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ventilator-associated pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329916/impact-of-the-international-nosocomial-infection-control-consortium-s-multidimensional-approach-on-rates-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-14-intensive-care-units-in-11-hospitals-of-5-cities-within-argentina
#1
Victor Daniel Rosenthal, Javier Desse, Diego Marcelo Maurizi, Gustavo Jorge Chaparro, Pablo Wenceslao Orellano, Viviana Chediack, Rafael Cabrera, Daniel Golschmid, Cristina Graciela Silva, Julio Cesar Vimercati, Juan Pablo Stagnaro, Ivanna Perez, María Laura Spadaro, Adriana Miriam Montanini, Dina Pedersen, Teresa Laura Paniccia, Ana María Ríos Aguilera, Raul Cermesoni, Juan Ignacio Mele, Ernesto Alda, Analía Edith Paldoro, Agustín Román Ortta, Bettina Cooke, María Cecilia García, Mora Nair Obed, Cecilia Verónica Domínguez, Pablo Alejandro Saúl, María Cecilia Rodríguez Del Valle, Alberto Claudio Bianchi, Gustavo Alvarez, Ricardo Pérez, Carolina Oyola
BACKGROUND: To analyze the impact of the International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium (INICC) multidimensional approach (IMA) on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) rates in 11 hospitals within 5 cities of Argentina from January 2014-April 2017. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective, before-after surveillance study was conducted through the use of International Nosocomial Infection Control Consortium Surveillance Online System. During baseline, we performed outcome surveillance of VAP applying the definitions of the Centers for Disease Control andPrevention's National Healthcare Safety Network...
January 9, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325882/pathophysiology-of-escherichia-coli-pneumonia-respective-contribution-of-pathogenicity-islands-to-virulence
#2
Mathilde Phillips-Houlbracq, Jean-Damien Ricard, Arnaud Foucrier, Deborah Yoder-Himes, Stéphane Gaudry, Julie Bex, Jonathan Messika, Dimitri Margetis, Jérémie Chatel, Ulrich Dobrindt, Erick Denamur, Damien Roux
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) remains the most frequent life-threatening nosocomial infection. Enterobacteriaceae including Escherichia coli are increasingly involved. If a cumulative effect of pathogenicity islands (PAIs) has been shown for E. coli virulence in urinary tract or systemic infections, very little is known regarding pathophysiology of E. coli pneumonia. This study aimed to determine the role of each of the 7 PAIs present in pathogenic E. coli strain 536 in pneumonia pathophysiology. We used mutant strains to screen pathophysiological role of PAI in a rat pneumonia model...
January 5, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324651/incidence-microbiological-profile-and-risk-factors-of-healthcare-associated-infections-in-intensive-care-units-a-10-year-observation-in-a-provincial-hospital-in-southern-poland
#3
Małgorzata Kołpa, Marta Wałaszek, Agnieszka Gniadek, Zdzisław Wolak, Wiesław Dobroś
Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) occurring in patients treated in an intensive care unit (ICU) are serious complications in the treatment process. Aetiological factors of these infections can have an impact on treatment effects, treatment duration and mortality. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and microbiological profile of HAIs in patients hospitalized in an ICU over a span of 10 years. The active surveillance method was used to detect HAIs in adult patients who spent over 48 h in a general ICU ward located in southern Poland between 2007 and 2016...
January 11, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323990/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-and-suction-a-review-of-the-literature
#4
Emma Letchford, Suzanne Bench
AIM: to identify the most effective suctioning technique for the prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia. BACKGROUND: ventilator-associated pneumonia is an important hospital-acquired infection associated with increased mortality and morbidity. METHOD: a rapid review included an electronic database search of articles published between January 2009 and March 2016. The quality of the seven included studies was appraised and data were subjected to tabular and narrative syntheses...
