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Thymus and ultrasound

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569558/persistent-left-superior-vena-cava-in-fetuses-an-autopsy-series
#1
Deepa Ramakrishnan, Shanthi Chidambarathanu, Lata Murli, John Micheal, Sujatha Jagadeesh, Indrani Suresh, Suresh Seshadri
OBJECTIVE: To review fetal autopsy reports with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) and identify its associations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Autopsy reports of all fetuses diagnosed with PLSVC in our center from January 2011 to December 2015 were reviewed. Fetuses less than 15 weeks gestational age along with autolyzed and damaged hearts were excluded from the study. The study group was compared with controls during this period. RESULTS: Prenatal ultrasound detection rate of PLSVC was 13...
June 1, 2017: Fetal and Pediatric Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511686/intrathymic-injection-of-hematopoietic-progenitor-cells-establishes-functional-t-cell-development-in-a-mouse-model-of-severe-combined-immunodeficiency
#2
Andrea Z Tuckett, Raymond H Thornton, Richard J O'Reilly, Marcel R M van den Brink, Johannes L Zakrzewski
BACKGROUND: Even though hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can be curative in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency, there is a need for additional strategies boosting T cell immunity in individuals suffering from genetic disorders of lymphoid development. Here we show that image-guided intrathymic injection of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in NOD-scid IL2rγ(null) mice is feasible and facilitates the generation of functional T cells conferring protective immunity...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440352/intrathyroidal-ectopic-thymus-in-children-a-sonographic-survey
#3
Adnan Kabaalioğlu, Murat Alp Öztek, Uğur Kesimal, Kağan Çeken, Emel Durmaz, Ali Apaydın
AIMS: Intrathyroidal ectopic thymus (IET) is being increasingly reported in the radiology literature. Most of the reports are of individual cases or small series and prevalence and natural course of the pathology is not well known. The purpose of this study is to establish the prevalence of IET in children and report long term follow-up results. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In 180 children who were examined by ultrasound (US) for other reasons, 7 patients were indentified with IET...
April 22, 2017: Medical Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393508/-cervical-thymic-cyst-in-childhood
#4
M Haro-García, J Crespo Del Hierro, R de la Fuente-Cañibano, M A Alañón-Fernández
Cervical thymus cyst is a rare cause of neck mass in children. . Approximately 90 cases have been described, and just a few have been published in Spanish literature. They usually appear in early children and are diagnosed as brachial cyst. We report the case of a 6 year old boy with a swelling on the right side of the neck. The swelling had appeared a few months before. Ultrasound examination of a neck mass and MRI showed a cystic mass compatible with possible branchial cyst. Excision of the tumor was performed...
July 10, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288591/correlates-of-thymus-size-and-changes-during-treatment-of-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-a-cohort-study
#5
Maren Johanne Heilskov Rytter, Hanifa Namusoke, Christian Ritz, Kim F Michaelsen, André Briend, Henrik Friis, Dorthe Jeppesen
BACKGROUND: The impairment of immune functions associated with malnutrition may be one reason for the high mortality in children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM), and thymus atrophy has been proposed as a marker of this immunodeficiency. The aim of this study was to identify nutritional and clinical correlates of thymus size in children with SAM, and predictors of change in thymus size with nutritional rehabilitation. METHODS: In an observational study among children aged 6-59 months admitted with SAM in Uganda, we measured thymus area by ultrasound on hospital admission to treatment with F75 and F100, on hospital discharge and after 8 weeks of nutritional rehabilitation with ready-to-use therapeutic food, as well as in well-nourished healthy children...
March 14, 2017: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271526/sonographic-measurement-of-the-fetal-thymus-relationship-with-maternal-obesity
#6
Melahat Yildirim, Ali Ipek, Gulcan Dauletkazin, Busra Demir Cendek, Saniye Gezegen, Raziye Desdicioglu, Ayse Filiz Avsar Yavuz
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of maternal obesity on the size of the fetal thymus. METHODS: The study population consisted of 138 pregnant women who were divided into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): Normal-weight group (n = 97; BMI: 18-25 kg/m(2) ) and obese group (n = 41; BMI: ≥ 30 kg/m(2) ). All participants underwent routine second-trimester prenatal ultrasound (US) screening at 20-25 weeks of gestation...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976570/aberrant-cervical-thymus-and-the-role-of-ultrasonography-a-case-report
#7
Emre Ünal, Hanife Gülden Düzkalır, Seray Kurt-Güney, Emek Tolga Işıldak
Ectopic/aberrant cervical thymic tissue is a rare cause of neck mass and usually detected incidentally. Aberrant thymic tissue can occur anywhere in the course of thymic descent from the angle of the mandible to the superior mediastinum. We report a case of aberrant cervical thymus demonstrated by ultrasound.
