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Emphysema subtype

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506611/clinical-and-genetic-associations-of-objectively-identified-interstitial-changes-in-smokers
#1
Samuel Y Ash, Rola Harmouche, Rachel K Putman, James C Ross, Alejandro A Diaz, Gary M Hunninghake, Jorge Onieva Onieva, Fernando J Martinez, Augustine M Choi, David A Lynch, Hiroto Hatabu, Ivan O Rosas, Raul San Jose Estepar, George R Washko
BACKGROUND: Smoking related lung injury may manifest on computed tomography (CT) as both emphysema and interstitial changes. We have developed an automated method to quantify interstitial changes and hypothesized that this measurement would be associated with lung function, quality of life, mortality, and a MUC5B polymorphism. METHODS: Using CT scans from the COPDGene study, lung parenchyma was objectively labeled as a tissue subtype and the percentage of the lung occupied by interstitial subtypes was calculated...
May 12, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411346/peroral-endoscopic-myotomy-compared-with-pneumatic-dilation-for-newly-diagnosed-achalasia
#2
Fandong Meng, Peng Li, Yongjun Wang, Ming Ji, Yongdong Wu, Li Yu, Yinglin Niu, Fujing Lv, Wei Li, Wenyan Li, Huihong Zhai, Shanshan Wu, Shutian Zhang
BACKGROUND: This study retrospectively compared the safety and efficacy of two endoscopic techniques for treating newly diagnosed achalasia, pneumatic dilation (PD), and peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). METHODS: Demographics, clinical and manometric data, and outcomes were collected from the medical records of patients who received POEM or PD as the primary therapy for achalasia at our hospital from January 2012 to August 2015. RESULTS: Of 72 patients, 32 and 40 received POEM and PD, respectively...
April 14, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268558/texton-and-sparse-representation-based-texture-classification-of-lung-parenchyma-in-ct-images
#3
Jie Yang, Xinyang Feng, Elsa D Angelini, Andrew F Laine
Automated texture analysis of lung computed tomography (CT) images is a critical tool in subtyping pulmonary emphysema and diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Texton-based methods encode lung textures with nearest-texton frequency histograms, and have achieved high performance for supervised classification of emphysema subtypes from annotated lung CT images. In this work, we first explore characterizing lung textures with sparse decomposition from texton dictionaries, using different regularization strategies, and then extend the sparsity-inducing constraint to the construction of the dictionaries...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226735/texton-and-sparse-representation-based-texture-classification-of-lung-parenchyma-in-ct-images
#4
Jie Yang, Xinyang Feng, Elsa D Angelini, Andrew F Laine, Jie Yang, Xinyang Feng, Elsa D Angelini, Andrew F Laine, Xinyang Feng, Jie Yang, Elsa D Angelini, Andrew F Laine
Automated texture analysis of lung computed tomography (CT) images is a critical tool in subtyping pulmonary emphysema and diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Texton-based methods encode lung textures with nearest-texton frequency histograms, and have achieved high performance for supervised classification of emphysema subtypes from annotated lung CT images. In this work, we first explore characterizing lung textures with sparse decomposition from texton dictionaries, using different regularization strategies, and then extend the sparsity-inducing constraint to the construction of the dictionaries...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212991/different-histological-subtypes-of-peripheral-lung-cancer-based-on-emphysema-distribution-in-patients-with-both-airflow-limitation-and-ct-determined-emphysema
#5
Beomsu Shin, Sumin Shin, Myung Jin Chung, Hyun Lee, Won-Jung Koh, Hojoong Kim, Hye Yun Park
The histological subtypes by peripheral tumor location remain uncharacterized in COPD patients with emphysema. We investigated histologic subtypes of peripheral lung cancers based on the context of heterogeneous emphysema distribution in patients with airflow limitation and CT-determined emphysema. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted using data from 754 patients with airflow limitation and newly-diagnosed primary lung cancers from February 2013 to February 2015. Of these, 230 patients had emphysema, as determined by computed tomography software designed to quantify emphysema...
February 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164246/immune-mediated-inflammation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-emphysema-insights-from-mouse-models
#6
REVIEW
John M Craig, Alan L Scott, Wayne Mitzner
The cellular mechanisms that result in the initiation and progression of emphysema are clearly complex. A growing body of human data combined with discoveries from mouse models utilizing cigarette smoke exposure or protease administration have improved our understanding of emphysema development by implicating specific cell types that may be important for the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The most important aspects of emphysematous damage appear to be oxidative or protease stress and sustained macrophage activation and infiltration of other immune cells leading to epithelial damage and cell death...
