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ventilator-associated pneumonia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936544/ventilator-associated-pneumonia-prevention-one-good-turn-does-not-always-deserve-another
#1
EDITORIAL
Pedro Póvoa, Thiago Lisboa, José-Artur Paiva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 22, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933178/-nosocomial-pneumonia
#2
Jana Skřičková
Nosocomial pneumonia (hospital-acquired pneumonia - HAP) is the form of pneumonia the symptoms of which present after more than 2 days (> 48 hours) of admission to hospital or as late as 14 days of discharge from hospital. The HAP pneumonias represent 13-18 % of all nosocomial infections. Incidence of HAP is the most frequent in mechanically ventilated patients. The type and representation of HAP agents primarily depends on the length of a patients stay in hospital and on their condition and character of treatment...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932712/multidrug-and-co-resistance-patterns-of-non-fermenting-gram-negative-bacilli-involved-in-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-carrying-class-1-integron-in-the-north-of-iran
#3
Masoumeh Bagheri-Nesami, Mohammad Sadegh Rezai, Fatemeh Ahangarkani, Alireza Rafiei, Attieh Nikkhah, Gohar Eslami, Kheironesa Shafahi, Azin Hajalibeig, Rezvan Khajavi
INTRODUCTION: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) due to non-fermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB), especially Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Acinetobacter spp., is one of the main hospital-acquired infections leading to mortality and morbidity, especially in intensive care units (ICUs). This study seeks to determine the multidrug and co-resistance (MDR) patterns of NFGNB that are agents of VAP, and assess the presence of class 1 integron in these bacteria. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved VAP patients admitted in the ICUs of 18 hospitals in the Mazandaran province, located in the North of Iran...
September 2017: Germs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930178/diagnostic-value-of-endotracheal-aspirates-sonication-on-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-microbiologic-diagnosis
#4
Laia Fernández-Barat, Ana Motos, Otavio T Ranzani, Gianluigi Li Bassi, Elisabet Aguilera Xiol, Tarek Senussi, Chiara Travierso, Chiara Chiurazzi, Francesco Idone, Laura Muñoz, Jordi Vila, Miquel Ferrer, Paolo Pelosi, Francesco Blasi, Massimo Antonelli, Antoni Torres
Microorganisms are able to form biofilms within respiratory secretions. Methods to disaggregate such biofilms before utilizing standard, rapid, or high throughput diagnostic technologies may aid in pathogen detection during ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) diagnosis. Our aim was to determine if sonication of endotracheal aspirates (ETA) would increase the sensitivity of qualitative, semi-quantitative, and quantitative bacterial cultures in an animal model of pneumonia caused by Pseudomonasaeruginosa or by methicillin resistant Staphylococcusaureus (MRSA)...
September 20, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923474/beyond-the-inhaled-nitric-oxide-in-persistent-pulmonary-hypertension-of-the-newborn
#5
REVIEW
Mei-Yin Lai, Shih-Ming Chu, Satyan Lakshminrusimha, Hung-Chih Lin
Persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) is a consequence of failed pulmonary vascular transition at birth and leads to pulmonary hypertension with shunting of deoxygenated blood across the ductus arteriosus (DA) and foramen ovale (FO) resulting in severe hypoxemia, and it may eventually lead to life-threatening circulatory failure. PPHN is a serious event affecting both term and preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. It is often associated with diseases such as congenital diaphragmatic hernia, meconium aspiration, sepsis, congenital pneumonia, birth asphyxia and respiratory distress syndrome...
August 10, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921478/interstitial-pneumonia-with-autoimmune-features-an-additional-risk-factor-for-ards
#6
Giacomo Grasselli, Beatrice Vergnano, Maria Rosa Pozzi, Vittoria Sala, Gabriele D'Andrea, Vittorio Scaravilli, Marco Mantero, Alberto Pesci, Antonio Pesenti
BACKGROUND: Interstitial pneumonia with autoimmune features (IPAF) identifies a recently recognized autoimmune syndrome characterized by interstitial lung disease and autoantibodies positivity, but absence of a specific connective tissue disease diagnosis or alternative etiology. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical presentation, diagnostic workup and management of seven critically ill patients who met diagnostic criteria for IPAF. We compared baseline characteristics and clinical outcome of IPAF patients with those of the population of ARDS patients admitted in the same period...
September 18, 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920154/pharmacokinetics-of-doripenem-in-plasma-and-epithelial-lining-fluid-elf-comparison-of-two-dosage-regimens
#7
Zoe Oesterreicher, Iris Minichmayr, Robert Sauermann, Daniela Marhofer, Edith Lackner, Walter Jäger, Alexandra Maier-Salamon, Richard Schwameis, Charlotte Kloft, Markus Zeitlinger
PURPOSE: In 2014, FDA released a warning for prescription of doripenem for ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia due to unsatisfactory clinical cure rates. The present study explores if the observed lack of efficacy might be explained by insufficient target site pharmacokinetics in intensive care patients after two different infusion schemes. METHODS: Plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage sampling was performed in 16 intubated patients with pneumonia receiving doripenem either as 1-h or as 4-h infusion...
