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Emphysema subtype

Li Gao, Sheng Xie, Hui Liu, Pingping Liu, Yan Xiong, Jiping Da, Chengli Que, Huaping Dai, Chen Wang
OBJECTIVE: Combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) is a newly defined entity that comprises upper lobe emphysema and lower lobe fibrosis. Patients with CPFE are at high risk for lung cancer and have poor prognoses. To investigate the clinical and pathological characteristics of lung cancer with CPFE, lung cancers with CPFE and Non-CPFE interstitial lung disease (ILD) were reevaluated by 2015 WHO classification and compared. METHODS: A total of 60 patients with histologically proven lung cancer were selected from the database of two institutional medical centers...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Respiratory Journal
Marilyn K Glassberg, Paola Catanuto, Shahriar Shahzeidi, Muddassir Aliniazee, Sarit Lilo, Gustavo A Rubio, Sharon J Elliot
Female smokers have a faster decline in lung function with increasing age and overall develop a greater loss of lung function than male smokers. This raises the question of whether estrogen status in women affects susceptibility to cigarette smoke (CS)-induced lung disease. Mouse models suggest that female mice are more susceptible than males to CS-induced lung disease. Moreover, young CS-exposed female mice develop emphysema earlier than male mice. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship of estrogen status on the pattern and severity of CS-induced lung disease...
July 25, 2016: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
Kristoffer Ostridge, Nicholas Williams, Viktoriya Kim, Stephen Harden, Simon Bourne, Ngaire A Coombs, Paul T Elkington, Raul San Jose Estepar, George Washko, Karl J Staples, Tom M A Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Emphysema is characterised by distinct pathological sub-types, but little is known about the divergent underlying aetiology. Matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs) are proteolytic enzymes that can degrade the extracellular matrix and have been identified as potentially important in the development of emphysema. However, the relationship between MMPs and emphysema sub-type is unknown. We investigated the role of MMPs and their inhibitors in the development of emphysema sub-types by quantifying levels and determining relationships with these sub-types in mild-moderate COPD patients and ex/current smokers with preserved lung function...
2016: Respiratory Research
Álvaro Mena, Héctor Meijide, Pedro J Marcos
The widespread use of HAART for persons living with HIV since 1996 has resulted in a dramatic decline in AIDS-related mortality. However, other comorbidities are increasing, such as metabolic disturbances or cancers, including solid organ malignancies. Among the latest, lung cancer, especially the adenocarcinoma subtype, is on the rise. HIV infection, even controlling for smoking, is an independent risk factor for developing lung cancer. HIV could promote lung cancers through immunosuppression, chronic inflammation, and a direct oncogenic effect...
July 2016: AIDS Reviews
Asger Dirksen, Mathilde M W Wille
Computed tomography (CT) is an obvious modality for subclassification of COPD. Traditionally, the pulmonary involvement of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in smokers is understood as a combination of deleterious effects of smoking on small airways (chronic bronchitis and small airways disease) and distal to the airways with destruction and loss of lung parenchyma (emphysema). However, segmentation of airways is still experimental; with contemporary high-resolution CT (HRCT) we can just see the "entrance" of small airways, and until now changes in airway morphology that have been observed in COPD are subtle...
April 2016: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Rola Harmouche, James C Ross, Alejandro A Diaz, George R Washko, Raul San Jose Estepar
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: We propose a novel single index for the quantification of emphysema severity based on an aggregation of multiple computed tomographic features evident in the lung parenchyma of smokers. Our goal was to demonstrate that this single index provides complementary information to the current standard measure of emphysema, percent emphysema (percent low attenuation areas [LAA%]), and may be superior in its association with clinically relevant outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inputs to our algorithm were objective assessments of multiple emphysema subtypes (normal tissue; panlobular; paraseptal; and mild, moderate, and severe centrilobular emphysema)...
April 2016: Academic Radiology
Ying Liu, Jongphil Kim, Fangyuan Qu, Shichang Liu, Hua Wang, Yoganand Balagurunathan, Zhaoxiang Ye, Robert J Gillies
Purpose To retrospectively identify the relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status, predominant histologic subtype, and computed tomographic (CT) characteristics in surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas in a cohort of Asian patients. materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board, with waiver of informed consent. Preoperative chest CT findings were retrospectively evaluated in 385 surgically resected lung adenocarcinomas. A total of 30 CT descriptors were assessed...
