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Emphysema subtype

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801407/the-boundaries-of-mild-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-design-of-the-searching-clinical-copd-onset-soon-study
#1
Gonzalo Labarca, Andrea Bustamante, Gonzalo Valdivia, Rodrigo Díaz, Álvaro Huete, Paul Mac Nab, Laura Mendoza, Jaime Leppe, Carmen Lisboa, Fernando Saldías, Orlando Díaz
INTRODUCTION: Clinical onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the point at which the disease is first identifiable by physicians. It is a poorly defined stage which seems to include both mild spirometric and non-spirometric disease, and could be described as early grade COPD, for practical purposes. While dyspnoea; chronic bronchitis and CT imaging evidence of emphysema and airway disease may be present very early, the lone significance of dyspnoea, the most relevant symptom in COPD in identifying these individuals, has been scarcely assessed...
August 11, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765242/pulmonary-involvement-in-antineutrophil-cytoplasmic-antibodies-anca-associated-vasculitis-the-influence-of-anca-subtype
#2
Aladdin J Mohammad, Kristian H Mortensen, Judith Babar, Rona Smith, Rachel B Jones, Daiki Nakagomi, Pasupathy Sivasothy, David R W Jayne
OBJECTIVE: To describe pulmonary involvement at time of diagnosis in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV), as defined by computed tomography (CT). METHODS: Patients with thoracic CT performed on or after the onset of AAV (n = 140; 75 women; granulomatosis with polyangiitis, n = 79; microscopic polyangiitis MPA, n = 61) followed at a tertiary referral center vasculitis clinic were studied. Radiological patterns of pulmonary involvement were evaluated from the CT studies using a predefined protocol, and compared to proteinase 3 (PR3)-ANCA and myeloperoxidase (MPO)-ANCA specificity...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704452/influence-of-lung-ct-changes-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-copd-on-the-human-lung-microbiome
#3
Marion Engel, David Endesfelder, Brigitte Schloter-Hai, Susanne Kublik, Michael S Granitsiotis, Piera Boschetto, Mariarita Stendardo, Imre Barta, Balazs Dome, Jean-François Deleuze, Anne Boland, Joachim Müller-Quernheim, Antje Prasse, Tobias Welte, Jens Hohlfeld, Deepak Subramanian, David Parr, Ivo Glynne Gut, Timm Greulich, Andreas Rembert Koczulla, Adam Nowinski, Dorota Gorecka, Dave Singh, Sumit Gupta, Christopher E Brightling, Harald Hoffmann, Marion Frankenberger, Thomas P Hofer, Dorothe Burggraf, Marion Heiss-Neumann, Loems Ziegler-Heitbrock, Michael Schloter, Wolfgang Zu Castell
BACKGROUND: Changes in microbial community composition in the lung of patients suffering from moderate to severe COPD have been well documented. However, knowledge about specific microbiome structures in the human lung associated with CT defined abnormalities is limited. METHODS: Bacterial community composition derived from brush samples from lungs of 16 patients suffering from different CT defined subtypes of COPD and 9 healthy subjects was analyzed using a cultivation independent barcoding approach applying 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragment amplicons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610627/multiple-biomarkers-predict-disease-severity-progression-and-mortality-in-copd
#4
Rachel L Zemans, Sean Jacobson, Jason Keene, Katerina Kechris, Bruce E Miller, Ruth Tal-Singer, Russell P Bowler
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease characterized by multiple subtypes and variable disease progression. Blood biomarkers have been variably associated with subtype, severity, and disease progression. Just as combined clinical variables are more highly predictive of outcomes than individual clinical variables, we hypothesized that multiple biomarkers may be more informative than individual biomarkers to predict subtypes, disease severity, disease progression, and mortality...
