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Thymus and ultrasound

Emre Ünal, Hanife Gülden Düzkalır, Seray Kurt-Güney, Emek Tolga Işıldak
Ectopic/aberrant cervical thymic tissue is a rare cause of neck mass and usually detected incidentally. Aberrant thymic tissue can occur anywhere in the course of thymic descent from the angle of the mandible to the superior mediastinum. We report a case of aberrant cervical thymus demonstrated by ultrasound.
2016: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Ruth Elizabeth Brown, Srikrishna Harave
Neck masses are frequently encountered in pediatric medicine, and can present a diagnostic dilemma for the clinicians involved. There are several means by which neck masses in children can be subdivided, for example by age at presentation, anatomical location including compartments and fascia of the neck, their classical appearance when imaged, or by etiology. When imaging children the clinicians must be mindful of radiation exposure and as such ultrasound (US) is often attempted first. Cross sectional imaging can be helpful for problem solving with CT being particularly useful for assessing the patient in more acute scenarios, for example when there is airway compromise...
October 2016: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Chayada Tangshewinsirikul, Panyu Panburana
PURPOSE: To establish sonographic reference ranges of the normal fetal thymus size between 17 and 38 weeks of gestational age (GA). METHODS: The study was conducted between April 1 and December 31, 2013. Low-risk singleton pregnancies without obstetrical and medical complications at the GAs between 17 and 38 weeks were recruited for thymus measurement. The fetal thymus was identified on transabdominal sonography at the three-vessel view. Maximal transverse diameter, perimeter, and thymus/thoracic ratio were measured...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Clinical Ultrasound: JCU
Asli Tanrivermis Sayit, Muzaffer Elmali, Jalal Hashimov, Meltem Ceyhan Bilgici, Ayhan Dağdemir
Ectopic cervical thymus (ECT) is a rare cause of neck mass in the pediatric age group. It is extremely uncommon in infants. Overall more than 100 cases have been reported in the literature, though fewer than 10% involved infants. Furthermore, ECT is usually unilateral and more frequently seen in men than in women. Ultrasound (US) is the preferred initial imaging modality, especially in pediatric neck masses given its wide availability, low cost and lack of radiation exposure. US can show the location, extension, and echotexture of the ECT...
September 2016: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Pragnesh Patel, Julie Guider, Erik Rahimi, Sushovan Guha, Songlin Zhang, Nirav Thosani
There is a paucity of literature on the use of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for evaluating superior mediastinal structures, especially the thymus gland. We report a case of thymic carcinoma diagnosed by using EUS elastography with strain ratio and fine-needle aspiration (FNA). A 64-year-old woman presented with altered mental status and was diagnosed with autoimmune encephalitis. Further work-up suggested a superior mediastinal mass, for which she underwent EUS. A hypoechoic mass was found in the superior mediastinum at the level of the aortic arch...
May 2016: Endoscopic Ultrasound
Esra Bahar Gur, Mehmet Serkan Gur, Ozlem Ince, Esin Kasap, Mine Genc, Sumeyra Tatar, Sultan Bugday, Guluzar Arzu Turan, Serkan Guclu
OBJECTIVES: The aim of our study was to evaluate the association of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) during pregnancy with thymus size in full-term fetuses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this prospective study, we evaluated mid-pregnancy serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) concentrations. The fetal thymus size was measured by ultrasound in the third trimester. Neonatal 25(OH)D3 levels were evaluated by umbilical cord blood sampling. Correlation of maternal and neonatal vitamin D levels and association between thymus size and both, maternal and neonatal vitamin D concentrations were investigated...
2016: Ginekologia Polska
Wei Ge, Yong-Zhong Yao, Gang Chen, Yi-Tao Ding
The aim of the present study was to summarize the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation of the thyroid (CASTLE). A search of the relevant literature was conducted, which identified 82 cases of CASTLE reported to date. A review of the clinical and auxiliary examination data, treatment, pathological findings and follow-up of these cases was performed. The clinical manifestations of CASTLE varied and did not demonstrate specificity. During ultrasound examination, CASTLE was described as a solid and hypoechoic mass, and the echo was typically observed to be heterogeneous...