March 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122034/a-low-peripheral-blood-cd4-cd8-ratio-is-associated-with-pulmonary-emphysema-in-hiv
#7
Matthew Triplette, Engi F Attia, Kathleen M Akgün, Guy W Soo Hoo, Matthew S Freiberg, Adeel A Butt, Cherry Wongtrakool, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Sheldon T Brown, Christopher J Graber, Laurence Huang, Kristina Crothers
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of emphysema is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals compared to HIV-uninfected persons. While greater tobacco use contributes, HIV-related effects on immunity likely confer additional risk. Low peripheral blood CD4+ to CD8+ T-lymphocyte (CD4/CD8) ratio may reflect chronic inflammation in HIV and may be a marker of chronic lung disease in this population. Therefore, we sought to determine whether the CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly the emphysema subtype, in a cohort of HIV+ subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113658/a-bayesian-nonparametric-model-for-disease-subtyping-application-to-emphysema-phenotypes
#8
James C Ross, Peter J Castaldi, Michael H Cho, Junxiang Chen, Yale Chang, Jennifer G Dy, Edwin K Silverman, George R Washko, Raul San Jose Estepar
We introduce a novel Bayesian nonparametric model that uses the concept of disease trajectories for disease subtype identification. Although our model is general, we demonstrate that by treating fractions of tissue patterns derived from medical images as compositional data, our model can be applied to study distinct progression trends between population subgroups. Specifically, we apply our algorithm to quantitative emphysema measurements obtained from chest CT scans in the COPDGene Study and show several distinct progression patterns...
September 13, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060702/a-bayesian-nonparametric-model-for-disease-subtyping-application-to-emphysema-phenotypes
#9
James C Ross, Peter J Castaldi, Michael H Cho, Junxiang Chen, Yale Chang, Jennifer G Dy, Edwin K Silverman, George R Washko, Raul San Jose Estepar
We introduce a novel Bayesian nonparametric model that uses the concept of disease trajectories for disease subtype identification. Although our model is general, we demonstrate that by treating fractions of tissue patterns derived from medical images as compositional data, our model can be applied to study distinct progression trends between population subgroups. Specifically, we apply our algorithm to quantitative emphysema measurements obtained from chest CT scans in the COPDGene Study and show several distinct progression patterns...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768836/lung-cancer-in-patients-with-combined-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-emphysema-revisited-with-the-2015-world-health-organization-classification-of-lung-tumors
#10
Li Gao, Sheng Xie, Hui Liu, Pingping Liu, Yan Xiong, Jiping Da, Chengli Que, Huaping Dai, Chen Wang
OBJECTIVE: Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a newly defined entity that comprises upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis. Patients with CPFE are at high risk for lung cancer and have poor prognoses. To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics of lung cancer with CPFE, lung cancers with CPFE and Non-CPFE interstitial lung disease (ILD) were reevaluated by 2015 WHO classification and compared. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with histologically proven lung cancer were selected from the database of two institutional medical centers...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519148/estrogen-deficiency-promotes-cigarette-smoke-induced-changes-in-the-extracellular-matrix-in-the-lungs-of-aging-female-mice
#11
Marilyn K Glassberg, Paola Catanuto, Shahriar Shahzeidi, Muddassir Aliniazee, Sarit Lilo, Gustavo A Rubio, Sharon J Elliot
Female smokers have a faster decline in lung function with increasing age and overall develop a greater loss of lung function than male smokers. This raises the question of whether estrogen status in women affects susceptibility to cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung disease. Mouse models suggest that female mice are more susceptible than males to CS-induced lung disease. Moreover, young CS-exposed female mice develop emphysema earlier than male mice. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship of estrogen status on the pattern and severity of CS-induced lung disease...
July 25, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460105/distinct-emphysema-subtypes-defined-by-quantitative-ct-analysis-are-associated-with-specific-pulmonary-matrix-metalloproteinases
#12
Kristoffer Ostridge, Nicholas Williams, Viktoriya Kim, Stephen Harden, Simon Bourne, Ngaire A Coombs, Paul T Elkington, Raul San Jose Estepar, George Washko, Karl J Staples, Tom M A Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Emphysema is characterised by distinct pathological sub-types, but little is known about the divergent underlying aetiology. Matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that can degrade the extracellular matrix and have been identified as potentially important in the development of emphysema. However, the relationship between MMPs and emphysema sub-type is unknown. We investigated the role of MMPs and their inhibitors in the development of emphysema sub-types by quantifying levels and determining relationships with these sub-types in mild-moderate COPD patients and ex/current smokers with preserved lung function...
July 26, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438573/lung-cancer-in-hiv-infected-patients
#13
REVIEW
Álvaro Mena, Héctor Meijide, Pedro J Marcos
The widespread use of HAART for persons living with HIV since 1996 has resulted in a dramatic decline in AIDS-related mortality. However, other comorbidities are increasing, such as metabolic disturbances or cancers, including solid organ malignancies. Among the latest, lung cancer, especially the adenocarcinoma subtype, is on the rise. HIV infection, even controlling for smoking, is an independent risk factor for developing lung cancer. HIV could promote lung cancers through immunosuppression, chronic inflammation, and a direct oncogenic effect...