June 13, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506611/clinical-and-genetic-associations-of-objectively-identified-interstitial-changes-in%C3%A2-smokers
#5
Samuel Y Ash, Rola Harmouche, Rachel K Putman, James C Ross, Alejandro A Diaz, Gary M Hunninghake, Jorge Onieva Onieva, Fernando J Martinez, Augustine M Choi, David A Lynch, Hiroto Hatabu, Ivan O Rosas, Raul San Jose Estepar, George R Washko
BACKGROUND: Smoking-related lung injury may manifest on CT scans as both emphysema and interstitial changes. We have developed an automated method to quantify interstitial changes and hypothesized that this measurement would be associated with lung function, quality of life, mortality, and a mucin 5B (MUC5B) polymorphism. METHODS: Using CT scans from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD Study, we objectively labeled lung parenchyma as a tissue subtype. We calculated the percentage of the lung occupied by interstitial subtypes...
May 12, 2017: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411346/peroral-endoscopic-myotomy-compared-with-pneumatic-dilation-for-newly-diagnosed-achalasia
#6
Fandong Meng, Peng Li, Yongjun Wang, Ming Ji, Yongdong Wu, Li Yu, Yinglin Niu, Fujing Lv, Wei Li, Wenyan Li, Huihong Zhai, Shanshan Wu, Shutian Zhang
BACKGROUND: This study retrospectively compared the safety and efficacy of two endoscopic techniques for treating newly diagnosed achalasia, pneumatic dilation (PD), and peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM). METHODS: Demographics, clinical and manometric data, and outcomes were collected from the medical records of patients who received POEM or PD as the primary therapy for achalasia at our hospital from January 2012 to August 2015. RESULTS: Of 72 patients, 32 and 40 received POEM and PD, respectively...
April 14, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268558/texton-and-sparse-representation-based-texture-classification-of-lung-parenchyma-in-ct-images
#7
Jie Yang, Xinyang Feng, Elsa D Angelini, Andrew F Laine
Automated texture analysis of lung computed tomography (CT) images is a critical tool in subtyping pulmonary emphysema and diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Texton-based methods encode lung textures with nearest-texton frequency histograms, and have achieved high performance for supervised classification of emphysema subtypes from annotated lung CT images. In this work, we first explore characterizing lung textures with sparse decomposition from texton dictionaries, using different regularization strategies, and then extend the sparsity-inducing constraint to the construction of the dictionaries...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226735/texton-and-sparse-representation-based-texture-classification-of-lung-parenchyma-in-ct-images
#8
Jie Yang, Xinyang Feng, Elsa D Angelini, Andrew F Laine, Jie Yang, Xinyang Feng, Elsa D Angelini, Andrew F Laine, Xinyang Feng, Jie Yang, Elsa D Angelini, Andrew F Laine
Automated texture analysis of lung computed tomography (CT) images is a critical tool in subtyping pulmonary emphysema and diagnosing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Texton-based methods encode lung textures with nearest-texton frequency histograms, and have achieved high performance for supervised classification of emphysema subtypes from annotated lung CT images. In this work, we first explore characterizing lung textures with sparse decomposition from texton dictionaries, using different regularization strategies, and then extend the sparsity-inducing constraint to the construction of the dictionaries...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212991/different-histological-subtypes-of-peripheral-lung-cancer-based-on-emphysema-distribution-in-patients-with-both-airflow-limitation-and-ct-determined-emphysema
#9
Beomsu Shin, Sumin Shin, Myung Jin Chung, Hyun Lee, Won-Jung Koh, Hojoong Kim, Hye Yun Park
The histological subtypes by peripheral tumor location remain uncharacterized in COPD patients with emphysema. We investigated histologic subtypes of peripheral lung cancers based on the context of heterogeneous emphysema distribution in patients with airflow limitation and CT-determined emphysema. A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted using data from 754 patients with airflow limitation and newly-diagnosed primary lung cancers from February 2013 to February 2015. Of these, 230 patients had emphysema, as determined by computed tomography software designed to quantify emphysema...