July 2016: Radiology
James N Baraniuk, Begona Casado, Lewis K Pannell, Peter B McGarvey, Piera Boschetto, Maurizio Luisetti, Paolo Iadarola
RATIONALE: Subtypes of cigarette smoke-induced disease affect different lung structures and may have distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To determine if proteomic classification of the cellular and vascular origins of sputum proteins can characterize these mechanisms and phenotypes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Individual sputum specimens from lifelong nonsmokers (n=7) and smokers with normal lung function (n=13), mucous hypersecretion with normal lung function (n=11), obstructed airflow without emphysema (n=15), and obstruction plus emphysema (n=10) were assessed with mass spectrometry...
2015: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Els Wauters, Wim Janssens, Johan Vansteenkiste, Herbert Decaluwé, Nele Heulens, Bernard Thienpont, Hui Zhao, Dominiek Smeets, Xavier Sagaert, Johan Coolen, Marc Decramer, Adrian Liston, Paul De Leyn, Matthieu Moisse, Diether Lambrechts
INTRODUCTION: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a heterogeneous disorder consisting of distinct molecular subtypes each characterised by specific genetic and epigenetic profiles. Here, we aimed to identify novel NSCLC subtypes based on genome-wide methylation data, assess their relationship with smoking behaviour, age, COPD, emphysema and tumour histopathology, and identify the molecular pathways underlying each subtype. METHODS: Methylation profiling was performed on 49 pairs of tumour and adjacent lung tissue using Illumina 450 K arrays...
December 2015: Thorax
Zhi-Hui He, Yan Chen, Ping Chen, Sheng-Dong He, Ji-Ru Ye, Da Liu
Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) is a mouse glycosyl phosphatidylinositol-anchored protein and a cell surface marker found on hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Despite decades of study, its biological functions remain little known. Sca-1 is a typical marker of bone marrow-derived HSCs, it is also expressed by a mixture of tissue-resident stem, progenitor cells in nonhematopoietic organs. Endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) is a subtype of HSC and contributes to endothelial repair by homing in on locations of injury...
January 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
Azusa Yoneshige, Man Hagiyama, Takao Inoue, Takahiro Mimae, Takashi Kato, Morihito Okada, Eisuke Enoki, Akihiko Ito
BACKGROUND: Lung alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis has attracted attention as an early pathogenic event in the development of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP); however, the causative mechanism remains unclear. Cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) is an AEC adhesion molecule in the immunoglobulin superfamily. It generates a membrane-associated C-terminal fragment, αCTF, through protease-mediated ectodomain shedding, termed α-shedding. Increased CADM1 α-shedding contributes to AEC apoptosis in emphysematous lungs...
2015: Respiratory Research
Hui Jiang, Deshan Yu, Feng Ruan, Wen Xu, Ting Huang, Ling Li, Kaili Wang, Shelan Liu, Hengjiao Zhang, Pingdong Jia, Peng Yang, Zhibin Peng, Jiandong Zheng, Luzhao Feng, Hongjie Yu
OBJECTIVE: To identity the clinical characteristics and severe case risk factors for the adult inpatient cases confirmed of influenza monitored by the sentinel surveillance system for severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) inpatient cases in ten provinces in China. METHODS: Epidemiology and clinical information surveys were conducted for adult cases (≥ 15 year old) consistent with SARI case definition, who were monitored by SARI sentinel hospitals in ten cities in China from December 2009 to June 2014, with their respiratory tract specimens collected for influenza RNA detection...
March 2015: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
B Storbeck, T H Schröder, M Oldigs, K F Rabe, C Weber
UNLABELLED: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by two entities, the more airway-predominant type ("bronchitis") on the one hand, and emphysema-predominant type on the other. Imaging via high-resolution computed tomography plays an important role in phenotyping COPD. For patients with advanced lung emphysema, new endoscopic lung volume reduction therapies (ELVR) have been developed. Proper selection of suitable patients requires thin-section reconstruction of volumetric CT image data sets also in coronal and sagittal orientation are required...
July 2015: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
David A Lynch, John H M Austin, James C Hogg, Philippe A Grenier, Hans-Ulrich Kauczor, Alexander A Bankier, R Graham Barr, Thomas V Colby, Jeffrey R Galvin, Pierre Alain Gevenois, Harvey O Coxson, Eric A Hoffman, John D Newell, Massimo Pistolesi, Edwin K Silverman, James D Crapo
The purpose of this statement is to describe and define the phenotypic abnormalities that can be identified on visual and quantitative evaluation of computed tomographic (CT) images in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with the goal of contributing to a personalized approach to the treatment of patients with COPD. Quantitative CT is useful for identifying and sequentially evaluating the extent of emphysematous lung destruction, changes in airway walls, and expiratory air trapping. However, visual assessment of CT scans remains important to describe patterns of altered lung structure in COPD...