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942480/diagnostic-imaging-of-benign-and-malignant-neck-masses-in-children-a-pictorial-review
#8
REVIEW
Ruth Elizabeth Brown, Srikrishna Harave
Neck masses are frequently encountered in pediatric medicine, and can present a diagnostic dilemma for the clinicians involved. There are several means by which neck masses in children can be subdivided, for example by age at presentation, anatomical location including compartments and fascia of the neck, their classical appearance when imaged, or by etiology. When imaging children the clinicians must be mindful of radiation exposure and as such ultrasound (US) is often attempted first. Cross sectional imaging can be helpful for problem solving with CT being particularly useful for assessing the patient in more acute scenarios, for example when there is airway compromise...
October 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862004/sonographic-measurement-of-fetal-thymus-size-in-uncomplicated-singleton-pregnancies
#9
Chayada Tangshewinsirikul, Panyu Panburana
PURPOSE: To establish sonographic reference ranges of the normal fetal thymus size between 17 and 38 weeks of gestational age (GA). METHODS: The study was conducted between April 1 and December 31, 2013. Low-risk singleton pregnancies without obstetrical and medical complications at the GAs between 17 and 38 weeks were recruited for thymus measurement. The fetal thymus was identified on transabdominal sonography at the three-vessel view. Maximal transverse diameter, perimeter, and thymus/thoracic ratio were measured...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463062/bilateral-ectopic-cervical-thymus-presenting-as-a-neck-mass-ultrasound-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#10
Asli Tanrivermis Sayit, Muzaffer Elmali, Jalal Hashimov, Meltem Ceyhan Bilgici, Ayhan Dağdemir
Ectopic cervical thymus (ECT) is a rare cause of neck mass in the pediatric age group. It is extremely uncommon in infants. Overall more than 100 cases have been reported in the literature, though fewer than 10% involved infants. Furthermore, ECT is usually unilateral and more frequently seen in men than in women. Ultrasound (US) is the preferred initial imaging modality, especially in pediatric neck masses given its wide availability, low cost and lack of radiation exposure. US can show the location, extension, and echotexture of the ECT...
September 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27386480/thymic-carcinoma-diagnosed-by-using-endoscopic-ultrasound-with-fine-needle-aspiration
#11
Pragnesh Patel, Julie Guider, Erik Rahimi, Sushovan Guha, Songlin Zhang, Nirav Thosani
There is a paucity of literature on the use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for evaluating superior mediastinal structures, especially the thymus gland. We report a case of thymic carcinoma diagnosed by using EUS elastography with strain ratio and fine-needle aspiration (FNA). A 64-year-old woman presented with altered mental status and was diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis. Further work-up suggested a superior mediastinal mass, for which she underwent EUS. A hypoechoic mass was found in the superior mediastinum at the level of the aortic arch...
May 2016: Endoscopic Ultrasound
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27304655/vitamin-d-deficiency-in-pregnancy-may-affect-fetal-thymus-development
#12
Esra Bahar Gur, Mehmet Serkan Gur, Ozlem Ince, Esin Kasap, Mine Genc, Sumeyra Tatar, Sultan Bugday, Guluzar Arzu Turan, Serkan Guclu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) during pregnancy with thymus size in full-term fetuses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective study, we evaluated mid-pregnancy serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentrations. The fetal thymus size was measured by ultrasound in the third trimester. Neonatal 25(OH)D3 levels were evaluated by umbilical cord blood sampling. Correlation of maternal and neonatal vitamin D levels and association between thymus size and both, maternal and neonatal vitamin D concentrations were investigated...
2016: Ginekologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26893738/clinical-analysis-of-82-cases-of-carcinoma-showing-thymus-like-differentiation-of-the-thyroid
#13
Wei Ge, Yong-Zhong Yao, Gang Chen, Yi-Tao Ding
The aim of the present study was to summarize the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid (CASTLE). A search of the relevant literature was conducted, which identified 82 cases of CASTLE reported to date. A review of the clinical and auxiliary examination data, treatment, pathological findings and follow-up of these cases was performed. The clinical manifestations of CASTLE varied and did not demonstrate specificity. During ultrasound examination, CASTLE was described as a solid and hypoechoic mass, and the echo was typically observed to be heterogeneous...