February 2016: Oncology Letters
Anke Diemert, Isabel Hartwig, Mirja Pagenkemper, Ryoko Mehnert, Gudula Hansen, Eva Tolosa, Kurt Hecher, Petra Arck
OBJECTIVE: To determine fetal thymus growth and its relationship with fetal weight and cord blood T-regulatory cells in a prospective study. Assessment of fetal immune organs by ultrasound could provide a screening approach to identify fetuses at risk of impaired postnatal immunity. STUDY DESIGN AND OUTCOME MEASURES: Thymus size was measured with four ultrasound techniques. The approaches with lowest coefficient of variation (thymus transverse diameter, 3 vessel edge) were used to longitudinally assess fetal and thymus growth in 137 cases at four time points between a gestational age (GA) of 13 and 37 weeks...
February 2016: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Salvatore Andrea Mastrolia, Offer Erez, Giuseppe Loverro, Edoardo Di Naro, Adi Yehuda Weintraub, Dan Tirosh, Joel Baron, Reli Hershkovitz
Preterm parturition is a syndrome that may result from many underlying mechanisms. Infection and inflammation are the prominent ones. Intrauterine infection and inflammation have an effect akin to sepsis, and that is similar to systemic inflammatory response in adults. Indeed, there is evidence to support the association of a fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS) to systemic infection and inflammation. The utilization of invasive procedures for the prenatal diagnosis of FIRS is associated with a risk for complications resulting from the invasive method...
July 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
K Karl, E Sinkovskaya, A Abuhamad, R Chaoui
OBJECTIVE: The left brachiocephalic vein (LBCV), or innominate vein, connects the left jugular vein to the right superior vena cava. Its course is posterior to the thymus and directly anterior and superior to the aortic arch. Pediatric and adult cardiology studies have reported on the subaortic or retrotracheal courses of the LBCV and the presence of double LBCV. We observed recently in the fetus that the LBCV may have a course through the thymus (intrathymic) or be absent in the presence of a left superior vena cava...
October 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Roya Moghimi, Lida Ghaderi, Hasan Rafati, Atousa Aliahmadi, David Julian McClements
Natural preservatives are being extensively investigated for their potential industrial applications in foods and other products. In this work, an essential oil (Thymus daenensis) was formulated as a water-dispersible nanoemulsion (diameter=143nm) using high-intensity ultrasound. The antibacterial activity of the essential oil in both pure and nanoemulsion forms was measured against an important food-borne pathogen bacterium, Escherichia coli. Antibacterial activity was determined by measuring the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)...
March 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Gabriele Tonni, Lucia Rosignoli, Ettore Cariati, Wellington P Martins, André H Miyague, Rafael F Bruns, Edward Araujo Júnior
OBJECTIVE: To assess the visualization rate and transverse diameter of fetal thymus by two-dimensional ultrasound (2DUS) as well as the fetal thymus volume by three-dimensional ultrasound (3DUS) during the 2nd trimester echocardiography. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study involving 100 normal fetuses between 18w0d and 23w6d was performed. The identification of fetal thymus and peri-thymic vessels was realized at level of three vessels and trachea (3VT)...
2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Giuseppina Rapacchia, Cristina Lapucci, Maria Carla Pittalis, Aly Youssef, Antonio Farina
Panorama Plus (Natera), a single-nucleotide polymorphism- (SNP-) based approach that relies on the identification of maternal and fetal allele distributions, allows the detection of common aneuploidies and also incorporates a panel of 5 microdeletions including Di George syndrome. We report here the first case of Di George syndrome detected by NIPT in Italy; blood was drawn at 12 weeks' gestation. The patient had an amniocentesis to confirm the diagnosis by MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) and an ultrasound aimed to detect the features associated with the syndrome...
2015: Case Reports in Obstetrics and Gynecology
M Beer, B Ammann
Pediatric lung diseases are a common clinical problem. Besides the clinical examination and laboratory tests, imaging studies are the mainstay in the diagnostics of pediatric lung diseases. Thorough consideration of radiation protection based on optimized equipment also includes the protection of relatives and medical staff. The high impact of radiation protection in children necessitates a different choice of imaging modalities compared to adults. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as adjunct or complementary imaging methods are of greater value than computed tomography (CT)...