January 11, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319770/factors-associated-with-hospital-mortality-in-renal-transplant-patients-admitted-to-the-intensive-care-unit-with-acute-respiratory-failure
#5
Rafael Mendes da Silva, Flavio Geraldo Rezende de Freitas, Antonio Tonete Bafi, Hélio Tedesco Silva Junior, Bartira de Aguiar Roza
INTRODUCTION: The lungs are often involved in a variety of complications after kidney transplantation. Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is one of the most serious manifestations of pulmonary involvement. OBJECTIVE: To describe the main causes of ARF in kidney transplant patients who require intensive care and identify the factors associated with mortality. METHODS: This retrospective study evaluated adult patients with ARF admitted to the intensive care unit of a center with high volume of transplants from August 2013 to August 2015...
October 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319633/risk-factors-for-healthcare-associated-infections-after-pediatric-cardiac-surgery
#6
Takeshi Hatachi, Kazuya Tachibana, Yu Inata, Yuji Tominaga, Aiko Hirano, Miyako Kyogoku, Kazue Moon, Yoshiyuki Shimizu, Kanako Isaka, Muneyuki Takeuchi
OBJECTIVES: Healthcare-associated infections after pediatric cardiac surgery are significant causes of morbidity and mortality. We aimed to identify the risk factors for the occurrence of healthcare-associated infections after pediatric cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective, single-center observational study. SETTING: PICU at a tertiary children's hospital. PATIENTS: Consecutive pediatric patients less than or equal to 18 years old admitted to the PICU after cardiac surgery, between January 2013 and December 2015...
January 9, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319497/comparison-of-the-treatment-efficacy-between-tigecycline-plus-high-dose-cefoperazone-sulbactam-and-tigecycline-monotherapy-against-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-caused-by-extensively-drug-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii
#7
Youfa Qin, Jie Zhang, Lei Wu, Dailong Zhang, Lunjiao Fu, Xiaoyan Xue
OBJECTIVE: The present study examined the effect of high-dose cefoperazone-sulbactam combined with tigecycline against ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by extensively drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (XDR-AB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: 42 patients with VAP due to XDR-AB infection were randomized into two groups: the TIG group (received tigecycline injection) and the TIG+CFS group (received tigecycline and cefoperazone-sulbactam (1 : 1) injection)...
January 10, 2018: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319037/ventilator-dependent-pulmonary-nocardiosis-in-a-patient-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#8
Stella Pak, Tarek Mansour, Yan Yatsynovich, Andrew Kobalka
Nocardiosis is a rare infectious disease entity that mostly affects the lungs, brain, or skin of immunocompromised individuals. Recent reports of pulmonary nocardiosis (PN) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as the only risk factor suggest a possible association between nocardiosis and COPD. Herein, we present a case of ventilator-dependent PN in a patient with a moderate degree of COPD. A high level of suspicion for PN should be maintained when encountered with COPD patients complaining of symptoms of pneumonia and excessive thirst...
January 2018: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318460/nebulization-of-antimicrobial-agents-in-mechanically-ventilated-adults-in-2017-an-international-cross-sectional-survey
#9
Joana Alves, Emine Alp, Despoina Koulenti, Zhongheng Zhang, Stephan Ehrmann, Stijn Blot, Matteo Bassetti, Andrew Conway-Morris, Rosa Reina, Enrique Teran, Candela Sole-Lleonart, Maria Ruiz-Rodríguez, Jordi Rello
2017 ESCMID practice guidelines reported safety concerns and weak evidence of benefit supporting use of aerosolized antibiotics in mechanically ventilated patients. Our primary goal was to assess current patterns of aerosolized antibiotic prescription in mechanically ventilated patients. A sequential global survey was performed prior to the release of the ESCMID guidelines, from the 1st of February to the 30th of April 2017, using an electronic platform. Responses were analyzed comparing geographical regions...