July 2016: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27115944/computed-tomography-based-subclassification-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#14
Asger Dirksen, Mathilde M W Wille
Computed tomography (CT) is an obvious modality for subclassification of COPD. Traditionally, the pulmonary involvement of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers is understood as a combination of deleterious effects of smoking on small airways (chronic bronchitis and small airways disease) and distal to the airways with destruction and loss of lung parenchyma (emphysema). However, segmentation of airways is still experimental; with contemporary high-resolution CT (HRCT) we can just see the "entrance" of small airways, and until now changes in airway morphology that have been observed in COPD are subtle...
April 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26947221/a-robust-emphysema-severity-measure-based-on-disease-subtypes
#15
MULTICENTER STUDY
Rola Harmouche, James C Ross, Alejandro A Diaz, George R Washko, Raul San Jose Estepar
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: We propose a novel single index for the quantification of emphysema severity based on an aggregation of multiple computed tomographic features evident in the lung parenchyma of smokers. Our goal was to demonstrate that this single index provides complementary information to the current standard measure of emphysema, percent emphysema (percent low attenuation areas [LAA%]), and may be superior in its association with clinically relevant outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inputs to our algorithm were objective assessments of multiple emphysema subtypes (normal tissue; panlobular; paraseptal; and mild, moderate, and severe centrilobular emphysema)...
April 2016: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937803/ct-features-associated-with-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutation-status-in-patients-with-lung-adenocarcinoma
#16
Ying Liu, Jongphil Kim, Fangyuan Qu, Shichang Liu, Hua Wang, Yoganand Balagurunathan, Zhaoxiang Ye, Robert J Gillies
Purpose To retrospectively identify the relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status, predominant histologic subtype, and computed tomographic (CT) characteristics in surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas in a cohort of Asian patients. materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, with waiver of informed consent. Preoperative chest CT findings were retrospectively evaluated in 385 surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas. A total of 30 CT descriptors were assessed...
July 2016: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26396508/protein-networks-in-induced-sputum-from-smokers-and-copd-patients
#17
James N Baraniuk, Begona Casado, Lewis K Pannell, Peter B McGarvey, Piera Boschetto, Maurizio Luisetti, Paolo Iadarola
RATIONALE: Subtypes of cigarette smoke-induced disease affect different lung structures and may have distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To determine if proteomic classification of the cellular and vascular origins of sputum proteins can characterize these mechanisms and phenotypes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Individual sputum specimens from lifelong nonsmokers (n=7) and smokers with normal lung function (n=13), mucous hypersecretion with normal lung function (n=11), obstructed airflow without emphysema (n=15), and obstruction plus emphysema (n=10) were assessed with mass spectrometry...
2015: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26349763/dna-methylation-profiling-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-reveals-a-copd-driven-immune-related-signature
#18
Els Wauters, Wim Janssens, Johan Vansteenkiste, Herbert Decaluwé, Nele Heulens, Bernard Thienpont, Hui Zhao, Dominiek Smeets, Xavier Sagaert, Johan Coolen, Marc Decramer, Adrian Liston, Paul De Leyn, Matthieu Moisse, Diether Lambrechts
INTRODUCTION: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a heterogeneous disorder consisting of distinct molecular subtypes each characterised by specific genetic and epigenetic profiles. Here, we aimed to identify novel NSCLC subtypes based on genome-wide methylation data, assess their relationship with smoking behaviour, age, COPD, emphysema and tumour histopathology, and identify the molecular pathways underlying each subtype. METHODS: Methylation profiling was performed on 49 pairs of tumour and adjacent lung tissue using Illumina 450 K arrays...
December 2015: Thorax
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26264445/decitabine-enhances-stem-cell-antigen-1-expression-in-cigarette-smoke-extract-induced-emphysema-in-animal-model
#19
Zhi-Hui He, Yan Chen, Ping Chen, Sheng-Dong He, Ji-Ru Ye, Da Liu
Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) is a mouse glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored protein and a cell surface marker found on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Despite decades of study, its biological functions remain little known. Sca-1 is a typical marker of bone marrow-derived HSCs, it is also expressed by a mixture of tissue-resident stem, progenitor cells in nonhematopoietic organs. Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) is a subtype of HSC and contributes to endothelial repair by homing in on locations of injury...
January 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26231557/increased-ectodomain-shedding-of-cell-adhesion-molecule-1-as-a-cause-of-type-ii-alveolar-epithelial-cell-apoptosis-in-patients-with-idiopathic-interstitial-pneumonia
#20
Azusa Yoneshige, Man Hagiyama, Takao Inoue, Takahiro Mimae, Takashi Kato, Morihito Okada, Eisuke Enoki, Akihiko Ito
BACKGROUND: Lung alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis has attracted attention as an early pathogenic event in the development of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP); however, the causative mechanism remains unclear. Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) is an AEC adhesion molecule in the immunoglobulin superfamily. It generates a membrane-associated C-terminal fragment, αCTF, through protease-mediated ectodomain shedding, termed α-shedding. Increased CADM1 α-shedding contributes to AEC apoptosis in emphysematous lungs...
August 1, 2015: Respiratory Research
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