October 2015: Radiology
Tetsuro Araki, Mizuki Nishino, Oscar E Zazueta, Wei Gao, Josée Dupuis, Yuka Okajima, Jeanne C Latourelle, Ivan O Rosas, Takamichi Murakami, George T O'Connor, George R Washko, Gary M Hunninghake, Hiroto Hatabu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence and distribution of paraseptal emphysema on chest CT images in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) population, and assess its impact on pulmonary function. Also pursued was the association with interstitial lung abnormalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We assessed 2633 participants in the FHS for paraseptal emphysema on chest CT. Characteristics of the participants, including age, sex, smoking status, clinical symptoms, and results of pulmonary function tests, were compared between those with and without paraseptal emphysema...
July 2015: European Journal of Radiology
Stephen I Rennard, Nicholas Locantore, Bruno Delafont, Ruth Tal-Singer, Edwin K Silverman, Jørgen Vestbo, Bruce E Miller, Per Bakke, Bartolomé Celli, Peter M A Calverley, Harvey Coxson, Courtney Crim, Lisa D Edwards, David A Lomas, William MacNee, Emiel F M Wouters, Julie C Yates, Ignacio Coca, Alvar Agustí
RATIONALE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease that likely includes clinically relevant subgroups. OBJECTIVES: To identify subgroups of COPD in ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints) subjects using cluster analysis and to assess clinically meaningful outcomes of the clusters during 3 years of longitudinal follow-up. METHODS: Factor analysis was used to reduce 41 variables determined at recruitment in 2,164 patients with COPD to 13 main factors, and the variables with the highest loading were used for cluster analysis...
March 2015: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Hayrettin Gocmen, Dane Ediger, Esra Uzaslan, Selim Doganay, Nevin Ay Guney, Ercument Ege
OBJECTIVE: Malnutrition, which is a complication frequently observed in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and negatively affects prognosis, has become a parameter that must be monitored. Even though various methods are applied to assess malnutrition, biochemical parameters, especially serum prealbumin levels, are useful. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The relationships between serum prealbumin levels, which we used as an indicator of malnutrition, with the severity of disease and the parameters predicting emphysema in stable COPD patients with no additional health problems were determined in this prospective study...
December 2010: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
Kelly Suzanne Burrowes, Tom Doel, Chris Brightling
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are characterized by airway obstruction and airflow imitation and pose a huge burden to society. These obstructive lung diseases impact the lung physiology across multiple biological scales. Environmental stimuli are introduced via inhalation at the organ scale, and consequently impact upon the tissue, cellular and sub-cellular scale by triggering signaling pathways. These changes are propagated upwards to the organ level again and vice versa. In order to understand the pathophysiology behind these diseases we need to integrate and understand changes occurring across these scales and this is the driving force for multiscale computational modeling...
November 28, 2014: Journal of Translational Medicine
Steven M Kawut, Hooman D Poor, Megha A Parikh, Katja Hueper, Benjamin M Smith, David A Bluemke, João A C Lima, Martin R Prince, Eric A Hoffman, John H M Austin, Jens Vogel-Claussen, R Graham Barr
BACKGROUND: The classic cardiovascular complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is cor pulmonale or right ventricular (RV) enlargement. Most studies of cor pulmonale were conducted decades ago. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to examine RV changes in contemporary COPD and emphysema using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. METHODS: We performed a case-control study nested predominantly in 2 general population studies of 310 participants with COPD and control subjects 50 to 79 years of age with ≥10 pack-years of smoking who were free of clinical cardiovascular disease...
November 11, 2014: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Craig P Hersh, Barry J Make, David A Lynch, R Graham Barr, Russell P Bowler, Peter M A Calverley, Peter J Castaldi, Michael H Cho, Harvey O Coxson, Dawn L DeMeo, Marilyn G Foreman, MeiLan K Han, Benjamin J Harshfield, John E Hokanson, Sharon Lutz, Joe W Ramsdell, Elizabeth A Regan, Stephen I Rennard, Joyce D Schroeder, Frank C Sciurba, Robert M Steiner, Ruth Tal-Singer, Edwin van Beek, Edwin K Silverman, James D Crapo
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been classically divided into blue bloaters and pink puffers. The utility of these clinical subtypes is unclear. However, the broader distinction between airway-predominant and emphysema-predominant COPD may be clinically relevant. The objective was to define clinical features of emphysema-predominant and non-emphysematous COPD patients. METHODS: Current and former smokers from the Genetic Epidemiology of COPD Study (COPDGene) had chest computed tomography (CT) scans with quantitative image analysis...
2014: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
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