July 2015: Der Radiologe
A Lamouroux, E Mousty, O Prodhomme, N Bigi, M-P Le Gac, V Letouzey, R De Tayrac, P Mares
OBJECTIVES: In prenatal diagnosis of 22q11.2 microdeletion syndrome, without cardiac malformation or multiple associated congenital anomalies, we study the presence of polyhydramnios and its association with thymic dysgenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a multicenter retrospective observational study. It was performed in two multidisciplinary centers for prenatal diagnosis in the south of France between January 1, 2010 and June 30, 2013. Inclusion criteria were prenatal diagnosis of 22q11...
April 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
Tao Gong, Chun-Fei Wang, Jia-Rui Yuan, Yu Li, Jun-Fei Gu, Bing-Jie Zhao, Li Zhang, Xiao-Bin Jia, Liang Feng, Shen-Lin Liu
Immunomodulatory effect has been found to be an important therapeutic measure for immune responses against cancer. In this study, we evaluated the inhibition of Scutellaria barbata D. Don (SB), an anti-inflammatory and an antitumor Chinese herb, including flavonoids and scutebarbatines on tumor growth and its immunomodulatory effects in vivo. HPLC and LC/MS/MS methods were conducted for the analysis of flavonoids and scutebarbatines in SB. Lewis-bearing C57BL/6 mice model was established and tumor volume was evaluated by high frequency color ultrasound experiment...
2015: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Alper Ozel, Pinar Ozdemır Akdur, Irfan Celebi, Rabia Karasu, Banu Yilmaz, Muzaffer Basak
Ectopic cervical thymus (ECT) is an uncommon cause for cervical mass in the pediatric age group. Ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings of the mass (located along the thymic descent pathway along the thymopharyngeal tract and has identical echostructure and signal intensities to the native thymus in the superior mediastinum) would lead to the diagnosis. The diagnosis is confirmed by fine needle aspiration biopsy or histopathology after resection. The management of ECT is a conservative follow up, except in symptomatic cases with tracheal compression and histologically confirmed neoplasia where surgery is indicated...
June 2015: Medical Ultrasonography
Lisbeth Marianne Thøstesen, Thomas Nørrelykke Nissen, Jesper Kjærgaard, Gitte Thybo Pihl, Nina Marie Birk, Christine Stabell Benn, Gorm Greisen, Poul-Erik Kofoed, Ole Pryds, Henrik Ravn, Dorthe Lisbeth Jeppesen, Peter Aaby, Lone Graff Stensballe
BACKGROUND: Studies from low-income countries report positive non-specific effects of early Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) immunisation on childhood health and survival. Neonatal immunisation with BCG may prime the immune system and offer partial protection against other infectious and possibly allergic diseases. The potential clinical value of these non-specific effects has not yet been examined in a large randomised trial in high-income countries. METHODS: The Danish Calmette Study is a multicentre randomised clinical trial conducted between October 2012 and November 2015...
May 2015: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Toshihiko Fukushima, Satoru Suzuki, Tetsuya Ohira, Hiroki Shimura, Sanae Midorikawa, Akira Ohtsuru, Akira Sakai, Masafumi Abe, Shunichi Yamashita, Shinichi Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Ectopic intrathyroidal thymus is thought to be a rare entity, often discovered incidentally, and is due to aberrant thymic migration during embryogenesis. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of ectopic intrathyroidal thymus in children using ultrasound screening. METHODS: This study was cross-sectional and was conducted with the initial preliminary survey of the Fukushima Health Management Survey between October 9, 2011, and March 31, 2012, after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident...
May 2015: Thyroid: Official Journal of the American Thyroid Association
Michael J Hall, Julie Innocent, Christina Rybak, Colleen Veloski, Walter J Scott, Hong Wu, John A Ridge, John P Hoffman, Hossein Borghaei, Aruna Turaka, Mary B Daly
INTRODUCTION: Multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN1) is a cancer syndrome resulting from mutations of the MEN1 gene. The syndrome is characterized by neoplasia of the parathyroid and pituitary glands, and malignant tumors of the endocrine pancreas. Other manifestations include benign lipomas, angiofibromas, and carcinoid tumors commonly originating in the colon, thymus, and lung. This is the first report of MEN1 syndrome manifesting as bilateral granulosa cell ovarian tumors, and which is associated with a rare intronic mutation of the MEN1 gene...
2015: Application of Clinical Genetics
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