September 17, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919718/extended-infusion-versus-intermittent-infusion-of-imipenem-in-the-treatment-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#8
Mohamed M Ibrahim, Tarek Fouad Tammam, Mohy El Deen Ebaed, Hatem A Sarhan, Gamal F Gad, Amal K Hussein
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation support can be the main source of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). VAP is a serious infection that may be associated with dangerous gram-negative bacteria mainly, and it leads to an increase in the mortality in the intensive care unit (ICU). Imipenem is one of the strongest antibiotics now available for treating VAP which is associated with gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, and it belongs to beta-lactam antibiotic group (carbapenem). OBJECTIVE: This study tried to investigate the efficacy of imipenem against VAP when it was infused within 180 min versus the efficacy when it was infused within 30-60 min...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915393/the-comparative-effectiveness-of-noninvasive-and-invasive-ventilation-in-patients-with-pneumonia
#9
Mihaela S Stefan, Aruna Priya, Penelope S Pekow, Tara Lagu, Jay S Steingrub, Nicholas S Hill, Brian H Nathanson, Peter K Lindenauer
PURPOSE: To compare the outcomes of patients hospitalized with pneumonia treated with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) and invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using the HealthFacts multihospital electronic medical record database, we included patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of pneumonia and treated with NIV or IMV. We developed a propensity model for receipt of initial NIV and assessed the outcomes in a propensity-matched cohort, and in a covariate adjusted and propensity score weighted models...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915364/nosocomial-multidrug-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-strains-isolated-from-mexico-city-produce-robust-biofilms-on-abiotic-surfaces-but-not-on-human-lung-cells
#10
Martha Lorena Ostria-Hernandez, Karla Cecilia Juárez-de la Rosa, Patricia Arzate-Barbosa, Antonino Lara-Hernández, Fuminori Sakai, J Antonio Ibarra, Graciela Castro-Escarpulli, Jorge E Vidal
BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae (Kpn) strains are a leading cause of hospital-acquired infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia. Resistance to antibiotics, biofilm formation, and the production of certain fimbriae play an important role in the pathogenesis. AIM: We investigated the genetic relatedness, antibiotic resistance, virulence potential, and ability to form biofilms of Kpn strains isolated from hospital-acquired infections (n = 76). Strains were isolated at three major hospitals serving the largest metropolitan urban area in Mexico City, Mexico...
September 15, 2017: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906137/treatment-of-achromobacter-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-in-critically-ill-trauma-patients
#11
G Christopher Wood, Brittany L Jonap, George O Maish, Louis J Magnotti, Joseph M Swanson, Bradley A Boucher, Martin A Croce, Timothy C Fabian
BACKGROUND: Achromobacter sp are nonfermenting Gram-negative bacilli (NFGNB) that rarely cause severe infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). Data on the treatment of Achromobacter pneumonia are very limited, and the organism has been associated with a high mortality rate. Thus, more data are needed on treating this organism. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the treatment of Achromobacter VAP in critically ill trauma patients. METHODS: This retrospective, observational study evaluated critically ill trauma patients who developed Achromobacter VAP...
September 1, 2017: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905374/heat-and-moisture-exchangers-versus-heated-humidifiers-for-mechanically-ventilated-adults-and-children
#12
REVIEW
Donna Gillies, David A Todd, Jann P Foster, Bisanth T Batuwitage
BACKGROUND: Invasive ventilation is used to assist or replace breathing when a person is unable to breathe adequately on their own. Because the upper airway is bypassed during mechanical ventilation, the respiratory system is no longer able to warm and moisten inhaled gases, potentially causing additional breathing problems in people who already require assisted breathing. To prevent these problems, gases are artificially warmed and humidified. There are two main forms of humidification, heat and moisture exchangers (HME) or heated humidifiers (HH)...