February 2017: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164246/immune-mediated-inflammation-in-the-pathogenesis-of-emphysema-insights-from-mouse-models
#10
REVIEW
John M Craig, Alan L Scott, Wayne Mitzner
The cellular mechanisms that result in the initiation and progression of emphysema are clearly complex. A growing body of human data combined with discoveries from mouse models utilizing cigarette smoke exposure or protease administration have improved our understanding of emphysema development by implicating specific cell types that may be important for the pathophysiology of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The most important aspects of emphysematous damage appear to be oxidative or protease stress and sustained macrophage activation and infiltration of other immune cells leading to epithelial damage and cell death...
March 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122034/a-low-peripheral-blood-cd4-cd8-ratio-is-associated-with-pulmonary-emphysema-in-hiv
#11
Matthew Triplette, Engi F Attia, Kathleen M Akgün, Guy W Soo Hoo, Matthew S Freiberg, Adeel A Butt, Cherry Wongtrakool, Matthew Bidwell Goetz, Sheldon T Brown, Christopher J Graber, Laurence Huang, Kristina Crothers
OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of emphysema is higher among HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals compared to HIV-uninfected persons. While greater tobacco use contributes, HIV-related effects on immunity likely confer additional risk. Low peripheral blood CD4+ to CD8+ T-lymphocyte (CD4/CD8) ratio may reflect chronic inflammation in HIV and may be a marker of chronic lung disease in this population. Therefore, we sought to determine whether the CD4/CD8 ratio was associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), particularly the emphysema subtype, in a cohort of HIV+ subjects...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113658/a-bayesian-nonparametric-model-for-disease-subtyping-application-to-emphysema-phenotypes
#12
James C Ross, Peter J Castaldi, Michael H Cho, Junxiang Chen, Yale Chang, Jennifer G Dy, Edwin K Silverman, George R Washko, Raul San Jose Estepar
We introduce a novel Bayesian nonparametric model that uses the concept of disease trajectories for disease subtype identification. Although our model is general, we demonstrate that by treating fractions of tissue patterns derived from medical images as compositional data, our model can be applied to study distinct progression trends between population subgroups. Specifically, we apply our algorithm to quantitative emphysema measurements obtained from chest CT scans in the COPDGene Study and show several distinct progression patterns...
September 13, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060702/a-bayesian-nonparametric-model-for-disease-subtyping-application-to-emphysema-phenotypes
#13
James C Ross, Peter J Castaldi, Michael H Cho, Junxiang Chen, Yale Chang, Jennifer G Dy, Edwin K Silverman, George R Washko, Raul San Jose Estepar
We introduce a novel Bayesian nonparametric model that uses the concept of disease trajectories for disease subtype identification. Although our model is general, we demonstrate that by treating fractions of tissue patterns derived from medical images as compositional data, our model can be applied to study distinct progression trends between population subgroups. Specifically, we apply our algorithm to quantitative emphysema measurements obtained from chest CT scans in the COPDGene Study and show several distinct progression patterns...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768836/lung-cancer-in-patients-with-combined-pulmonary-fibrosis-and-emphysema-revisited-with-the-2015-world-health-organization-classification-of-lung-tumors
#14
Li Gao, Sheng Xie, Hui Liu, Pingping Liu, Yan Xiong, Jiping Da, Chengli Que, Huaping Dai, Chen Wang
OBJECTIVE: Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a newly defined entity that comprises upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis. Patients with CPFE are at high risk for lung cancer and have poor prognoses. To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics of lung cancer with CPFE, lung cancers with CPFE and Non-CPFE interstitial lung disease (ILD) were reevaluated by 2015 WHO classification and compared. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with histologically proven lung cancer were selected from the database of two institutional medical centers...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27519148/estrogen-deficiency-promotes-cigarette-smoke-induced-changes-in-the-extracellular-matrix-in-the-lungs-of-aging-female-mice
#15
Marilyn K Glassberg, Paola Catanuto, Shahriar Shahzeidi, Muddassir Aliniazee, Sarit Lilo, Gustavo A Rubio, Sharon J Elliot
Female smokers have a faster decline in lung function with increasing age and overall develop a greater loss of lung function than male smokers. This raises the question of whether estrogen status in women affects susceptibility to cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung disease. Mouse models suggest that female mice are more susceptible than males to CS-induced lung disease. Moreover, young CS-exposed female mice develop emphysema earlier than male mice. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship of estrogen status on the pattern and severity of CS-induced lung disease...