February 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26851722/fetal-thymus-size-in-human-pregnancies-reveals-inverse-association-with-regulatory-t-cell-frequencies-in-cord-blood
#14
Anke Diemert, Isabel Hartwig, Mirja Pagenkemper, Ryoko Mehnert, Gudula Hansen, Eva Tolosa, Kurt Hecher, Petra Arck
OBJECTIVE: To determine fetal thymus growth and its relationship with fetal weight and cord blood T-regulatory cells in a prospective study. Assessment of fetal immune organs by ultrasound could provide a screening approach to identify fetuses at risk of impaired postnatal immunity. STUDY DESIGN AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Thymus size was measured with four ultrasound techniques. The approaches with lowest coefficient of variation (thymus transverse diameter, 3 vessel edge) were used to longitudinally assess fetal and thymus growth in 137 cases at four time points between a gestational age (GA) of 13 and 37 weeks...
February 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26821337/ultrasonographic-approach-to-diagnosis-of-fetal-inflammatory-response-syndrome-a-tool-for-at-risk-fetuses
#15
REVIEW
Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia, Offer Erez, Giuseppe Loverro, Edoardo Di Naro, Adi Yehuda Weintraub, Dan Tirosh, Joel Baron, Reli Hershkovitz
Preterm parturition is a syndrome that may result from many underlying mechanisms. Infection and inflammation are the prominent ones. Intrauterine infection and inflammation have an effect akin to sepsis, and that is similar to systemic inflammatory response in adults. Indeed, there is evidence to support the association of a fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) to systemic infection and inflammation. The utilization of invasive procedures for the prenatal diagnosis of FIRS is associated with a risk for complications resulting from the invasive method...
July 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26499470/intrathymic-and-other-anomalous-courses-of-the-left-brachiocephalic-vein-in-the-fetus
#16
K Karl, E Sinkovskaya, A Abuhamad, R Chaoui
OBJECTIVE: The left brachiocephalic vein (LBCV), or innominate vein, connects the left jugular vein to the right superior vena cava. Its course is posterior to the thymus and directly anterior and superior to the aortic arch. Pediatric and adult cardiology studies have reported on the subaortic or retrotracheal courses of the LBCV and the presence of double LBCV. We observed recently in the fetus that the LBCV may have a course through the thymus (intrathymic) or be absent in the presence of a left superior vena cava...
October 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26471573/superior-antibacterial-activity-of-nanoemulsion-of-thymus-daenensis-essential-oil-against-e-coli
#17
Roya Moghimi, Lida Ghaderi, Hasan Rafati, Atousa Aliahmadi, David Julian McClements
Natural preservatives are being extensively investigated for their potential industrial applications in foods and other products. In this work, an essential oil (Thymus daenensis) was formulated as a water-dispersible nanoemulsion (diameter=143nm) using high-intensity ultrasound. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil in both pure and nanoemulsion forms was measured against an important food-borne pathogen bacterium, Escherichia coli. Antibacterial activity was determined by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)...
March 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26365654/fetal-thymus-visualization-rate-and-volume-by-integrating-2d-and-3d-ultrasound-during-2nd-trimester-echocardiography
#18
Gabriele Tonni, Lucia Rosignoli, Ettore Cariati, Wellington P Martins, André H Miyague, Rafael F Bruns, Edward Araujo Júnior
OBJECTIVE: To assess the visualization rate and transverse diameter of fetal thymus by two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) as well as the fetal thymus volume by three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) during the 2nd trimester echocardiography. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study involving 100 normal fetuses between 18w0d and 23w6d was performed. The identification of fetal thymus and peri-thymic vessels was realized at level of three vessels and trachea (3VT)...
2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26346617/the-first-case-report-in-italy-of-di-george-syndrome-detected-by-noninvasive-prenatal-testing
#19
Giuseppina Rapacchia, Cristina Lapucci, Maria Carla Pittalis, Aly Youssef, Antonio Farina
Panorama Plus (Natera), a single-nucleotide polymorphism- (SNP-) based approach that relies on the identification of maternal and fetal allele distributions, allows the detection of common aneuploidies and also incorporates a panel of 5 microdeletions including Di George syndrome. We report here the first case of Di George syndrome detected by NIPT in Italy; blood was drawn at 12 weeks' gestation. The patient had an amniocentesis to confirm the diagnosis by MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) and an ultrasound aimed to detect the features associated with the syndrome...
2015: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26152499/-radiological-diagnostics-of-pediatric-lungs
#20
M Beer, B Ammann
Pediatric lung diseases are a common clinical problem. Besides the clinical examination and laboratory tests, imaging studies are the mainstay in the diagnostics of pediatric lung diseases. Thorough consideration of radiation protection based on optimized equipment also includes the protection of relatives and medical staff. The high impact of radiation protection in children necessitates a different choice of imaging modalities compared to adults. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as adjunct or complementary imaging methods are of greater value than computed tomography (CT)...
July 2015: Der Radiologe
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