January 9, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317840/an-antibiotic-stewardship-exercise-in-the-icu-building-a-treatment-algorithm-for-the-management-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-based-on-local-epidemiology-and-the-2016-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-american-thoracic-society-guidelines
#10
Lyn S Awad, Dania I Abdallah, Anas M Mugharbil, Tamima H Jisr, Nabila S Droubi, Nabila A El-Rajab, Rima A Moghnieh
Introduction: Management of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), the most common infection in patients on mechanical ventilation, should be tailored to local microbiological data. The aim of this study was to determine susceptibility patterns of organisms causing VAP to develop a treatment algorithm based on these findings and evidence from the literature. Materials and methods: This is a retrospective analysis of the microbiological etiology of VAP in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a Lebanese tertiary care hospital from July 2015 to July 2016...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309288/improving-resident-oral-health-and-adherence-to-a-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-bundle-in-a-skilled-nursing-facility
#11
Patricia Finch Guthrie, Shelley Rayborn, John Boatright, Valinda Pearson, Rosemary Wieting, Randy Peterson, Molly Danahy
Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is common with mechanical ventilation. VAP bundles have improved outcomes in acute care and long-term acute care hospitals. This article reports on an implementation of a VAP bundle designed for a skilled nursing facility (SNF). The primary goal was to improve oral health, a significant factor for VAP, and improve SNF nurse adherence to the bundle. Improvements in oral health and adherence were demonstrated. Nurses had difficulty with adhering to maintaining the tracheostomy cuff seal...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Nursing Care Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308759/-effect-of-indwelling-nasointestinal-tube-for-enteral-nutrition-support-in-patients-with-severe-craniocerebral-trauma-undergoing-mechanical-ventilation
#12
Feixiang Chen, Chao Xu, Cunhai Zhang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of indwelling nasointestinal tube for enteral nutrition (EN) support on patients with severe craniocerebral trauma undergoing mechanical ventilation (MV). METHODS: A total of 100 severe craniocerebral trauma patients undergoing MV admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) of the 117th Hospital of People's Liberation Army from February 2015 to February 2017 were enrolled, and they were divided into nasogastric tube group in which the EN was fed by nasogastric tube and nasal jejunal feeding tube group (nasointestinal tube group) by random digits table, with 50 patients in each group...
January 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308208/early-versus-late-tracheostomy-after-decompressive-craniectomy-for-stroke
#13
Michael P Catalino, Feng-Chang Lin, Nathan Davis, Keith Anderson, Casey Olm-Shipman, J Dedrick Jordan
Background: Stroke patients requiring decompressive craniectomy are at high risk of prolonged mechanical ventilation and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Tracheostomy placement may reduce the duration of mechanical ventilation. Predicting which patients will require tracheostomy and the optimal timing of tracheostomy remains a clinical challenge. In this study, the authors compare key outcomes after early versus late tracheostomy and develop a useful pre-operative decision-making tool to predict post-operative tracheostomy dependence...
2018: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307014/stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-bacteremia-and-pneumonia-at-a-tertiary-care-oncology-center-a-review-of-16%C3%A2-years
#14
Consuelo Velázquez-Acosta, Sugehily Zarco-Márquez, Mari Carmen Jiménez-Andrade, Patricia Volkow-Fernández, Patricia Cornejo-Juárez
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical characteristics and antimicrobial patterns of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia bloodstream infections (BSI) and pneumonia episodes in patients with cancer. METHODS: Patients with S. maltophilia BSI or pneumonia admitted from 1 Jan. 2000 to 31 Dec. 2016 were identified at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología (INCan), a tertiary-care oncology hospital in Mexico City. RESULTS: During the study period, there were 171 isolates identified...
January 7, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305283/evidence-based-guidelines-for-prevention-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-evaluation-of-intensive-care-unit-nurses-adherence
#15
Muhammad W Darawad, Mohammad Abu Sa'aleek, Taghreed Shawashi
Using self-reported questionnaires, this descriptive study assessed nurses' adherence to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) guidelines, which was found to be 81.3%. Although items concerning infection control achieved the highest scores, items concerning the suctioning process achieved the lowest scores. Participants' score of VAP care knowledge had a significant positive correlation with their score of VAP guidelines adherence. Addressing the strength and weakness domains that affect nurses' adherence is crucial for health care administrators at different managerial levels, which may help in executing different strategies to improve nurses' adherence to VAP strategies...