December 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27460105/distinct-emphysema-subtypes-defined-by-quantitative-ct-analysis-are-associated-with-specific-pulmonary-matrix-metalloproteinases
#16
Kristoffer Ostridge, Nicholas Williams, Viktoriya Kim, Stephen Harden, Simon Bourne, Ngaire A Coombs, Paul T Elkington, Raul San Jose Estepar, George Washko, Karl J Staples, Tom M A Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Emphysema is characterised by distinct pathological sub-types, but little is known about the divergent underlying aetiology. Matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that can degrade the extracellular matrix and have been identified as potentially important in the development of emphysema. However, the relationship between MMPs and emphysema sub-type is unknown. We investigated the role of MMPs and their inhibitors in the development of emphysema sub-types by quantifying levels and determining relationships with these sub-types in mild-moderate COPD patients and ex/current smokers with preserved lung function...
July 26, 2016: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438573/lung-cancer-in-hiv-infected-patients
#17
REVIEW
Álvaro Mena, Héctor Meijide, Pedro J Marcos
The widespread use of HAART for persons living with HIV since 1996 has resulted in a dramatic decline in AIDS-related mortality. However, other comorbidities are increasing, such as metabolic disturbances or cancers, including solid organ malignancies. Among the latest, lung cancer, especially the adenocarcinoma subtype, is on the rise. HIV infection, even controlling for smoking, is an independent risk factor for developing lung cancer. HIV could promote lung cancers through immunosuppression, chronic inflammation, and a direct oncogenic effect...
July 2016: AIDS Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27115944/computed-tomography-based-subclassification-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#18
Asger Dirksen, Mathilde M W Wille
Computed tomography (CT) is an obvious modality for subclassification of COPD. Traditionally, the pulmonary involvement of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers is understood as a combination of deleterious effects of smoking on small airways (chronic bronchitis and small airways disease) and distal to the airways with destruction and loss of lung parenchyma (emphysema). However, segmentation of airways is still experimental; with contemporary high-resolution CT (HRCT) we can just see the "entrance" of small airways, and until now changes in airway morphology that have been observed in COPD are subtle...
April 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26947221/a-robust-emphysema-severity-measure-based-on-disease-subtypes
#19
MULTICENTER STUDY
Rola Harmouche, James C Ross, Alejandro A Diaz, George R Washko, Raul San Jose Estepar
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: We propose a novel single index for the quantification of emphysema severity based on an aggregation of multiple computed tomographic features evident in the lung parenchyma of smokers. Our goal was to demonstrate that this single index provides complementary information to the current standard measure of emphysema, percent emphysema (percent low attenuation areas [LAA%]), and may be superior in its association with clinically relevant outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inputs to our algorithm were objective assessments of multiple emphysema subtypes (normal tissue; panlobular; paraseptal; and mild, moderate, and severe centrilobular emphysema)...
April 2016: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26937803/ct-features-associated-with-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutation-status-in-patients-with-lung-adenocarcinoma
#20
Ying Liu, Jongphil Kim, Fangyuan Qu, Shichang Liu, Hua Wang, Yoganand Balagurunathan, Zhaoxiang Ye, Robert J Gillies
Purpose To retrospectively identify the relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status, predominant histologic subtype, and computed tomographic (CT) characteristics in surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas in a cohort of Asian patients. materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, with waiver of informed consent. Preoperative chest CT findings were retrospectively evaluated in 385 surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas. A total of 30 CT descriptors were assessed...
July 2016: Radiology
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