September 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905112/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-spina-bifida-and-h1n1-induced-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#13
Oliver Jansen, Oliver Kamp, Christian Waydhas, Valentin Rausch, Thomas Armin Schildhauer, Justus Strauch, Dirk Buchwald, Uwe Hamsen
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is characterized as an acute hypoxemic and/or hypercapnic respiratory failure seen in critically ill patients and is still, although decreased over the past few years, associated with high mortality. Furthermore, ARDS may be a life-threatening complication of H1N1 pneumonia. We report on a 45-year-old spina bifida patient with confirmed H1N1 influenza virus infection causing acute respiratory failure, who was successfully weaned from 42-day veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (vv-ECMO) treatment with an excellent outcome...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Artificial Organs: the Official Journal of the Japanese Society for Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902529/evaluation-of-the-2016-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-american-thoracic-society-guideline-criteria-for-risk-of-multi-drug-resistant-pathogens-in-hospital-acquired-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-patients-in-the-intensive-care-unit
#14
Pervin Korkmaz Ekren, Otavio T Ranzani, Adrian Ceccato, Gianluigi Li Bassi, Eva Muñoz Conejero, Miquel Ferrer, Michael S Niederman, Antoni Torres
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895575/predictors-of-pressure-ulcer-incidence-following-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-a-secondary-analysis-of-a-prospective-longitudinal-study
#15
D Brienza, S Krishnan, P Karg, G Sowa, A L Allegretti
STUDY DESIGN: Secondary analysis of data from a prospective cohort study. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify the medical and demographic factors associated with the development of pressure ulcers during acute-care hospitalization and inpatient rehabilitation following acute spinal cord injury. SETTING: The study was carried out at acute hospitalization, inpatient rehabilitation and outpatient rehabilitation sites at a university medical center in the United States...
September 12, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894766/potentially-preventable-hospitalizations-and-the-burden-of-healthcare-associated-infections
#16
Andrea L Lorden, Luohua Jiang, Tiffany A Radcliff, Kathleen A Kelly, Robert L Ohsfeldt
BACKGROUND: An estimated 4% of hospital admissions acquired healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and accounted for $9.8 (USD) billion in direct cost during 2011. In 2010, nearly 140 000 of the 3.5 million potentially preventable hospitalizations (PPHs) may have acquired an HAI. There is a knowledge gap regarding the co-occurrence of these events. AIMS: To estimate the period occurrences and likelihood of acquiring an HAI for the PPH population. METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional study using logistic regression analysis of 2011 Texas Inpatient Discharge Public Use Data File including 2...
January 2017: Health Services Research and Managerial Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894481/respiratory-research-networks-in-europe-and-beyond-aims-achievements-and-aspirations-for-the-21st-century
#17
Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Fernando Zampieri, Pedro Povoa, Otavio Ranzani, Lieuwe D Bos, Stefano Aliberti, Antoni Torres
Healthcare-associated infection, such as intensive care unit (ICU)-related respiratory infections, remain the most frequently encountered morbidity of ICU admission, prolonging hospital stay and increasing mortality rates. The epidemiology of ICU-related respiratory infections, particularly nonventilated ICU-associated pneumonia and ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis, appears to be quite different among different countries. European countries have different prevalence, patterns and mechanism of resistance, as well as different treatments chosen by different attending physicians...
September 2017: Breathe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892891/distribution-of-class-d-carbapenemase-and-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-genes-among-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-burn-wound-and-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-infections
#18
Maryam Mohammadi, Setareh Soroush, Somayeh Delfani, Iraj Pakzad, Abolfazl Abbaszadeh, Mahmoud Bahmani, Lidija Bogdanovic, Morovat Taherikalani
INTRODUCTION: Resistance to Acinetobacter baumannii is dramatically on the rise in Iran. Therefore, it is important to study resistance pattern among Acinetobacter isolates which is a common cause of nosocomial infections. AIM: To investigate antibiotic resistance patterns and the role of resistant genes and biofilm formation in the induction of resistance among Acinetobacter baumannii isolated from burn wound and ventilator associated pneumonia infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Total 103 isolates such as 33 burn samples from Rasool Akram Hospital and 70 isolates from ventilated patients in Shahid Motahhari Hospital were identified with A...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891372/controversies-and-advances-in-the-management-of-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#19
Katherine L Roberts, Marin H Kollef, Scott T Micek, Paul Juang
Although national surveillance data suggests that the incidence of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) is down-trending, it remains one of the most commonly encountered hospital acquired infections in the United States and worldwide. Its association with increased healthcare costs and worsened patient outcomes warrants continued effort to improve the care of patients with VAP. Areas covered: The increasing prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria further drives the need to explore advances in diagnostic and treatment options...
September 11, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891032/the-need-for-unique-risk-adjustment-for-surgical-site-infections-at-a-high-volume-tertiary-care-center-with-inherent-high-risk-colorectal-procedures
#20
E Gorgun, C Benlice, J Hammel, T Hull, L Stocchi
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to create a unique risk adjustment model for surgical site infection (SSI) in patients who underwent colorectal surgery (CRS) at the Cleveland Clinic (CC) with inherent high risk factors by using a nationwide database. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried to identify patients who underwent CRS between 2005 and 2010. Initially, CC cases were identified from all NSQIP data according to case identifier and separated from the other NSQIP centers...
September 11, 2017: Techniques in Coloproctology
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