January 2, 2018: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304863/gm-csf-overexpression-after-influenza-a-virus-infection-prevents-mortality-and-moderates-m1-like-airway-monocyte-macrophage-polarization
#16
E Scott Halstead, Todd M Umstead, Michael L Davies, Yuka Imamura Kawasawa, Patricia Silveyra, Judie Howyrlak, Linlin Yang, Weichao Guo, Sanmei Hu, Eranda Kurundu Hewage, Zissis C Chroneos
BACKGROUND: Influenza A viruses cause life-threatening pneumonia and lung injury in the lower respiratory tract. Application of high GM-CSF levels prior to infection has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality from pathogenic influenza infection in mice, but the mechanisms of protection and treatment efficacy have not been established. METHODS: Mice were infected intranasally with influenza A virus (PR8 strain). Supra-physiologic levels of GM-CSF were induced in the airways using the double transgenic GM-CSF (DTGM) or littermate control mice starting on 3 days post-infection (dpi)...
January 5, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303440/predictive-value-of-positive-high-sensitivity-troponin-t-in-intubated-traumatic-brain-injury-patients
#17
Ayman El-Menyar, Mohammad Asim, Rifat Latifi, Shrikant I Bangdiwala, Hassan Al-Thani
OBJECTIVE The clinical relevance of high-sensitivity troponin T (HsTnT) in trauma patients is not well explored. In this study, the authors aimed to study the predictive value of serum HsTnT in intubated patients who had sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS A retrospective analysis was conducted for all intubated TBI patients between 2010 and 2014 at a national level 1 trauma center. Data were analyzed and compared based on the HsTnT status on admission (group 1, negative results; and group 2, positive results)...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303020/risk-factors-outcomes-and-genotypes-of-carbapenem-nonsusceptible-klebsiella-pneumoniae-bloodstream-infection-a-three-year-retrospective-study-in-a-large-tertiary-hospital-in-northern-china
#18
Si-Han Zheng, Sheng-Ji Cao, Hui Xu, Dan Feng, Li-Ping Wan, Guang-Jie Wang, Xiao-Guang Xiao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the independent risk factors, outcomes and genotypes associated with carbapenem-non-susceptible K. pneumoniae bloodstream infections (BSIs) in northern China from 2014 to 2016. METHODS: Over a three-year period, a total of 289 K. pneumoniae BSI patients were identified. Medical records were extracted to obtain the clinical information. Polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) were performed to analyse the multilocus sequence typing (MLST) types, Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase (KPC) and metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) genes, for replicon typing of the 10 randomly selected carbapenem-non-susceptible K...
January 5, 2018: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300363/unusually-high-incidences-of-staphylococcus-aureus-infection-within-studies-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-prevention-using-topical-antibiotics-benchmarking-the-evidence-base
#19
James C Hurley
Selective digestive decontamination (SDD, topical antibiotic regimens applied to the respiratory tract) appears effective for preventing ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. However, potential contextual effects of SDD on Staphylococcus aureus infections in the ICU remain unclear. The S. aureus ventilator associated pneumonia (S. aureus VAP), VAP overall and S. aureus bacteremia incidences within component (control and intervention) groups within 27 SDD studies were benchmarked against 115 observational groups...
January 4, 2018: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300217/development-of-an-rn-champion-model-to-improve-the-outcomes-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-patients-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#20
Carol Robinson, Marci Hoze, Stacy Hevener, Amy A Nichols
Healthcare-associated infections are costly. Methods to prevent infections must be effective and provide a return on investment to be sustainable. A funded project supported the design and implementation of a unique quality and safety model, using unit-based quality and safety RN champions. The goal was to create and sustain a hospital-wide safety culture focused on preventing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) by adopting the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's VAP bundle. The program began with a pilot in 7 ICUs...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Nursing Administration
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