afferentation from reflexogenic zones in the formation of a regulatory functional system for tissue gas exchange and acid-base balance...
July 2009: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Ali Muftah Shaladi, Francesco Crestani, Anna Bocchi, Maria Rita Saltari, Bruno Piva, Stefano Tartari
Mesotherapy is a treatment method devised for controlling several diseases by means of subcutaneous microinjections given at or around the affected areas at short time intervals. It is used to treat a variety of medical conditions, amongst which all orthopaedic diseases and rheumatic pain. Mesotherapy is especially indicated for neck pain. The mechanism of action is twofold: a pharmacological effect due to the drug administered, and a reflexogenic effect, the skin containing many nerve endings that are sensitive to the mechanical action of the needle...
September 2009: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Steven A Hackley, Miguel Angel Muñoz, Karen Hebert, Fernando Valle-Inclán, Jaime Vila
Because expectancies play a central role in current theories of dopaminergic neuron function, it is important to develop measures of reward anticipation processes. In the present study, reflexogenic bursts of white noise were presented to 39 healthy young adults as they awaited rewards and punishments in a gambling-like task. The rewards were small pieces of chocolate; the punishments, segments of bitter-tasting banana peel. Consistent with prior research on affective valence, postauricular reflexes were larger prior to rewards than punishments, whereas the reverse was true for acoustic blink reflexes...
November 2009: Psychophysiology
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